拉康:美的功能

3
One finds at this frontier another crossing point, which enables us to locate
Precisely an element of the field of the beyond-the-good principle. That element,
as I have said, is the beautiful.

我们在这个边界发现另外一个跨越点,它让我们能够确实找出超越这个善的原理的领域的一个因素。如同我曾经说过的,那个因素就是美。

I just want to introduce you to the problematic today. I will limit myself
to two articulations.

今天,我仅是想要跟你们介绍这个问题。我将限制我自己表达两点。

Freud was extremely prudent in this connection. On the nature of the
creation that is manifested in the beautiful, the analyst has by his own admission
nothing to say. In the sphere that calculates the value of the work of art,
we find ourselves reduced to a position that isn’t even that of schoolchildren,
but of pickers up of crumbs. Moreover, that’s not all, and Freud’s text is
very weak on the topic. The definition he gives of sublimation at work in
artistic creation only manages to show us the reaction or repercussions of the
effects of what happens at the level of the sublimation of the drive, when the
result or the work of the creator of the beautiful reenters the field of goods,
that is to say, when they have become commodities. One must recognize that
the summary Freud gives of the artist’s career is practically grotesque. The
artist, he says, gives a beautiful form to the forbidden object in order that
everyone, by buying his little artistic product, rewards and sanctions his daring.
That is a way of shortcircuiting the problem. And Freud is perfectly
aware of the limits he imposes on himself in a way that is perfectly obvious
when the problem of creation – which he leaves aside as outside the range of
our experience – is added to it.

关于这一点,弗洛依德极端谨慎。探讨在美当中被显示的创造的特性,这位精神分析家并没有容许他有什么话可说。在评估艺术作品的价值的领域,我们发现我们自己被沦为甚至连学童的立场都不如,而仅是沦为拾人牙慧的立场。而且,不仅如此,弗洛依德的文本对于那个议题,非常薄弱。他给予在艺术创造运行的升华的定义,仅是成功于跟我们显示,在冲动的升华的层次,所发生的事情的影响的反应或反弹。当美的创造者的结果或作品,重新进入善的领域,换句话说,当它们已经变成货品。我们必须承认,弗洛依德给予艺术家的生涯的总结,几乎是怪诞的。他说,艺术家给予一个美的形式,给被禁止的客体,为了让每个人,凭借购买他的小小的艺术作品,酬报及认可他的大胆。这是对问题避重就轻的探究方式。弗洛依德完全知道他赋加给他自己的限制。当创造的问题被增加到它上面时,这种方式非常显而易见。他将创造的问题搁置一边,作为是我们精神分析经验的范围之外。

We are thus brought back again to all the pedantic thoughts that in the
course of centuries have been expressed about the beautiful.

我们因此再次被带回到,几世纪的过程,有关美曾经被表达过的所有引经据典的思想。

Everyone knows that in every field those who have something to say–that
is in this case the creators of beauty – are understandably the most dissatisfied
by pedantic formulas. Yet something that has been expressed by almost
all of them, especially by the best but also at the level of common experience,
does make the rounds, namely, that there is a certain relationship between
beauty and desire.

众所周知,在每个领域,有话要说的那些人。在这个情况,也就是美的创造者—我们可以理解到,根据引经据典的公式,他们是最不感到满意的。可是,几乎所有这些人都曾经表达某件事情,特别是那些最优秀,而且也是处于共同经验的层次。这个某件事情确实巡回几次,换句话说,美与欲望之间,有某种的关系。

This relationship is strange and ambiguous. On the one hand, it seems that
the horizon of desire may be eliminated from the register of the beautiful.
Yet, on the other hand, it has been no less apparent – from the thought of
antiquity down to Saint Thomas who has some valuable things to say on the
question – that the beautiful has the effect, I would say, of suspending, lowering,
disarming desire. The appearance of beauty intimidates and stops desire.

这个关系是奇怪而暧昧。在一方面,欲望的这个领域似乎可能会从美的铭记被减少。可是,另一方面,它同样显而易见。从古代的思想,到圣、汤玛斯,关于这个问题,他有某些有价值的话要说: 我不妨说,美具有悬置,降低,解除欲望的效用。美的出现让欲望受到惊吓与阻止。

That is not to say that on certain occasions beauty cannot be joined to
desire, but in a mysterious way, and in a form that I can do no better than
refer to by the term that bears within it the structure of the crossing of some
invisible line, i.e., outrage. Moreover, it seems that it is in the nature of the
beautiful to remain, as they say, insensitive to outrage, and that is by no
means one of the least significant elements of its structure.

那并不是说,在某些的场合,美无法跟欲望沆瀣一气。而是以神秘的方式,以一种我充其量仅能提到的形式,根据这个术语:在它里面,具有某种隐形界限的跨越的结构,譬如,愤怒。而且,似乎在美的这个特性,如人们所说,美对于愤怒始终无动于衷。那绝对不是它的结构的最微不足道的因素之一。

I will show it to you then in the detail of analytical experience, show it to
you with pointers that will enable you to be alert to it when it occurs in an
analytical session. With the precision of a Geiger counter, you can pick it up
by means of references to the aesthetic register that the subject will give you
in his associations, in his broken, disconnected monologue, either in the form
of quotations or of memories from his schooldays. You don’t, of course, always
deal with creators, but you do deal with people who have had a relationship
to the conventional sphere of beauty. You can be sure that the more these
references become strangely sporadic and peremptory with relation to the
text of the discourse, the more they are correlative of something that makes
its presence felt at that moment, and that belongs to the register of a destructive
drive. It is at the very moment when a thought is clearly about to appear
in a subject, as in the narration of a dream for example, a thought that one
recognizes as aggressive relative to one of the fundamental terms of his subjective
constellation, that, depending on his nationality, he will make some
reference to a passage from the Bible, to an author, whether a classic or not,
or to some piece of music. I mention this today to show that we are not far
from the very text of our experience.

我将用精神分析经验的细节,跟你们显示美,用这些指标跟你们显示它。这些指标将让你们能够警觉到它,当美发生在精神分析的谘商。用盖革计数器的准确性,你们能够获得美,凭借提到美的铭记,主体将会给予你们的铭记,在他的联想,在他断断续续,不连贯的独白,不管是用引文的方式,或是从他童年的回忆。当然,你们并没有总是跟创造者打交道,但是你们确实处理这些人们,他们跟美的传统的领域有关系。你们能够确定,这些指称变得更加奇特地间歇性与武断性,跟辞说的文本的关系,它们就是跟某件东西息息相关,在那个时刻,那个东西让美的存在被感觉到。那属于毁灭的冲动的铭记。就在那个时刻,当一个思想清楚地即将出现在一个主体身上,如同在梦的描述当中,譬如,我们体认出的思想,作为是攻击性,相对于他的主观性的汇集的基本术语。取决于他的国籍,他将提到圣经的某个段落,提到一位作者,无论是古典与否,或是提到某首音乐曲子。今天,我提到这个,为了显示,我们距离我们精神分析经验的文本,并不遥远。

The beautiful in its strange function with relation to desire doesn’t take us
in, as opposed to the function of the good. It keeps us awake and perhaps
helps us adjust to desire insofar as it is itself linked to the structure of the
lure.

相关于欲望,美的奇特的功能,并没有将我们算在里面,作为是跟善的功能的相对立。美让我们保持清醒,或许帮助我们适应欲望。因为它的本身连接到陷阱的结构。

You can see this place illustrated by the fantasm. If there is “a good that
mustn’t be touched,” as I was saying earlier, the fantasm is “a beauty that
musn’t be touched,” in the structure of this enigmatic field.

你们能够看出幻影所启明的这个位置。假如有一种善一定不要被碰触,如无早先说的,幻影是「一种一定不要碰触的美」,在谜团领域的结构。

The first side of this field is known to us, it is the side that along with the
pleasure principle prevents us from entering it, the side of pain.

我们知道这个领域的第一面。就是这一面,跟快乐原则一块,阻止我们不要进入它,痛苦的这一面。

We must ask ourselves what it is that constitutes that field. The death
drive, says Freud, primary masochism. But isn’t that to take too big a leap?
Is the pain that denies access to the side the whole content of the field? Are
all those who express demands for this field masochists after all? And I can
tell you right off, I don’t think so.

我们必须询问我们自己,是什么组成这个领域。弗洛依德说,这是死亡冲动,原初的自虐狂。但是那难道不是要跳跃一大步吗?拒绝进入这一面的痛苦,难道就是这个领域的完整内容吗?所有那些表达对这个领域要求的人们,毕竟都是自虐狂吗?我能够马上告诉你们,我并不这样认为。

Masochism is a marginal phenomenon and it possesses something almost
caricatural that moral inquiry at the end of the nineteenth century has pretty
much laid bare. The economy of masochistic pain ends up looking like the
economy of goods. One wants to share pain as one shares heaps of other
things that are left over; and one even comes close to fighting over it.

自虐狂是一个边缘的现象。它拥有某件几乎是嘲讽的东西。在十九世纪末,道德的探讨曾经将这个东西揭露出来。自虐狂的痛苦的经济学,结果看起来像是善的经济学。我们想要分享痛苦,如同我们想要分析一大堆其余剩下的东西,我们甚至几乎要战斗来获得它。

But isn’t there something there that involves a panicky return to the dialectic
of goods? In truth, the whole behavior of the masochist – and I mean by
that the perverse masochist – points to the fact that it is a question of a
structural feature in his behavior. Read Mr. Sacher-Masoch. He’s an
enlightening writer, although he doesn’t have the stature of Sade, and you
will see that in the end the point aimed at by the position of the perverse
masochist is the desire to reduce himself to this nothing that is the good, to
this thing that is treated like an object, to this slave whom one trades back
and forth and whom one shares.

但是难道没有某件东西,牵涉到惊慌地回到善的辨证法吗?事实上,自虐狂的整个的行为,我的意思是指倒错的自虐狂,指向这个事实:这是在他的行为,一种结构性特征的问题。请阅读萨奇尔、马索奇。他是一位启明的作家。虽然他并没有萨德那样的地位。你们将会看出,最后,倒错的自虐狂的立场指向的目标,就是欲望要将他自己沦为这个空无,善的空无,沦为被对待像个客体的东西,沦为这个奴隶,我们来回交换的奴隶,我们分享的奴隶。

But one shouldn’t after all proceed too quickly to break inventive homonymy, and the fact the masochism has been called by this name for so long by psychoanalysis is not without reason. The unity that emerges from all the fields which analytical thought has labeled masochism has to do with the fact that in all these fields pain shares the character of a good.

但是我们毕竟不应该进行太快,以致无法打破翻来复去的陈词,自虐狂这个词语尝久以来受到精神分析採用,这个事实并非没有原因。从所有领域出现的这个一致性,精神分析思想曾经将这些领域标记为自虐狂。这个一致性跟这个事实有关系:在所有的这些领域,痛苦分享善行的特性。

We will continue our inquiry next time with relation to a document.

下次,我们将继续我们的研究,跟一个文件有关。

It’s not exactly a new document. Down through the centuries longwinded
commentators have cut their teeth and sharpened their nails on it. This text
appeared in the field where the morality of happiness was theorized and it
gives us its underlying structure. It is there that its underlying structure is
the most visible, there where it appears on the surface. That which over the
centuries has caused the greatest problems, from Aristotle down to Hegel
and Goethe, is a tragedy, one that Hegel considered the most perfect, but for
the wrong reason, namely, Antigone.

这不确实是一个新的文件。经过几世纪以来,长篇大论的评论家曾经从它那里获得宝贵经验及磨练他们的技巧。这个文本出现在这个领域,在那里,快乐的道德被理论化,它给予我们它的作为基础的结构。就在那里,它的作为基础的结构是最看得见,在那里,它出现在表面。过去几世纪来,曾经引起最大的难题的东西,自从亚里斯多德,一直到黑格尔与歌德。这是一个悲剧,黑格尔认为最完美的悲剧,但是理由并不正确,换句话说,那就是安提贡尼。

Antigone’s position relates to a criminal good. One would have to have a
character that was deeply out of touch with the cruelties of our time to attack
the subject, if I may say so, by focusing on the tyrant.

安提贡尼的立场跟犯罪的善息息相关。我们将必须要有一个人物,跟我们时代的各种残酷完全不相涉及,我们才能攻击这位主体。容我这样说,凭借专主于这位暴君。

We will, therefore, take up the text of Antigone together, since it will enable
us to point to a fundamental moment, to reach an essential reference point in
our investigation of what it is man wants and what he defends himself against.
We will see what an absolute choice means, a choice that is motivated by no
good.
May 18, 1960

因此,我们将会一起来探讨安提贡尼的这个文本。因为它将让我们能够指向一个基本的时刻,到达一个基本的指称点,当我们研究一个人到底想要什么,他防卫自己对抗什么。我们将会看出,绝对的选择是什么,这一个选择并非是由善来引起动机。
1960年,5月18日

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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