Ethic 222

Ethic 222

The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析伦理学
Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

XVII 第17章

The function of the good
善的功用

MEMORY, FACILITATION, RITE
记忆,促进引导,仪式

THE SUBJECT, ELISION OF A SIGNIFIER
主体,能指的省略

THE TEXTILE FAB L E
织物的寓言

UT I L I T Y AND JOUISSANCE
实用与欢爽

2
Let me just draw your attention to the fact that the conception of the pleasure
principle is inseparable from the reality principle, that it is in a dialectical
relationship with it. But one has to begin, and I would simply like to begin
by pointing out what Freud articulates exactly.

让我仅提醒你们注意这个事实:快乐原则这个观念,跟现实原则是无法分离的,快乐原则跟现实原则处于辩证法的关系。但是我们必须开始,我仅是想要开始指出,弗洛依的确实表达的东西。

Notice how the pleasure principle is articulated from the Entwurf, where
we began this year, right up to the end in Beyond the Pleasure Principle. The
end illuminates the beginning, and one can already see in the Entwurf the
nerve center to which I want to draw your attention for a moment.

请注意,快乐原则如何从这个「构图」被表达,在那里,我们今年开始,直到「超越快乐原则」的结束。这个结束启示这个开始,在「构图」,我们已经能够看到这个神经中枢,我想要暂时提醒你们注意一下。

Apparently there is no doubt that the pleasure principle organizes the final
reactions for the human psyche, there is no doubt that pleasure is articulated
in relation to the presupposition of a satisfaction, and it is driven by a lack in
the order of need that the subject becomes caught up in its toils, until a
perception occurs that is identical to that which first gave satisfaction. The
crudest of references to the reality principle indicates that one finds satisfaction
along paths that have already procured it. But look a little closer: is that
all Freud has to say? Certainly not. The originality of the Entwurf resides in
the notion of facilitations that control the distribution of libidinal investments
in such a way that a certain level beyond which the degree of excitation is
unbearable for the subject is never exceeded.

显而易见地,快乐原则组织人类心灵的最后反动,这是无可置疑的。快乐被表达,相关于预先假设满足。在需求的秩序,快乐受到欠缺的驱使,主体套陷于需求的劳苦工作,直到一种感觉产生,认同于给予它满足的东西。跟现实原则的初始相关,指示著,我们找到满足,沿着已经获得快乐的途径。但是,请更加仔观察:那就是弗洛依德所说的吗?当然不是。这个「势导易化」的原创性在于「连锁性」的观念。这个「势导易化」控制力比多的投注的分配,以这样一种方式,以致于某种的层次从来没有被超越过,尽管对于主体而言,刺激的程度超越它时,会让人无法忍受。

The introduction of the function of facilitations opens on to a theme that
will become increasingly important as Freud’s thought develops, in light of
the fact that Freud’s thought is his experience.

「势导易化」的功用的介绍开展一个主题。随着弗洛依的思想的发展,这个主题将会越来越重要,由于这个事实:弗洛依德的思想就是他的精神分析经验。

I have been criticized for having said that, from the point of view of ethics,
our experience derives its exemplary value from the fact that it doesn’t recognize
the dimension of habit, in terms of which human behavior has customarily
been assumed to be a process of improvement, of training. In this
connection, the notion of facilitation has been used against me. I reject this
opposition.

我曾经受到批评,因为我曾经说过,从伦理学的观点,我们精神分析经验获得它的典范价值,根据这个事实:它并没有体认出习惯的这个维度。用习惯这个术语,人类的行为制式地被认为是改进,训练的过程。关于这点,势导易化的观念被使用来反对我。

The recourse to facilitation in Freud has nothing at all to do with
the function of habit as it is defined when one thinks of a learning process.
With Freud, it is not a question of creative imprinting but of the pleasure
engendered by the functioning of the facilitations. Now the core of the pleasure
principle is situated at the level of subjectivity. Facilitation is not a
mechanical effect; it is invoked as the pleasure of a facility, and it will be
taken up again as the pleasure of a repetition or, more precisely, as repetition
compulsion. The core of Freudian thought as it is deployed by us as analysts,
whether we attend this seminar or not, is that the function of memory,
remembering, is at the very least a rival of the satisfactions it is charged with
effecting- It has its own dimension whose reach goes beyond that of a satisfying
finality. The tyranny of memory is that which is elaborated in what we
call structure.

诉诸于弗洛依德的势导易化,跟习惯的功用并没有丝毫关系。因为这并不是创造性印记的问题,而是由势导易化的功用产生的快乐的问题,现在,快乐原则的核心被定位在主体性的层次。势导易化并不是一个机械式的效应,它被唤起,作为方便性的快乐,它将会再次被从事,作为是重复的快乐,是更贴切地说,作为重复的冲撞力。弗洛依德思想的核心,依照我们作为精神分析家所运用的,无论我们出席这个研讨班与否,那就是,记忆或回忆的功用,至少是这个满足的敌人,因为它负担著要造成结果。它拥有它自己的维度,这个维度的到达,超越一个令人满足的最终性的维度。记忆的暴虐是我们所谓的结构里所被建构的东西。

Such is the originality, the breakthrough, one cannot avoid emphasizing,
if one wants to see clearly what is new in the conception of human behavior
introduced by Freudian thought and experience. No doubt if someone wants
to fill that fault line, he can always claim that nature involves cycles and
returns. Faced with that objection, I won’t affirm that he’s mad; I will just
suggest the terms you may use to respond.

这种原创性,这种突破是如此强烈,以致于我们忍不住要强调,假如我们想要清楚地看出,弗洛依德思想和精神分析经验所介绍的人的行为的观念,有何新颖之处。无可置疑地,假如我们想要填补那个断层线,他总是能够宣称,自然牵涉到循环和回转。当我面临那个反对,我将不会肯定说他发疯了。我将仅是建议你们可以使用那些术语来响应。

A natural cycle is perhaps immanent in everything that exists. Moreover,
it is highly diverse in its registers and levels. But I ask you to consider the
break that, in the order of the manifestation of the real embodied in the cycle,
is introduced by the simple fact that man is the bearer of language.

一个自然的循环或许是每样存在的东西的本质。而且,在它的铭记跟层次,它是五花八门。但是我要求你们考虑这个中断,在由循环具体代表的实在界的展示的秩序里。这个断裂被这个简单的事实所介绍:人是语言的载负者。

His relation to a couple of signifiers is all it takes, such as, for example, to
make a traditional reference in the sketchiest of modes, yin and yang, that is
to say, two signifiers, one of which is assumed to be eclipsed by the rise and
return of the other -I don’t care particularly for yin and yang; you can choose
sine and cosine instead if you like. In other words, the structure engendered
by memory must not in our experience mask the structure of memory itself
insofar as it is made of a signifying articulation. If you omit it, you absolutely
cannot maintain the register that is essential in the articulation of our experience,
namely, the autonomy, the dominance, the agency of remembering
as such, and not at the level of the real, but of the functioning of the pleasure
principle.

他跟两三个能指的关系是它所需要的。譬如,为了以传统方式提到模式的轮廓,阴和阳,换句话说,两个能指,其中一个被假定是由另外一个的上升与回转而有盈亏。我并不特别喜欢阴与阳的说法,你们喜欢,你们能够选择数学的正弦与余弦。换句话说,被记忆产生的结构,在精神分析经验,并没有遮蔽记忆本身的结构。因为它由能指化的表达所组成。假如你们省略它,你们绝对无法维持这个基本的铭记,在我们精神分析经验的表达。换句话说,支配电自主性,记忆本身的代理者,并不是在实在界的层次,而是在快乐原则的功用。

This is not a Byzantine discussion. Thus if we create a fault line and an
abyss, alternatively we fill in elsewhere something that also had the appearance
of a fault line and an abyss. And it is here that one can see that the
subject as such is born, a subject, moreover, whose emergence is unjustified
by anything else.

这并不是拜占庭的讨论。因此,假如我们创造断层线与深渊,我们轮流地在别的地方填补某件东西,这个东西也有断层线与深渊的外表。就在这里,我们能够看出,主体本身被诞生,而且,这一个主体的出现,无法用任何其他东西拉自圆其说。

As I have already pointed out, the finality of the evolution of matter toward
consciousness is a mystical, elusive notion, and one that is properly speaking
historically indeterminable. There is no homogeneity between the order of
the apparition of phenomena, whether they be premonitory, preliminary,
partial, or preparatory to consciousness, and any kind of natural order, because
it is through its current state that consciousness manifests itself as a phenomenon
whose activity is completely erratic and, I would even say, fragmented.
It is at levels that are very different from our relationship to our own real that
the mark or the touch of consciousness appears, but in the absence of any224 The ethics of psychoanalysis continuity or homogeneiety of consciousness. Freud came up against this fact more than once in his investigations, and he always emphasized the fact that consciousness cannot be functionalized.

我已经指出,物质朝向意识进化的终极性,是一个神秘而难以捉摸的观念。适当来说,这个观念在历史上是难以决定的。在现象的魅影的秩序,无论这些现象是意识的预兆,初级,部分,或准备,它们与任何种类的秩序之间,并没有任何的同质性。因为这是通过它的目前的状态,意识展现它自己,作为活动完全疯狂的一个现象。我甚至说,这个活动是碎片零乱。意识的标记或碰触,出现在我们跟自己的实在界的关系非常不同的层次。但是欠缺意识的连续性或同质性。不仅一次,在他的研究中,弗洛依德遭遇到这个事实,他总是强调这个事实:意识无法被形成功用化。

With relation to the functioning of the signifying chain, on the other hand,
our subject has a place in history that is quite solid and almost beatable. The
function of the subject on its emergence, of the original subject, of the subject
that may be traced in the chain of phenomena, we have a completely new
formula for him, one that is capable of objective localization. A subject originally
represents nothing more than the following fact: he can forget. Strike
out that “he”; the subject is literally at his beginning the elision of a signifier
as such, the missing signifier in the chain.

在另一方面,关于这个能指化的锁链的功用化,我们的主体在历史上,拥有相当牢靠,几乎耐得起敲打的一席之地。主体的功用在它出现时,原初主体的功用,在现象的锁链里,可以被追踪的主体的功用,我们有一个完全新颖的公式给他。这个公式能够客观性地找出位置。主体原初代表仅仅就是以下的事实:他会遗忘。请你们将这个「他」划掉。主体在开始时实质上尚一个能指本身的省略,在锁链里的这个失落的能指。

Such is the first place, the first person. Here the appearance of the subject
is manifested as such; and it makes us directly aware of why and in what way
the notion of the unconscious is central in our experience.

这就是最初的位置,最初的人。在此,主体的出现本身被展示,它让我们直接知道为什么及用什么方式,无意识的观念,在精神分析经验是中心位置。

If you start at that point, you will see the explanation of a great many
things, including that strange phenomenon that can be pinpointed in history
that we call rites. I mean those rites by which man in so-called primitive
civilizations believes he must accompany one of the most-natural things in
the world, namely, the return of natural cycles themselves.

假如你们在那时开始,你们将会看出许多事情的解释,包括那个在历史中能够被强调的奇特的现象,我们称之为仪式。我的意思是,凭借那些仪式,在所谓的原始的文明,人相信,他必须伴随着世界上,其中一个最自然的事情。换句话说,自然循环本身的回来。

If the Emperor
of China doesn’t start the ploughing at a given day in spring, the rhythm of
the seasons will be spoiled. If order is not preserved in the Royal House, the
domain of the sea will advance upon the domain of the land. We still find
echoes of this at the beginning of the sixteenth century in Shakespeare. What
is this, if it isn’t the essential relation, the one which binds the subject to the
production of meaning and which makes him from the beginning responsible
for forgetting?

假如中国皇帝并没有春天的某一天开始犁田,季节的节奏将会被破坏。假如在皇家宫廷,秩序没有被保持,海洋的领域将会侵犯到陆地的领域。在莎士比亚,十六世纪的开始,我们依旧找到有关这个循环的迴响。这是什么?它难道不是这个基本的关系?连接主体跟意义的产生的关系?让主体从一开始就是要负起遗忘的责任的关系?

What relation can there be between man and the return of the
sunrise, if it is not the case that as a speaking man he is sustained in a direct
relation to the signifier? To refer to myth, the original position of man in
relation to nature is that of Chantecler – which is a theme to be found in a
minor poet, who might be approached more sympathetically, if I hadn’t started
another seminar by denouncing the figure of Cyrano de Bergerac by reducing
him to a grotesque lucubration that had nothing to do with the monumental
structure of the character.

在人与太阳的回转之间,可能会有怎样的关系?它难道不就是这个情况:作为一位言说的人,维持他的就是跟这个能指的关系?提到神话,人跟自然的关系的这个原初的立场,那是公鸡的立场。这个主题在一位次要诗人那里能够被找到,虽然我们带着同情地探究这位次要诗人。假如我当时没有开始另外一个研讨班,抨击Cyrano de Bergerac的这个人物,将他化减成为一个古怪的精心钜作,跟这个人物的龐大的结构没有丝毫关系。

We have now reached the point where we must raise the question of the
good at this level.

我们现在已经到达这个点,在那里,我们必须提出在这个层次,善待这个问题。

陈春雄译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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