Ethic 243

Ethic243

The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析伦理学

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

XIX
第19章
The splendor of Antigone
安提贡尼的辉煌

THE MEANING OF CATHARSIS
心理净化的意义

HEGEL’S WEAKNESS
黑格尔的弱点

THE FUNCTION OF THE CHORUS
合唱队的功用

GOETHE’S WISH
歌德的愿望

I told you that I would talk about Antigone today.

我告诉你们,今天我将谈论安提贡尼。

I am not the one who has decreed that Antigone is to be a turning point in
the field that interests us, namely, ethics. People have been aware of that for
a long time. And even those who haven’t realized this are not unaware of the
fact that there are scholarly debates on the topic. Is there anyone who doesn’t
evoke Antigone whenever there is a question of a law that causes conflict in
us even though it is acknowledged by the community to be a just law?

我并不是这个人,曾经敕令,安提贡尼应该成我们感到興趣的领域的转捩点。换句话说,伦理学的领域。长久以来,人们就已经知道。甚至那些还没有体会这一点的人们,都不知道这个事实:对于那个议题,学者辩论纷纭。每当有法则的问题引起我们的冲突,难道不是人人都引述安提贡尼吗?虽然社会都承认那是一个公正的法择。

And what is one to think of the scholars’ contribution to the discussion of
Antigone? What is one to think of it when one has, like me, gone over the
ground for one’s own interest and for the interest of those one is speaking to?
Well now, while I have tried to omit nothing that seemed important in all
that has been said on the question, so as not to deprive either you or me of
the help that I might derive from this lengthy historical survey, I have nevertheless
often had the impression that I was lost in quite extraordinary byways.
One learns that the opinions formulated by the pens of our great thinkers
over the centuries are strange indeed.

我们应该如何看待学者们对安提贡尼的讨他的贡献?我们应该如何看待它?当像我这样的人基于我们自己的興趣,去检视这个立场,为了我们正针对演讲的那些人的興趣。嗯,虽然我曾经尝试不要忽视任何重要的东西,在讨论这个问题的一切,为了不要让你们或我,丧失我可能获得的这个帮助,从漫长的历史的研究。可是,我曾经常拥有这个印象:我迷失于相当特别的旁道里。我们获知,由我们伟大的思想家几世纪来文笔说明的意见,确实是很奇怪的。

1
Antigone is a tragedy, and tragedy is in the forefront of our experiences as
analysts – something that is confirmed by the references Freud found in
Oedipus Rex as well as in other tragethes. He was attracted by his need of the
material he found in their mythical content. And if he himself didn’t expressly
discuss Antigone as tragedy, that doesn’t mean to say it cannot be done at this
crossroads to which I have brought you. It seems to me to be what it was for
Hegel, although in a different way, namely, the Sophoclean tragedy that is
of special significance.

「安提贡尼」是一个悲剧。这个悲剧是我们作为精神分析家的精神分析经验前锋。某件事情被证实,弗洛依的在「伊狄浦斯」与其他的悲剧发现的资料。他受到他发现的材料所吸引,在它们的神秘的内容。假如他自己没有生动地讨论「安提贡尼」作为悲剧,那并不意味着,它无法在我已经带领你们前来的这个十字路口来从事。我觉得以前对于黑格尔的东西,虽然方式不同,换句话说,索福克利斯蒂悲剧,具有特别的意义。

In an even more fundamental way than through the connection to the
Oedipus complex, tragedy is at the root of our experience, as the key word
“catharsis” implies.

以一个更加基本的方式,凭借跟伊狄浦斯情结发生关联,悲剧是我们精神分析经验的根源,如同这个关键字「心理净化」所暗示的。

For you the word is no doubt more or less closely associated with the term
“abreaction,” which presupposes that the problem outlined by Freud in his
first work with Breuer, namely, that of discharge, has already been broached
– discharge in an act, indeed motor discharge, of something that is not so
simple to define, and that we still have to say remains a problem for us, the
discharge of an emotion that remains unresolved. For that is what is involved
here: an emotion or a traumatic experience may, as far as the subject is concerned,
leave something unresolved, and this may continue as long as a resolution
is not found. The notion of unfulfillment suffices to fill the role of
comprehensibility which is required here.

对于你们,这个字词无可置疑跟「清涤情感紧张」这个术语息息相关。后者预先假设:弗洛依德在他跟布鲁尔研究的第一本著作,描绘的问题,也就是,发泄的问题,已经被提出讨论。在行动中的发泄,确实是动力的发泄某件无法单纯定义的东西。我们依旧必须说,这对我们始终是一个问题:始终没有被解决的情感的发泄。因为那是在此所被牵涉的东西,情感或是创伤的经验,就这个主题而言,留下某件东西没有被解决。只要解决还没有被发现,这个东西就可能继续下去。没有被实现的这个观念,就足以填补可理解性的这个角色,它在此被要求。

Read over Freud and Breuer’s opening pages and, in the light of what I
have attempted to focus on for your benefit in our experience, you will see
how difficult it now is to be content with the word “fulfillment” that is employed
in this context, and to state simply, as Freud does, that the action may be
discharged in the words that articulate it.

请阅读弗洛依德与布鲁尔的开头几页,从我曾经企图专注的东西,为了你们在我们的精神分析经验的利益。你们将会看出,这将是多么的困难,要满足于「实现」这个字词。它被运用在这个内容里。如同弗洛依德简明地说,行动可能被发泄,在表达它的字词里。

That catharsis which in this text is linked to the problem of abreaction,
and which is already specifically invoked in the background, has its origins
in the thought of classical antiquity. It is centered on Aristotle’s formula at
the beginning of Chapter VI of his Poetics: Aristotle there explains at length,
in a classification of the genres, what must be present for a work to be defined
as a tragedy.

在这个文本,「净化」跟「清涤情感紧张」的问题息息相关。那已经明确地被召唤到背景,它起源于古代经典的思想。它被集中于亚里斯多德的公式,在他的「诗学」的第六章的开始。在那里,亚里斯多德详细地解释,用各门技艺的分类,所必需呈现的东西,为了让作品被定义为悲剧。

The passage is a long one and we will return to it later. One finds there a
description of the distinguishing characteristics of tragedy, of its composition,
and of what, for example, distinguishes it from epic discourse. I simply
put on the blackboard the end point or final words of this passage, what in
logical causality is known as its τέλσ?. It is formulated by Aristotle as δί
έλέον και φόβου περαίνονσα ττ\ν των τοιούτων παθημάτων κάθαρσιν.
That is to say, a means of accomplishing the purgation of the emotions by a
pity and fear similar to this.

这个段落很长,我们以后再回头谈论。我们发现有一段描述,区别悲剧的特性,悲剧的组成,譬如,是什么跟史诗的辞说区别的地方。我仅是将这段的末尾句子与字词,写在黑板上。从逻辑的因果律来说,什么是众所周知的τέλσ?它由亚里斯多德说明,作为δί έλέον και φόβου περαίνονσα ττ\ν των τοιούτων παθημάτων κάθαρσιν.。换句话说,这是一种工具,完成情感的清涤,凭借类似这个的同情与恐惧。

These words which seem so simple have over the centuries produced a
flood – indeed a whole world – of commentaries, whose history I can’t even
begin to trace here.

这些似乎如此简单的字词,几世纪以来,曾经产生确实是一大堆的蜂涌的注释。这些注释的历史,我甚至无法从这里开始追踪。

The references I will make to this history are highly selective and to the
point. We usually translate the word “catharsis” by something like “purgation.”
And thus, all of us here, especially if we are doctors, are, from the
school desks of our so-called secondary schools on, more or less familiar with
the term “purgation,” which has a certain Molioresque meaning. And this is
the case because the Moliéresque element here merely echoes an ancient medical
concept, namely, in Moliere’s own words, the one which involves the
elimination of “peccant humors.”

我将提到的这些指称,是如此具有选择性,而且中肯。我们通常翻译「净化」这个字词,凭借某件像是「清涤情感紧张」的东西。因此,所有我们在此的人们,特别假如我们是医生,从我们所谓的中学的办公桌开始,对于「清涤情感紧张」耳熟能详,它具有某种莫里哀的反讽意义。就是这个情况,因为莫里哀的反讽因素在此迴响着古代的医学的观念。换句话说,用莫里哀自己的话语,这个观念牵涉到「原罪情感」的减少。

Moreover, that is not very far from what the term still, in fact, evokes. But
it also has a different resonance. And to make you sense it right away, I can
simply point out what in the course of our work here I recently expounded
for you with reference to the name of the Cathars.

而且,那距离这个术语所召唤的东西并不很远。但是它也拥有一种不同的迴响。为了让你们立刻理解它,我仅能够提出,在我们在此的研究的过程,我最近跟你们解释,关于提到「净化」的这个名称。

What are the Cathars? They are the pure. Καθαρός is a pure person. And
the word in its original sense doesn’t mean illumination or discharge, but
purification.

这些「净化」是什么?它们的纯净。Καθαρός 是一位纯净的人。这个字词原先的意义,并没有意味著,启明或发泄,而是纯净化。

Doubtless in classical antiquity, too, the term “catharsis” was already used
in a medical context, in Hippocrates, for example, with a specifically medical
meaning; it is linked to forms of eliminadon, to discharge, to a return to
normality. But, on the other hand, in other contexts it is linked to purification
and especially to ritual purificadon. Hence the ambiguity which we, as
you might suspect, are far from the first to discover.

无可置疑的,在古代的经典,「净化」这个术语已经被使用于医学的内容。譬如,在希普克拉特,就具有明确的医学的意义。它跟减少,跟发泄,跟回到正常的形式息息相关。但是,在另一方面,在其他的文本,它跟纯净化息息相关,特别是跟典礼的纯净化。因此,它具有这种模糊暧昧,如同你们会怀疑,我们绝非第一个发现的人。

So as to refer to a specific individual, I will mention the name of Denis
Lambin, who reinterprets Aristotle in order to emphasize the ritual function
of tragedy and the ceremonial sense of purificadon. It’s not a matter of affirming
that he is more or less right than someone else, but of simply identifying
the sphere in which the question is raised.

为了提到一位明确的人物,我将提到丹尼斯、蓝斌的名字。他重新诠释亚里斯多德,为了强调悲剧具有典礼的功用,与纯净化的典礼的意义。问题并不是要肯定,他比起某个其他人更加正确,而仅是要辨明问题被提出的这个范围。

We shouldn’t, in fact, forget that the term catharsis is strangely isolated in
the context of the Poetics. It’s not that it isn’t developed and commented on
there, but we will learn very little about it until some new papyrus is discovered.
I assume you know that what we have of the Poetics is only a part,
roughly half, in fact. And in the half that we have there is only the passage
referred to which discusses catharsis. We know that there was more because
at the beginning of Book VIII, in the numbering of Didot’s classic edition of
the Politics, Aristotle speaks of “that catharsis which I discussed elsewhere
in the Poetics.” In Book VIII his subject is catharsis in connection with music,
and as things turned out, it is there that we learn much more about catharsis.

事情上,我们不应该忘记,「净化」这个术语,在「诗学」的内容里,很奇特地被孤立出来。那并不是因为它在那里没有被发展或是评论,而是直到新的制纸技术被发现,我们才会稍微谈论到它。我假定你们知道,我们拥有的「诗学」仅是部分,事实上,大约仅有一半。在我们拥有的这一半,仅有这个段落提到讨论「净化」。我们知道当时还有更多,因为在第八章的开始,在狄德罗的古典的「诗学」的编目,亚里斯多德谈论到「我在诗学的其他地方讨论过的那个净化」。在第八章,他的题目是净化跟音乐的关系。事情的结果是,就在那里,我们学习更多有关净化。

In this text catharsis has to do with the calming effect associated with a
certain kind of music, from which Aristotle doesn’t expect a given ethical
effect, nor even a practical effect, but one that is related to excitement. The
music concerned is the most disturbing kind, the kind that turned their stomachs
over, that made them forget themselves, in the same way that hot jazz
(le hot) or rock ‘n’ roll does for us; it was the kind of music that in classical
antiquity gave rise to the question of whether or not it should be prohibited.

在这个文本,净化跟某种的音乐联想一块的让人平静的影响有关系。从音乐那里,亚里斯多德并没有期望一个特定的伦理的影响,甚至没有一个实践的影响。而是跟興奋有关的影响。相关的音乐是最令人困扰的音乐,让他们反胃的那种音乐,让他们忘记他们自己的音乐。跟热门的爵士乐或摇滚乐对我们的影响那样。在古代的经典,那种音乐产生这个问题:它们是否应该被禁止?

Well now, says Aristotle, once they have experienced the state of exaltation,
the Dionysian frenzy stimulated by such music, they become calm.
That’s what catharsis means as it is evoked in Book VIII of the Politics.

呵呵,亚里斯多德说,一旦他们已经经验到狂喜的状态,戴奥尼修斯的狂欢受到如此音乐的刺激,他们变成镇定。那就是净化的意义,当它在「诗学」的第八章被召唤。

Yet not everyone enters into such states of excitement, even if everyone is
in the position of being at least slightly susceptible. There are the παθητικοί
as opposed to the ενθονοστικοί. The former are in the position of being
prey to other passions, namely, fear and pity. Well, it turns out that a form of catharsis or calming effect will be granted them by a certain music also,
by the music, one may assume, that has a role in tragedy. And this comes
about through pleasure, Aristotle tells us, leaving us once again to reflect on
what might be meant by pleasure and at what level and why it is invoked on
this occasion. What is this pleasure to which one returns after a crisis that
occurs in another dimension, a crisis that sometimes threatens pleasure, for
we all know to what extremes a certain kind of ecstatic music may lead? It is
at this point that the topology we have defined – the topology of pleasure as
the law of that which functions previous to that apparatus where desire’s
formidable center sucks us in – perhaps allows us to understand Aristotle’s
intuition better than has been the case heretofore.

可是,并不是每个人都进入这样的興奋状态,即使每个人都处于这个立场,至少稍微受到影响。在此这个Παθητικοί 跟 ενθονοστικοί.相提并论。前者的立场是,成为其他激情的猎物,也就是恐惧与同情的猎物。呵呵,结果是,一种净化的方式,或是让人平静的效果,将会用某种音乐给予他们。我们可以假设,这种音乐在悲剧也有其功用。这种净化凭借快乐而发生。亚里斯多德告诉我们,他让我们再次省思所谓快乐是什么意义,在什么层次与为什么在这个场合它被召唤。在另外一个维度发生的危机过后,我们回去的这种快乐是什么,这种危机有时会威胁到快乐。因为我们都知道,某种狂喜的音乐可能会导致怎样的极端?就在这个时刻,我们曾经定义的拓扑图形,快乐的拓扑图形,作为那个乐器之前发挥功用的法则。在那里,欲望的可怕的中心将我们吸收进入。或许让我们能够理解亚里斯多德的直觉,比起从此以后的情况。

In any case, before I go on to define the beyond of the apparatus referred
to as the central point of that gravitational pull, I want to emphasize that
element in modern literature which has given rise to the use of the term
catharsis in its medical sense.

无论如何,在我继续定义这个乐器的超越之前,它被提到作为是那个地心引力的中心点。我想强调在现代文学的那个因素,它曾经产生「净化」的这个术语的使用,在它的医学的意义。

The medical notion of Aristotelian catharsis is, in effect, more or less current
in a sphere that goes far beyond the realm of our colleagues, the writers,
critics, and literary theoreticians. But if one seeks to determine the culminating
moment of this conception of catharsis, one reaches a point of origin
beyond which the concept is much broader and where it is far from obvious
that the word catharsis has only the medical connotation.

亚里斯多德的净化的医学的观念,实际上,在我们的同事,作家,批评家,与文学理论家的领域之外的范围,相当盛行。但是假如我们尝试决定净化的这个观念的最盛行的时刻,我们到达一个起源点。在这个起源点之外,这个观念更加广泛,在那里,这绝非是明显的,净化这个字词仅有医学的内涵。

The triumph of the latter conception of its meaning has a source to which
it is worth making an erudite reference here. The paper in question is by
Jakob Bernays and it appeared in a review in Breslau. I couldn’t tell you why
Breslau is involved, since I wasn’t able to consult enough biographical material
on this Jakob Bernays. If I am to believe Jones’s book on Freud, the
latter, as you will probably have realized, belongs to the same family from
which Freud took his wife, namely, a distinguished Jewish bourgeois family,
that had long since acquired a form of nobility in the sphere of German culture.
Jones refers to Michael Bernays as a professor in Munich, who was
condemned by his family as a political apostate, as someone who changed his
political allegiance for the sake of his career. As for Jakob Bernays, if I am to
believe the person who looked into this for me, he is simply mentioned as
someone who had a distinguished career as a Latinist and a Hellenist. Nothing
further is said except that he didn’t achieve his academic success at the
same cost as Michael.

净化的意义的后者的观念的佔优势,有一个起源,值得让我们广征博引一下。约克比、博纳斯的受到质疑的那篇论文,出现在布瑞劳的一篇评论。我无法告诉你们为什么布瑞劳会被牵涉在内。因为我不能够参照足够的传记的材料,探讨这位约克比、博纳斯。假如我想要相信,约克比讨论弗洛依德的书,你们或许已经体会到,后者属于相同的家庭,跟弗洛依德的妻子的娘家。换句话说,一个杰出的犹太教的布尔乔亚的家庭。他们长久以来,已经获得一种高贵的形态,在德国文化的氛围。琼斯提到麦克、博纳斯,作为慕尼黑的教授,他被他的家庭判定是政治的叛徒,作为某个为了事业而改变政治忠诚的人。至于约克比、博纳斯,假如我想要相信,这个人会替我研究这个问题,他仅是被提到,作为是某位拥有杰出事业的人,作为拉丁文与希腊文学者。对他,并没有更深入的话要说,除了他并没有像麦克那样,不遗馀力地完成他的学术的成功。

What I have here is an 1880 version of two papers by Jakob Bernays,
reprinted in Berlin, on the subject of Aristotle’s theory of drama. They are
excellent. It is rare to find such a satisfying work by an academic in general,
and even more so by a German academic. It is as clear as crystal. And it is no
accident if the virtual universal adoption of the medical notion of catharsis
occurs at that time.

在此我拥有的是1880年约克比、博纳斯的两篇论文,在柏林再版。它们探讨亚里斯多德的戏剧的理论的题目。非常优秀。在一般的学术界,很罕见找到如此令人满意的研究,即使是根据德国的学术而已,更是如此。它像水晶一般地清澈。假如净化的医学的观念在当时被几乎是普遍性地採用,那并不是偶然的。

It is a pity that Jones, who was himself so knowledgeable, didn’t believe it
appropriate to place a greater emphasis on the personality and the work of
Jakob Bernays; little attention has been paid to him. It is nevertheless difficult
to imagine that Freud, who was by no means indifferent to the reputation
of the Bernays’ family, wasn’t aware of him. It would have been a way
of referring Freud’s original use of the word catharsis to its best source.
Having said that, I will now return to what most concerns us in this commentary
on Antigone, namely, the essence of tragedy.

很遗憾,琼斯自己是如此的知识广博,却不相信这是合宜的,更加地重视约克比、博纳斯的人格与研究。他一直受到漠视。可是,我们很困难想象,弗洛依德会不知道他,因为他对博纳斯的家庭的名声,绝非是一无所知。这本来会是一种方式,提到弗洛依德原先使用「净化」这个字词,追踪到它的最佳来源。说完这些之后,我现在将回到我们最关心的问题,在评论「安提贡尼」,也就是悲剧的本质。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

One Response to “Ethic 243”

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