seminar final 36

seminar final 36

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

Moment to conclude
结论的时刻

20.12.77 (CG Draft 2) 1
Seminar 3: Wednesday 20 December 1977

I am working in the impossible to say.

我正在从事不可能界的言说。

To say (dire) is something different than to speak (parler). The analyser speaks. He produces poetry. He produces poetry when he manages to do so – it is not frequent – but it is art (il est art). I cut because I do not want to say ‘it is late’ (‘il est tard’).

言说是某件不同于言谈的事情。分析者言谈。他产生诗。当他成功于这样做时,他产生诗—这并不常见—但这是艺术。我切割,因为我并不想要说:「时间很迟了。」

The analyst, for his part, slices (tranche). What he says is a cut, namely,, has some of the characteristics of writing, except for the fact that in his case he equivocates in the orthography. He writes differently so that thanks to the orthography, to a different way of writing, he makes ring out something other than what is said, than what is said with the intention of saying, namely,, consciously, inasmuch as consciousness goes very far.
That is why I say that, there is neither in what the analyser says, nor in what the analyst says, anything other than writing.

分析家,就他本身而言,切割成片。他所言说是一种切割,换句话说,他所言说拥有书写的某些特性。除了这个事实:在他的情况,他的拼音方式模棱两可。他书写的方式不同,所以由于这个拼音方式,由于书写的一个不同方式,他让某件东西响亮出来,迴异于所被说的内容,换句话说,为了要有意识地言说。因为意识会过分。那就是为什么我说,无论在分析者的言说,或是分析家的言说,没有别的东西,除了就是书写。

This consciousness does not go very far, one does not know what one is saying when one speaks. This indeed is why the analyser says more than he means to say and the analyst slices by reading what is involved in what he means to say, if in fact the analyst knows what he himself wants. There is a lot of play (jeu), in the sense of freedom, in all of that. There is play in the sense that the word ordinarily has.

这个意识并没有过分。我们并不知道我们正在言说什么,当我们言谈时。这确实是为什么分析者言说,超过他打算说的。分析家切割,凭借阅读所被牵涉的,关于他打算要的内容。假如事实上,分析家知道他自己想要的。在自由的意义上,有许多的玩搞,在所有这一切。在文字通常所拥有的意义上,有玩搞。

All of that does not say to me how I slipped into the Borromean knot to find myself, on occasion, with a lump in my throat because of it. It must be said that the Borromean knot is that which, in thought, constitutes matter.

所有这一切并没有跟我言说,我如何滑进入这个博罗米恩环结,结果发现我自己有时因为它,由哭难言。我们必须说,这个博罗米恩环结是组成思想的物质的东西。

Matter is what one breaks, there also in the sense that this word ordinarily has. What one breaks (casse), is what holds together and is supple, on some occasions, like what is called a knot. How did I slip from the Borromean knot to imagining it composed of tori and, from there, to the thought of reversing each one of these tori? This is what led me to things that constitute metaphor, natural metaphor, namely,, that that it is close to linguistics, insofar as there is one. But metaphor has to be thought of metaphorically.

物质是我们打破的东西,也是在这个字通常拥有的意义。我们所打破的东西,是维系在一块的东西。它是柔软的,在某些的场合,就像所谓的一个环结。我如何从这个博罗米恩环结滑落到想象它由圆环面组成。从那里,滑落到倒转每一个这些圆环面的思想?这是为什么我被引导到组成隐喻的事情上。换句话说,那是自然的隐喻。它靠近语言学,因为有一个语言学。但是隐喻必须用隐喻的方式来思维。

The stuff of metaphor is that which in thought constitutes matter or, as Descartes says ‘extension’, in other words body.

隐喻的东西,在思想里是组成物质的东西。或者,如笛卡尔所说的「延伸」,换句话说,就是身体。

The gap is filled here as it has always been. The body represented here is a phantasy of the body. The phantasy of the body is the extension imagined by Descartes. There is a distance between extension, Descartes’ extension, and the phantasy. Here there intervenes the analyst who colours the phantasy of sexuality.

这个差距在此被填上,如同它总是被填上。在此被代表的身体,是身体的一种幻见。身体的这个幻见就是笛卡尔想象的这个延伸。在延伸之间有一个距离,在笛卡尔的延伸与这个幻见之间。在此,分析家介入,扭曲性的幻见。

There is no sexual relationship, certainly, except between phantasies and the phantasy is to be noted with the accent that I gave it when I remarked that geometry, ‘l’âge et haut-maître hie’ [a play on la géométrie], that geometry is woven by phantasies and in the same way the whole of science.

的确,性的关系不存在,除了在幻见之间。这个幻见应该被注意,由于我给予它的这个强调,当我谈论,几何学是由幻见所编织,同样地,整个的科学也是由幻见所编织。

I read recently a yoke called – it’s in four volumes – The world of mathematics. As you see it’s in English. There is not the slightest world of mathematics. It is enough to hang together the articles in question. That is not enough to make what is called a world, I mean a world that holds up. The mystery of this world remains absolutely intact.

我最近阅读一本所谓的钜作—有四大册–「数学的世界」。如你们所见,那是英文版。那根本不是什么数学的世界。它仅是将受到质疑的文章聚拢在一块。那并不足个形成所谓的一个世界。我的意思是,一个维持的世界。这个世界的神秘始终保持绝对的完整。

And at the same time what is meant by knowledge? Knowledge is what guides us. It is what means that people were able to translate the knowledge in question by the word ‘instinct’, of which what I articulate as l’appensée [thought] forms part, and that I write like that, because it constitutes an equivocation with appui [support].

同时,知识是什么意思?知识是引导我们的东西。知识的意思是,人们能够翻译受到质疑的知识,用「本能」这个字词。我所表达作为思想的东西,形成本能的部分。我像那样书写,因为它跟这个「支持」形成一种模糊暧昧。

When I said like that, the other day, that science is nothing other than a phantasy, than a phantastical kernel, I follow (je suis), certainly, but in the sense of ‘to follow’ (suivre) and, contrary to what someone in an article hoped, I think that I will be ‘followed’ onto this terrain. It seems obvious to me.

当我前天像那样言说,科学实实在在就是一种幻见,一种幻见的核心。我确实遵循那个意思。但是我用的「遵循」的意义,跟文章里的某个人所希望的相反。我认为我将会被「遵循」到这个平台。对我而言,那似乎显而易见。

Science is something futile which has no weight in anyone’s life, even though it has effects: television for example, but its effects depend on nothing but phantasy, which, I will write like that, who hycroit [believes in it].

科学是某件徒劳动东西,它在任何人的生活里,没有份量。即使它具有它的影响,譬如电视。但是它的影响仅仅依靠幻想。我将会像那样书写,我相信它。

Science is linked to what is especially called the’ death-drive’. It is a fact that life continues thanks to the fact of reproduction linked to phantasy. There you are
The other day I made you a torus while pointing out to you that it is a Borromean knot, namely,, that there are here three elements: the reversed torus and then the two rings of string that you see there, which are also tori; and I pointed out to you, that if one cuts this torus, that if one cuts it like that, namely,, as I expressed myself, longitudinally with respect to the torus, it is not surprising that one obtains the cutting effect which is that of the Borromean knot; it is the contrary that would be surprising.

科学跟我们特别所谓的「死亡冲动」息息相关。这是一个事实,生命继续,由于跟幻见息息相关的繁殖的事实。你们瞧!前天,我替你们制作一个圆环面,当我跟你们指出,这是一个博罗米恩环结。换句话说,在此有三个要素:这个倒转的圆环面,然后是你们看到在那里的两个绳之环结,它们也是圆环面。我跟你们指出,假如我们切割这个圆滑面,假如我们像那样切割它,换句话说,当我表达我自己,纵长地切割它,关于这个圆环面。这并不令人惊奇,我们获得这个切割的影响,那就是博罗米恩环结的影响。相反的东西才会令人惊奇。

It is the same thing as to cut … here I am completing it since I left this Borromean knot unfinished … it is the same thing to cut it like that: except for the fact that in this case the cut is – contrary to that one – perpendicular to what is called the hole. But it is quite clear that if things are completed, namely, that this holds together, namely, that something happens here like a junction the circular cut leaves the Borromean knot intact and it is indeed the same cut which is rediscovered there, the same cut as results from what I called the longitudinal cut.

这跟切割是同样的事情。在此,我们渐渐在完成它,因为我留下这个博罗米恩环结没有被完成。这是同样的事情像那样切割。除了这个事实:在这个情况,这个切割时垂直—跟刚才那个相反—跟所谓的空洞的内容垂直。但这个是显而易见的,假如事情被完成,换句话说,这个聚拢在一块。也就是,某件事情在此发生,就像这个循环的切割保持博罗米恩环结的完整的连接。这确实是相同的切割,在那里重新被发现。这个相同的切割,作为我所谓的纵长的切割的结果。

The cut is nothing other than what eliminates the Borromean knot entirely. It is by this very fact something that is repairable provided one sees that the torus that is involved is stuck together again if one deals with it properly in a reversed way.

这种切割实实在在就是完全减少博罗米恩环结的东西。凭借着这个事实,某件可被修理的东西,只要我们看出,被牵涉的这个圆环面,再一次被紧连在一块,假如我们以倒转的方式适当地处理它。

Namely, that what is seen … provided one cuts perpendicular to the hole … what is seen is that the torus at the very moment preserves the Borromean knot.

换句话说,所被看见的、、、只要我们跟这个空洞垂直地切割、、、所被看见的是,在这个时刻的圆环面,保存著博罗米恩环结。

It is enough for the cut to have some of the characteristics of the cut that I have called perpendicular to the hole in order for it to preserve the knot.

让这个切割拥有切割的某些特征就足够了,我曾称呼这种切割为跟这个空洞的垂直地切割,为了让它保存这个环结。

Suppose that the longitudinal cut that we have made here shares in the characteristics of the longitudinal cut. Namely, that something is established of this nature here. In other words that it turns around the torus. I mean the cut.

假设我们曾经在此做的纵长的切割,分享这个纵长的切割的这些特征。换句话说,在此某件属于这个特性的东西被建立。换句话说,它环绕这个圆环面旋转。我指的是这个切割。

Here is what we obtain: the reversal of the torus wards off the effects of its cut. (CG Draft 2) 5 The phantasy of the cut is enough to preserve the Borromean knot. For there to be a phantasy there must be a torus.

在此是我们所获得的; 圆环面的这个倒转,阻挡它的切割的这些影响。切割的这个幻见足够保存这个博罗米恩环结。为了让幻见存在,必须要有一个圆环面。

The identification of the phantasy to the torus is what justifies, as I might say, my imagining of the reversal of the torus.

幻见的认同于这个圆环面,证明我想象的圆环面的倒转,我不妨这样说。

So that here I am going to draw what is involved in what I called earlier a ‘six-fold torus’.
And imagine what can be deduced from the depiction I have just made. There is a couple: drive – inhibition.

所以,在此,我将要描绘所牵涉的东西,在我早先所谓的「六个折叠的圆环面」。你们想象一下,从我刚刚做的描述,能够被推论出什么。存在着这么一对: 冲动与潜抑。

Let us take for example this one, drive – inhibition.

让我们拿这个为例,冲动与潜抑。

In the same way for the others let us call the following couple: pleasure principle – unconscious.

对于其余的例子,也是一样。让我们称以下的这一对为:快乐原则与无意识。

We can sufficiently see from this fact that the unconscious is this knowledge which guides us and that I earlier called pleasure principle.

根据这个事实,我们能够充分地看出,无意识是引导我们的这个知识,我早先称为的快乐原则。

The interesting thing to notice is that the third, I mean that which, because of this is organised in this way – I beg your pardon these knots are always difficult to make – here you have a better way, one that I had to correct there, of representing what I called pleasure principle – unconscious, drive – inhibition, and it is here that the third is presented as the coupling of the Real and phantasy. 20.12.77 (CG Draft 2) 6 This puts a stress on the fact that there is no reality. Reality is constituted only by phantasy, and phantasy is moreover what gives material for poetry.

要注意到的有趣的事情是,这个第三个,我指的是,因为这个而以这个方式组织的东西—我请求你们原谅,这些环结总是很困难制作—在此,你们拥有更好的方式,我必须在那里改正的方式,代表我所谓的快乐原则与无意识,冲动与潜抑。就在这里,第三个例子被呈现,作为实在界与幻见到配对。这强调这个事实,现实界并不存在。现实界被形成,仅是靠着幻见。而且,幻见就是给予作为诗的材料。

This means that our whole development of science is something which, we do not know along what path, which emerges, irrupts due to what is called the sexual relationship.
Why is there something that functions as science? It is poetry. The apperception of this world of mathematics convinced me of this. There is something that manages to get through by what is reduced in the human species to the sexual relationship. What is reduced to the sexual relationship in the human species is something that makes it very difficult for us to grasp what is involved for animals. Do animals know how to count? We don’t have any proof of it, I mean tangible proofs.

这意味着,我们对于科学的整个的发展是某件东西,我们并不知道沿着什么途径,这个东西出现,暴发出来,由于所谓的性的关系。为什么会有某件东西充当科学的功用呢?那就是诗。对于数学的这个世界的赏识,让我相信这件事情。有某件东西成功地通过,凭借在人类的种族被还原成为性的关系的东西。在人类的种族被还原成为性关系的东西,是某件非常困难让我们理解对于动物会牵涉到什么。动物知道如何计算吗?我们并没有拥有这个证据。我指的是具体的证据。

As regards to what is involved in science, everything starts from numeration.
In any case what is involved in this practice is moreover poetry. I am speaking of the practice that is called analysis. Why did someone called Freud succeed in his poetry, I mean, in establishing a psychoanalytic art? This is what remains altogether doubtful.
Why do we remember certain men who have succeeded? It does not mean that what they have succeeded in doing is valid.

关于科学会牵涉到什么,每一样东西都从列举开始。无论如何,在这个实践所被牵涉的东西,而且是诗。我正在谈论到所谓的精神分析的实践。为什么某位名叫弗洛伊德的人,成功地写诗。我的意思是,当他建立一个精神分析的艺术?这就是为什么它始终是完全可疑的地方。为什么我们记得某些成功写诗的人,这并不意味着,他们成功地做到的东西,就能自圆其说。

What I am doing here as was remarked by someone of common sense, Althusser, is philosophy. But philosophy is the only thing we know how to do.

我在此正在做的事情是哲学,由某位具有共同常识的人所标示,他名叫阿图塞。但是哲学是唯一我们知道如何做到事情。

My Borromean knots, are also philosophy. They are philosophy that I handled as best I could by following the current, as I might say, the current of what results from Freud’s philosophy. The fact of having stated the word unconscious is nothing more than poetry with which one makes history. But history – as I sometimes say – history is hysteria.
Freud, if he sensed clearly what is involved in the hysteric, if he fabulated around the hysteric, this is obviously only a fact of history.

我的博罗米恩环结也是哲学。它们是我尽力而为的哲学,凭借遵循这个潮流,我不妨说,遵循从弗洛伊德的哲学形成的结果的潮流。事实上,我曾经陈述无意识这个字词,仅仅就是我们用来形成历史的诗。但是历史—如我有时说的—历史上歇斯底里症。弗洛伊德,假如他清楚地理解歇斯底里症会牵涉到什么。假如他环绕歇斯底里症构想,这显而易见是历史的一件事情。

Marx also was a poet, a poet who has the advantage in having succeeded in making a political movement. Moreover if he qualified his materialism as historical, it was certainly not unintentionally. Historical materialism is what is incarnated in history. Everything that I have just stated concerning the stuff which constitutes thought is nothing other than to say things exactly in the same way. 20.12.77 (CG Draft 2) 7

马克思也是一位诗人。这位诗人拥有这个优势,他成功地从事一个政治的运动。而且,假如他将他的唯物论特质定为是历史的,那确实是并非是无心之举。历史的唯物论就是在历史里具体呈现的东西。我刚刚陈述的一切,关于形成思想的这个材料,实实在在就是要以相同的方式确实地言说事情。

What one could say about Freud, is that he situated things in such a way that it was successful. But it is not sure. What is at stake is a composition, the composition such that I was led to render all of that coherent, to give the note of a certain relationship between the drive and inhibition, and then the pleasure principle and knowledge – unconscious knowledge, of course.

关于弗洛伊德,我们能够说的事情是,他以这样一种方式定位事情,结果是成功。但这并没有确定。岌岌可危的是一种组成,我被引导要将所有的这种组成形成一致性,给予某种关系的强调,处于冲动与潜抑,然后是快乐原则与知识,当然,是无意识的知识。

Pay careful attention that it is here, and that here is the third element, I mean that this is where phantasy is and where there is found what I designated as the Real.

请仔细注意,就在这里,这里有第三个要素。我指的是,这就是幻见所在的地方。在这里,我指明作为实在界被发现的地方。

I really did not find anything better than this way of imaging metaphorically what is involved in Freud’s doctrine.

我确实并没有找到任何东西,除了就是这个方式:隐喻地想象弗洛伊德的信条会牵涉到什么。

What seems to me to be materially unwarranted, is to have imputed so much material to sex. I know well that there are hormones, that hormones form part of science; but it is quite clear that this is the densest point and that here there is no transparency.
Good, I will stop there.

对于我似乎没有在材料方面受到保证的东西,就是要归属如此多的材料给性。我清楚地知道,有遗传因子,有遗传因子形成部分的科学,但是相当显而易见地,这是最紧密的部分,在此没有透明的东西,呵呵,我将在此告一段落。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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