Psychoses 61

Psychoses 61
精神病

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

XII 第12章

The hysteric’s question
歇斯底里症的问题

PRECONSCIOUS AND UNCONSCIOUS
前意识与无意识

SIGN, TRACE, SIGNIFIER
符号、痕迹、能指

It is highly surprising to observe that an exclusive preponderance of the
world of imaginary relations is responsible for the emphasis in analysis on the
object relation, which has elided what is properly speaking the field of analytic discoveries. One can follow the increasing predominance of this perspective
by reading what the analyst Kris has been producing in recent times.

我们非常惊奇地观察到,想象关系的这个世界的佔优势,导致精神分析对于客体关系的强调。这个客体关系省略掉适当来说是精神分析发现物的领域。我们能够跟随这个观点的越来越佔优势,凭借阅读精神分析家科瑞思最近产生的东西。

With respect to the economy of progress in an analysis, he emphasizes what
he calls – since he has read Freud – the preconsdous mental processes and
the fruitful nature of ego regression, which amounts to placing the means of
access to the unconscious entirely on the level of the imaginary. If we follow
Freud it is on the contrary clear that no exploration of the preconsdous,
however profound or exhaustive it is, will ever lead to an unconscious phenomenon
as such.

关于精神分析的进展的经济活力,因为他阅读过弗洛依德,他强调他所谓的前意识的精神过程及自我倒退的具有成果的特性。自我倒退相等于是将接近无意识的工具,完全放置在想象的层次。假如我们遵照弗洛依德,相反地,非常清楚的是,前意识的探索将会导致无意识的现象本身,无论它是多么的深奥或穷尽一切。

The excessive prevalence of ego psychology in the new
American school introduces an illusion similar to that of the mathematician
– we can assume he is ideal —who having got a vague idea of the existence of
negative magnitudes sets about indefinitely dividing a positive number by
two in the hope of finally crossing over the zero line and entering the dreamtof
domain.

在新美国学派的自我心理学的过分优势介绍一种幻觉,类似于数学家的的幻觉—我们假定他是理想的数学家—他已经获得一个模糊的概念:负面强度的存在开始不确定地凭借二,区分一个正数,希望最后跨越个这个零度线,然后进入梦想到领域。

The error is all the more gross because there is nothing Freud places greater
insistence upon than the radical difference between the unconscious and the
preconsdous. But one imagines that however much of a barrier there is, it’s
like putting up a partition in a grain store – the rats get through in the end.
The fundamental image that currently seems to regulate analytic practice is
that there must be something connecting neurosis and psychosis, the preconsdous
and the unconscious. It is a matter of pushing, of nibbling away, and
one will succeed in perforating the partition wall.

这个错误更加重大,因为弗洛依德更加坚持的东西,没有一样胜过于对无意识与前意识之间的这个强烈的差别。但是我们想象,无论有多么大的阻碍存在,那就像在穀倉竖立隔间—老鼠最后还是会穿过。这个基本的意象目前似乎规范精神分析,那就是,一定有某件东西连接神经症与精神病,前意识跟无意识。问题是假如我们推逼,咬啮,我们们将会成功地穿透这个隔间墙壁。

This idea leads authors who are even a little bit coherent to make altogether
surprising theoretical additions, like the notion of a sphere that is, as they
say, conflict-free – an extraordinary notion – that is not regressive but transgressive.
The likes of this had never been heard before, even in the most neospiritualist
psychology of faculties of the soul.

这个观念引导那些作者,他们甚至稍微一贯,来增加令人惊奇的理论,譬如,他们所说的,球形是免除冲突的观念。这是一个特殊的观念—那不是倒退,而是跨越。类似这些东西以前从来没有被听说过,甚至在有关灵魂能力的新心灵学派的心理学。

No one had ever thought of
making the will an agency located in a conflict-free empire. It’s clear what
leads them to it. For them the ego is the prevailing framework of phenomena,
everything goes through the ego, ego regression is the sole means of access to
the unconscious. Where, therefore, are we to locate the mediating element
that is indispensable for understanding the action of analytic treatment, if it
is not located in this type of ego that is really ideal, in the worst sense of the
word, which is the conflict-free sphere, which thus becomes the mythical
locus of the most incredible reaction entifications?

没有人曾经想到让意志成为一种定位于免除冲突的帝国的代理。那很明显是引导他们到那里的东西。对于他们,自我是是这些现象的盛行的架构,每样东西都经历自我,自我的倒退是唯一的方法进入无意识界。因此,假如它并没有位在这种确实是理的自我,我们应该在哪里找到这个中介的要素,对于了解精神分析治疗的这个行动是不可免除的?理想的自我,就其最遭糕的意义而言,就是免除冲突的球形,它因此变成是最神秘的轨迹,最难以相信的反应的实体化。

In comparison with the preconsdous we have just been describing, what is
the unconscious?

跟我们刚刚正在讨论的前意识比较起来,这个无意识是什么?

If I say that everything that belongs to analytic communication has the
structure of language, this precisely does not mean that the unconscious is
expressed in discourse. The Traumdeutung, The Psychopathology of Everyday
Life, and Jokes make this transparent – nothing in Freud’s detours is explicable
unless it is because the analytic phenomenon as such, whatever it may
be, isn’t a language in the sense in which this would mean that it’s a discourse
– I’ve never said it was a discourse – but is structured like a language.

假如我说,属于精神分析沟通的每样东西,拥有语言的结构,这确实并不意味着,无意识的在辞说里表达。「梦的解析」,「日常生活心理学」,「笑话」,都清楚表明这点。在弗洛依德的迂迴里,没有一样东西是可解释的,除非那是因为精神分析的现象本身,无论那是什么,那并不是这个意义的语言。在那个意义里,那将意味着,那是一个辞说—我从来没有说过它是一个辞说—而是像一种语言的结构。

This is the sense in which it may be called a phenomenal variety, and the most
revealing one, of man’s relations to the domain of language. Every analytic
phenomenon, every phenomenon that comes from the analytic field, from
the analytic discovery, from what we are dealing with in symptoms and neurosis,
is structured like a language.

这就是这个义,以这个意义,它可被称为是变化万千,最具有启示性的变化,人跟语言的领域的关系。每个精神分析现象,每个来自精神分析领域的现象,从精神分析的发现,从我们正在处理的东西,在各种病征及神经症,无意识的结构像个语言。

This means it’s a phenomenon that always presents the essential duality of
signifier and signified. This means that here the signifier has its own coherence
and nature which distinguish it from every other species of sign. We are
going to follow its trail in the imaginary preconscious domain.

这意味着,这一个现象总是呈现能指与所指定基本双重性。这意味着,在此这个能指拥有它自己的一致性,区别它跟每一个其他种类的符号不同的特性。我们将要追踪它的痕迹,在它的想象的前意识的领域。

Let’s begin with the biological sign. In the very structure, in the morphology,
of animals there is something that has this captivating value due to which
its receiver, who sees the red of the robin redbreast for instance, and who is 188
made for receiving it, undertakes a series of actions or henceforth unitary
behavior that links the bearer of this sign to its perceiver. Here you have
what gives us a precise idea of what may be called natural meaning. Without
otherwise seeking how this might take place in man, it is clear that by means
of a series of transitions we can manage to purify, neutralize, the natural sign.
Then there is the trace, the footprint in the sand, the sign about which
Robinson Crusoe makes no mistake. Here sign and object separate. The trace,
in its negative aspect, draws the natural sign to a limit at which it becomes
evanescent.

让我们以生物的符号开始。在这个结构,在动物的形态学,有某件东西拥有这个令人著迷的价值。由于这个价值,它的接收者看见,譬如,看见知更鸟的红色胸膛的红色,及因为看它而被形成的价值,它从事一连串的行动,或因此是独特的行为,连接这个符号的带负者,到它的接收者。在此,你们拥有所谓的自然的意义的明确的观念。否则,假如没有寻求在人身上,这样的事情如何可能发生。显而易见地,凭借一连串的转变,我们能够成功地净化,中立这个自然的符号。因此,有一个痕迹,沙上的脚印,关于这个符号,鲁宾逊、克鲁素没有犯错。在此,符号与客体分开。这个痕迹,在它的负面,将这个自然的符号作一限制,在那里,它变成消失。

The distinction between sign and object is quite clear here, since
the trace is precisely what the object leaves behind once it has gone off somewhere
else. Objectively there is no need for any subject to recognize a sign
for it to be there – a trace exists even if there is nobody to look at it.

在符号与客体之间的区别在此是相当清楚的,因为这个痕迹确实是客体留下的东西,一旦它从某个其他地方消失。客观来看,主体没有需要去体认一个符号,为了让它在那里。一个痕迹存在,即使没有人观看它之前。

When have we passed over into the order of the signifier? The signifier
may extend over many of the elements within the domain of the sign. But
the signifier is a sign that doesn’t refer to any object, not even to one in the
form of a trace, even though the trace nevertheless heralds the sigmfier’s
essential feature. It, too, is the sign of an absence. But insofar as it forms part
of language, the signifier is a sign which refers to another sign, which is as
such structured to signify the absence of another sign, in other words, to be
opposed to it in a couple.

我们何时已经越过到能指的秩序?能指可能延伸到许多的元素,在符号的领域。但是这个能指是一个没有提到任何客体的符号,甚至没有提到以痕迹的形式的客体,即使这个痕迹传递这个能指点基本的特征。它也是,一种缺席的符号。但是因为它组成语言的部分,这个能指是提到另外一个能指的一个符号。作为这样一个符号,它的结构是要让另外一个符号的缺席能指化。换句话说,要在配对里跟它对立。

I spoke about day and night. Day and night are in no way something that
can be defined by experience. All experience is able to indicate is a series of
modulations and transformations, even a pulsation, an alternation, of light
and dark, with all its transitions. Language begins at the opposition – day
and night. And once the day is there as a signifier, it lends itself to all the
vicissitudes of an arrangement whereby it will come to signify things of great
diversity.

我谈论到白天与夜晚。白天与夜晚根本不是某件能够根据经验来定义的东西。经验所能够指示的一切,是一连串的光明与黑暗的调节与转变,甚至是一种悸动,一种轮替,及所有它的转换。语言就从这个对立开始—白天与夜晚。一旦白天在那里作为一个能指,它有助于安排的各种起伏。在那里,它渐渐意指著各色各样的事情。

This characteristic of the signifier essentially marks everything of the order
of the unconscious. Freud’s opus, with its huge philological framework at
work deep in the heart of the phenomena, is absolutely unthinkable unless
we place the signifier’s dominance in analytic phenomena at centre stage.
This reminder should take us a step further.

能指的这种特性基本上标示着一切属于无意识的秩序。弗洛依德的创作,及其巨大的语言学的架构深深运作在这些现象的核心。这个创作是绝对不可思议,除非我们将能指在精神分析现象的优越性放在中央阶段。这个提醒应该引导我们更深入探讨。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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