Ethic 247

Ethic247

The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析伦理学

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

XIX
第19章

HEGEL’S WEAKNESS
黑格尔的弱点

THE FUNCTION OF THE CHORUS
合唱队的功用

GOETHE’S WISH
歌德的愿望

2
Tragedy – we are told in a definition that we can hardly avoid paying attention
to, since it appeared scarcely a century after the time of the birth of
tragedy – has as its aim catharsis, the purgation of the τιαθ-ηματα, of the
emotions of fear and pity.

悲剧—我们被告诉,用一个我们几乎无法避免要注意的定义,因为它出现在悲剧的诞生的一个世纪。这个定义以净化作为它的目标,清涤这个τιαθ-ηματα,清涤恐惧与同情的情感。

How is one to understand that formula? We will approach the problem
from the perspective imposed on us by what we have articulated on the subject
of the proper place of desire in the economy of the Freuthan Thing. Will
this allow us to take the additional step required by this historical revelation?
If the Aristotelian formulation appears at first sight to be so closed, it is
due to the loss of a part of Aristotle’s work as well as to a certain conditioning
within the very possibilities of thought. Yet is it so closed to us after all as a
consequence of the progress made in our discussions of ethics here over the
past two years? What in particular has been said about desire enables us to
bring a new element to the understanding of the meaning of tragedy, above
all by means of the exemplary approach suggested by the function of catharsis
– there are no doubt more direct approaches.

我们应该如何来理解那个公式?我们将探究这个问题,从我们所表达的赋加在我们身上的观点,在弗洛依德的「物象」的经济活动,欲望的适当位置的这个主体。这将让我们能够採取根据这个历史的启示所要求的额外的步骤吗?假如亚里斯多德的说明,乍然一看,是如此的靠近,那是由于亚里斯多德的著作有部分丧失,以及由于在思想的可能性里某种制约的丧失。可是,它毕竟是跟我们如此地靠近,作为是进步的结果,这种进步是过去两年来,我们在此探讨伦理学所做的进步。特别是关于欲望,曾经被说过的事情,让我们能够带来新的因素,给悲剧意义的理解,尤其重要的是,凭借净化的功用建议的这个典范的方法—无可置疑地,还有更多的直接的方法。

In effect, Antigone reveals to us the line of sight that defines desire.
This line of sight focuses on an image that possesses a mystery which up
till now has never been articulated, since it forces you to close your eyes at
the very moment you look at it. Yet that image is at the center of tragedy,
since it is the fascinating image of Antigone herself. We know very well that
over and beyond the dialogue, over and beyond the question of family and
country, over and beyond the moralizing arguments, it is Antigone herself
who fascinates us, Antigone in her unbearable splendor. She has a quality
that both attracts us and startles us, in the sense of intimidates us; this terrible,
self-willed victim disturbs us.

事实上,安提贡尼跟我们显示定义欲望的视觉的脉络。这个视觉的脉络集中于一个意象,这个意象拥有一种神秘迄今尚未被表达过,因为它强迫你们闭起你们的眼睛,当你们看见它的那一刻。可是,那个意象处于悲剧的中心。因为那是安提贡尼自己的迷人的意象。我们清楚地知道,超越这个对话,超越家庭与国家的问题,超越道德化的争论,安提贡尼自己迷住我们,安提贡尼处于无可忍受的辉煌。她拥有一种特质,既吸引我们,也惊吓我们,她让我们感到胆怯,这位可怕的自我意志的受害者,让我们感到困扰。

It is in connection with this power of attraction that we should look for the
true sense, the true mystery, the true significance of tragedy – in connection
with the excitement involved, in connection with the emotions and, in particular,
with the singular emotions that are fear and pity, since it is through
their intervention, δι’ έλεου και φόβου, through the intervention of pity and fear, that we are purged, purified of everything of that order. And that order, we can now immethately recognize, is properly speaking the order of the imaginary. And we are purged of it through the intervention of one image among others.

关于这个迷人的力量,我们应该寻找悲剧的真实的理解,真实的神秘,真实的意义。关于牵涉到的興奋,关于这些情感,特别是,关于独特的情感,那就是恐惧与同情。因为凭借它们的介入,δι’ έλεου και φόβου,凭借同情与恐惧的介入,我们被清涤,被清涤那个秩序的一切。那个秩序,我们现在能够立即体认出来,适当来说,那就是想象界的秩序。我们被清涤它,凭借其他意象当中,一个意象的介入。

And it is here that a question arises. How do we explain the dissipatory
power of this central image relative to all the others that suddenly seem to
descend upon it and disappear? The articulation of the tragic action is illuminating
on the subject. It has to do with Antigone’s beauty. And this is not
something I invented; I will show you the passage in the song of the Chorus
where that beauty is evoked, and I will prove that it is the pivotal passage. It
has to do with Antigone’s beauty and with the place it occupies as intermediary
between two fields that are symbolically differentiated. It is doubtless
from this place that her splendor derives, a splendor that all those who have
spoken worthily of beauty have never omitted from its definition.

在此,一个问题产生。我们如何解释这个中央意象的驱散的力量,相对于所有的其他意象,似乎突然地降落在它上面,并且消失?悲剧行动的表达,对于这个主体具有启发性。它跟安提贡尼的美丽有关联。这并不是我凭空杜撰的东西。我将跟你们显现这个段落,在合唱队的歌咏里。在那里,美丽被召唤,我将证明,这是核心的段落。它跟安提贡尼的美丽必然有关联,跟它佔据的位置,作为在象征被区分的的两个领域之间的中介。她的辉煌无可置疑是来自这个位置,这一种辉煌,所有曾经有价值地谈论美丽的那些人,从来不曾忽视它,作为它的定义。

Moreover, as you know, this is the place that I am attempting to define. I
have already come close to it in previous lectures, and I attempted to grasp it
the first time by means of the second death imagined by Sade’s heroes – death
insofar as it is regarded as the point at which the very cycles of the transformations
of nature are annihilated. This is the point where the false metaphors
of being (I’etant) can be distinguished from the position of Being (I’etre) itself,
and we find its place articulated as such, as a limit, throughout the text of
Antigone, in the mouths of all the characters and of Tiresias. But how can one
also not fail to see this position in the action itself? Given that the middle of
the play is constituted of a time of lamentation, commentary, discussions,
and appeals relative to an Antigone condemned to a cruel punishment. Which
punishment? That of being buried alive in a tomb.

而且,如你们所知,这是我正企图定义的位置。在前几次的演讲,我已经靠近它。我第一次企图理解它,凭借这个二次死亡,在萨德的小说人物想象的二次死亡。因为死亡被认为是自然的转变的循环被毁灭的这个时刻。就是这个时刻,生命实存的虚假比喻能够被区别,跟生命实存本身的位置。我们发现它的位置本身清楚地被表达,作为是一个限制。在安提贡尼的文本到处,在泰瑞西亚斯的所有人物的嘴中。但是我们如何也能够免于忽视行动本身的这个立场?假如考虑到这个戏剧的中间,由哀悼,评论,讨论,与诉求所构成,相关于安提贡尼的被判处接受残酷的惩罚。怎样的惩罚?生命被活活埋葬于巨大墓室的惩罚。

The central third of the text is composed of a detailed series of vowel gradations,
which informs us about the meaning of the situation or fate of a life
that is about to turn into certain death, a death lived by anticipation, a death
that crosses over into the sphere of life, a life that moves into the realm of
death.

这个文本的中心的第三部分,由渐层的声音的详细系列组成。它告诉我有关这个情境的意义,或是即将转变成为某种死亡的生命的命运,一种预期要生活的死亡,一种跨越进入生命领域的死亡,一种移动进入死亡的领域的生命。

It is surprising that dialecticians or indeed aestheticians as eminent as Hegel
and Goethe haven’t felt obliged to take account of this whole field in their
evaluation of the effect of the play.

令人惊讶的是,像黑格尔与歌德这样杰出的辩证法学者,或美学家,却没有感受到有义务要考虑到整个的领域,当他们评估这个戏剧的影响。

The dimension involved here is not unique to Antigone. I could suggest
that you look in a number of places and you will find something analogous
without having to search too hard. The zone defined in that way has a strange
function in tragedy.

在此牵涉的维度,对于「安提贡尼」,并不算是独特。我能够建议,你们应该观看许多地方,你们就会找到某件类同等东西,而不需要过于辛苦寻觅。以那种方式被定义的地区,在悲剧拥有一个奇特的地位。

It is when passing through that zone that the beam of desire is both reflected
and refracted till it ends up giving us that most strange and most profound
of effects, which is the effect of beauty on desire.

当经过那个地区时,欲望的光芒被反射,也被折射,直到它结果给予我们那个最奇特最深奥的影响。那就是对于欲望的美丽的影响。

It seems to split desire strangely as it continues on its way, for one cannot say that it is completely extinguished by the apprehension of beauty. It continues
on its way, but now more than elsewhere, it has a sense of being taken
in and this is manifested by the splendor and magnificence of the zone that
draws it on. On the other hand, since its excitement is not refracted but
reflected, rejected, it knows it to be most real. But there is no longer any object.

它似乎将欲望奇特地分裂,当它继续前进。因为我们无法说,它完全地被美丽的理解所消灭。它继续前进,但是现在比起其他地方,它拥有一种被接受的理解,从接纳它的这个地区的辉煌与灿烂可获得证明。在另一方面,因为它的興奋并没有被折射,而是被反射,它知道它最为实在。但是不再有任何的客体。

Hence these two sides of the issue. The extinction or the tempering of
desire through the effect of beauty that some thinkers, including Saint Thomas,
whom I quoted last time, insist on. On the other hand, the disruption of any
object, on which Kant insists in The Critique of Judgment.

因此,这个议题的这边。欲望的消灭或减缓,凭借美丽的这个影响。某些思想家,包括圣汤姆斯,我上次引用的,他们都坚持美丽的这个影响。在另一方面,任何客体的中断,康德在「判断的批判」坚持它。

I was talking to you just now of excitement. And I will take a moment to
have you reflect on the inappropriate use that is made of this word in the
usual translation into French of Triebregung, namely, “έπιοί pulsionnel,”
“instinctual excitement.”1 Why was this word so badly chosen? “Emoi”
(excitement) has nothing to do with emotion nor with being moved. “Emoi”
is a French word that is linked to a very old verb, namely, “émoyer” or
“esmayer,” which, to be precise, means “faire perdre a quelqu’un ses moyens,”
as I almost said, although it is a play on words in French, “to make
someone lose” not “his head,” but something closer to the middle of the
body, “his means.” In any case a question of power is involved. “Esmayer”
is related to the old gothic word “magnan” or “mogen” in modern German.
As everybody knows, a state of excitement is something that is involved in
the sphere of your power relations; it is notably something that makes you
lose them.

刚才,我正在跟你们谈论到興奋。我将花些时刻让你们省思一下,关于对于这个字词的不适当使用,Triebregung, 这个字词通常被翻译成为法文,意思是”έπιοί pulsionnel,” 「本能的興奋」。为什么这个字词选择得很不恰当?”Emoi” (興奋)跟情感或被感动,没有任何关系。”Emoi”是一个法文字,跟一个古老的动词有关,也就是”émoyer” 或是 “esmayer,” 。贴切地说,它的意思是”faire perdre a quelqu’un ses moyens,” 。我几乎要说,虽然这是法文的文字遊戏,「让某个迷失」,不是迷失「他的头脑」,而是迷失某件靠近身体的中间,他的财富。无论如何,权力的问题被牵涉到。”Esmayer” 跟古老的的歌德语的字词有关。在现代德语,是 “magnan” or “mogen” 。如众所周知,興奋的状态是某件牵涉到你们权力的关系的领域。它特别是某件让你们丧失它的东西。

We are now in a position to be able to discuss the text of Antigone with a
view to finding something other than a lesson in morality.

我们现在处于这个立场,能够讨论安提贡尼的文本,为了找出某件并非是道德教训的东西。

A thoroughly irresponsible individual wrote a short time ago that I am
powerless to resist the seductions of the Hegelian dialectic. The reproach
was formulated at a time when I was beginning to articulate for you the
dialectic of desire in terms that I have continued to employ since. And I don’t
know if the reproach was deserved at the time, but no one could claim that
the individual involved is especially sensitive to these things. It is in any
case true that Hegel nowhere appears to me to be weaker than he is in the
sphere of poetics, and this is especially true of what he has to say about
Antigone.

不久之前,一位彻底没有责任感的个人写道:我是无能为力,来抗拒黑格尔的辩证法的诱惑。这种谴责被说明,当我们正在开始跟你们表达欲望的辩证法。用从此我继续使用的术语。我并不知道,这种谴责在当时是否我应该获得。但是没有人能够宣称,牵涉的这位个人对于这些事情特别敏感。无论如何,这是真实的,我觉得黑格尔在诗学的这个领域,最为脆弱。关于安提贡尼,他所必须说的东西,这特别是真实的。

According to Hegel, there is a conflict of discourses, it being assumed that
the discourses of the spoken dialogues embody the fundamental concerns of
the play, and that they, moreover, move toward some form of reconciliation.
I just wonder what the reconciliation of the end of Antigone might be. Further, it is not without some astonishment that one learns that, in addition,
this reconciliation is said to be subjective.

依照黑格尔,有一种辞说的矛盾。它被假设:这个被言说的对谈的辞说,具体表现这个戏剧的基本关系。而且,它们朝向某种调和的形态移动。我不禁感到奇怪,安提贡尼的结局可能会有怎样的调和。而且,我们不禁会感到惊奇,当我们获知,这种调和而且还据说是主观性的调和。

Let us not forget that in Sophocles’s last play, Oedipus at Colonus, Oedipus’s
final malediction is addressed to his sons; it is the malediction that gives
rise to the catastrophic series of dramas to which Antigone belongs. Oedipus
at Colonus ends with Oedipus’s last curse, “Never to have been born were
best …” How can one talk of reconciliation in connection with a tone like
that?

让我们不要忘记,在索福克利图斯的最后戏剧,「伊狄浦斯在科伦纳斯」,伊狄浦斯发现诅咒朝向他的儿子们发出。就是这种诅咒产生这个灾难的戏剧系列,「安提贡尼」属于其中之一。「伊狄浦斯在科伦纳斯」的结局,有一个伊狄浦斯的最后诅咒:「但愿当时永远不要出生是最好、、、」。用这样的语调,我们如何能够谈论到调和?

I am not tempted to regard my own indignation as particularly worthy;
others have had a similar reaction before me. Goethe notably seems to have
been somewhat suspicious of such a view, and so was Erwin Rohde. When I
went and looked up his Psyche recently, a work that I made use of to bring
together classical antiquity’s different conceptions of the immortality of the
soul, and that is an admirable work, which I strongly recommend, I was
pleased to come across an expression of the author’s astonishment at the traditional
interpretation of Oedipus at Colonus.

我并没有情不自禁地将我们的愤怒,视为是特别有价值。在我之前,就有其他人曾经有过类似的反应。特别是歌德,他似乎对于这样的观点,心中甚为怀疑。欧文、罗德也是。当我最近前去查阅他的「心灵学」,我常使用的一本著作,用来聚拢古代的经典的不同的观念,对于灵魂的不朽。那是一部令人崇拜的著作,我强烈地推荐。我很高兴偶然遇见一个表达:作者对于传统的解释「伊狄浦斯在科伦纳斯」,大感惊讶。

Let us now attempt to wash our brains clean of all we have heard about
Antigone and look in detail at what goes on there.

让我们现在企图让我们的脑海清涤我们曾经听过的关于「安提贡尼」,并且详细的观看那里进行的东西。

陈春雄译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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