自闭症与童年精神错乱 02

自闭症与童年精神错乱02
Autism and Childhood Psychosis 21

Lacan always insisted on the notion of the psychotic phenomenon as a production, a view taken already by Freud since the beginnings of psychoanalysis and the best example of which is Freud’s analysis of President Schreber’s psychotic productions.

拉康总是坚持精神错乱的现象作为产物的观念,这一个观点已经被弗洛伊德採纳,自从精神分析的开始。最好的例子是弗洛伊德对于苏瑞伯首席法官这个精神错乱的产物的分析。

A clinic of production, as opposed to a clinic of the deficit, necessarily requires a structural approach and a positive explanation for clinical phenomena which, in turn, is indispensable for any therapeutic intervention. A clinic of the deficit is content with verifying the presence of malfunction or disorder, and not interested in the order which exists, since psychosis is one of the possible organizations of the speaking being, including the cases in which the subject does not actually speak (catatonia, autistic mutism). Even in such cases the subject is subjected to language and, for instance, the absence of verbal productions is interpreted by those around the subject as a refusal to speak, rather than as an absolute inability to speak.

产物的临床,相对于这个缺陷的临床,必然会要求一种结构性的研究方法,及正面的解释,对于临床的各种现象。轮过来,对于任何治疗的介入,是无可免除的。缺陷的临床满足于证实功能不良或疾病的存在,并且对于存在的秩序不感興趣,因为精神错乱是作为言说主体的可能组织之一,包括这些情况,主体并没有实际在言说的情况(僵硬姿态,自闭症的沉默)。甚至在诸如其乐的情 ,主体还是隶属于语言,文辞产物的欠缺被环绕主体四周的那些人,解释为拒绝言说,而不是作为绝对没有言说的能力。

The following are the diagnostic categories generally accepted in the Freudian field, although there is no unanimity as to exact definitions:

以下是一些诊断的范畴,在弗洛伊德的领域普遍被接受,虽然关于确实的定义,并没有一致共识。

1. Paranoia, whose existence as one of the psychoses of childhood is maintained, contrary to the opinion of non-psychoanalytic psychiatry. Les structures de la psychose, by Rosine and Robert Lefort (1988), contains a full account of the treatment of Robert, the Wolf Child, and a detailed comparison of Robert’s and President Schreber’s clinical presentations, which has led the authors to assert the structural identity of both cases. Paranoiac psychosis manifests clinically through delusional formations and hallucinations which are the spontaneous attempts at recovery on the part of the patient, an attempt to reconstruct a world that has collapsed and where it has become impossible to live.

1、偏执狂的存在,作为儿童精神错乱的之一,是成立的,跟非精神分析的精神分裂学的意见相反。由罗欣尼与罗伯特、雷弗特所写的「精神错乱的结构」,包括充分的描述,关于罗伯特德治疗「狼孩」。详细地比较罗伯特与苏瑞伯首席法官的临床记载,引导作者们主张两个个案的结构的相同性。偏执狂的精神错乱的临床显示,通过谵妄的形成及各种幻觉。它们病人这方面自动自发的企图寻求康复。企图想要重建一个已经崩溃的世界。在这个世界,他已经变得不可能生存。

2. Schizophrenia, which manifests itself through fragmentary delusional formations and hallucinations; incoherence of speech and thought; blunted or bizarre affective responses and catatonic behaviour, all of which represent the subject’s attempts to deal with a collapse of the representation of the body, or inability to construct that representation in a relation with the small other, i(o), the body thus becoming a place almost impossible to inhabit.

2、精神分裂症展示它自己,通过片断的谵妄动形成与各种幻觉。言说与思想的不一致,迟钝或古怪的情感的反应,及身体僵化的行为。所有这一些代表主体的企图,想要处理身体的再现符号的崩溃。或是没有能力建造那个再现符号,跟这个小他者(io)的关系,身体因此变成一个几乎不可能居住地位置。

3. Melancholia, which has not received much attention but which appears during childhood, characterized by delusional feelings of worthlessness, insomnia or hypersomnia, poor appetite, failure to thrive, suicidal ideation and actions, and apathy (which may be interrupted by manic episodes). These phenomena represent an identification with the real lack in the Other, that is, the absence of the desire of the Other which remains as an unsymbolized nothingness, the locus of the suicidal identification. There remains an open question whether melancholia can be considered as a structure in its own right, or whether it is a variant of paranoia – and, in some cases, perhaps, of schizophrenia.

3、忧郁症,并没有受到许多的注意,但是在童年期间会出现,特色是谵妄的无价值感,失眠,或是严重失眠,食欲不佳,无法成功,自杀的念头及行动,冷漠(这些可能会被狂乱的发作中断)。这些现象代表一种认同大他者的这个欠缺。换句话说,大他者的欲望的欠缺。这个大他者始终是作为一种没有被符号象征的空无,自杀认同的轨迹。这始终是一个开放的问题,忧郁症是否能够被认为是一种具有自己价值的结构,或是这是一种偏执狂的变种—在某些的个案,或许是精神分裂症的变种。

4. Autism, for which Leo Kanner’s (1973) original description of 1943 remains valid, characterized by inability to relate socially, aloneness, the failure to assume an anticipatory posture, the profound disturbance of language, the presence of excellent rote memory in many cases, echolalia and delayed echolalia, literal-ness and the mechanical repetition of pronouns, with onset within the first thirty months after birth. Such clinical features suggest an absence of the Other as the locus of the representation of both the world and the body. There is no unanimity as to the specificity of autism: whether it constitutes a structure in its own right, separate from the psychoses; or whether it is a variation and the earliest clinical version of schizophrenia. Current research by Lacanians who work with autistic and psychotic children deals with this question and the related issue of the evolution of the autistic subject, that is, what becomes of the autistic child when he/she enters adulthood.

1、 自闭症,李奥、康纳在1943年,对它的原先描述始终是有效。它的特征是没有能力跟社会联系,孤单,没有办法负起一种期望的姿态,语言深深受到困扰,优秀的背诵记忆,在许多情况存在,机械地重复他人语言或拖延重复他人语言,对于一些代名词实质认定及机械重复,在出生后前三十个月内开始。诸如其类的临床特征暗示大他者的欠缺,作为世界及身体的符号再现的轨迹。并没有一致共识,关于自闭症的明确内涵:它是否构成一种具有本身价值的结构,跟精神错乱分隔开来。或是它是否是一种变种及精神分裂症的早期临床变种。目前拉康派探讨自闭症及精神错乱儿童的研究,处理这个问题,及自闭症主体的进化的相关问题。换句话说,自闭症儿童的遭遇,他/她何时进入成年。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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