Seminar IX :Identification 29

Seminar IX :Identification 29
第九研讨班 :认同

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

Seminar IX :Identification 11
第九研讨班 :认同

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

Seminar 6: Wednesday 20 December 1961

What end are we going to start with, with Gardiner or with Russell? Let us begin with Russell.

我们将要从什么目标开始,从噶帝那?或是从罗素?就让我们从罗素开始。

Russell finds himself in the position of the logician; the logician has a position which does not date from yesterday. He brings into operation a certain apparatus to which he gives different titles: reasoning, thinking.

罗素发现他自己处于逻辑专家的立场,逻辑专家拥有一个立场,这并不是从昨天开始的。他运用某种的工具,他给工具不同的名称:推理,思考。

He discovers in it a certain number of implicit laws. In a first phase he separates
out these laws: they are the ones without which nothing which belongs to the order of reason would be possible.

他在里面发现某些的暗含法则。在第一部分,他分开这些法则。假如没有这些法则,于推理秩序的东西,没有一样是可能。

It is in the course of this quite original research into the thinking which governs us, by reflection, that we grasp for example the importance of the principle of contradiction. This principle of contradiction having been discovered, it is around the principle of contradiction that something unfolds and is organised, which undoubtedly shows that if contradiction and its principle were not something tautological, tautology would be singularly fruitful; because Aristotelian logic cannot be unfolded in a few(10) pages.

在这个相当原创性的探索思考的研究过程,这种统辖我们的思考,凭借着反思,譬如,我们悖论原理的重要性?这个悖论原理已经被发现,那就是环绕着悖论原理,有某个东西展开,并且被组织。无可置疑地,它个显示,假如悖论及其原则并不是某件同义反复的东西,那将会是成果辉煌,因为亚里斯多德的逻辑无法在几页里就展开。

With time, nevertheless, the historical fact is that even though the development of logic is directed towards an ontology, a radical reference to being which is supposed to be aimed at in these most general laws of the mode of understanding necessary
for truth, it orients itself towards a formalism, namely that that to which the leader of a school of thought as important, as decisive in the orientation that it has given to a whole mode of thinking in our epoch as Bertrand Russell, should have managed to
put everything that concerns the critique of the operations brought into play in the field of logic and of mathematics, into a general formalisation that is as strict, as economical as possible.

可是,随着时间过去,这个历史的事实是,即使逻辑的发展被引导朝向本体论,强烈地提到目标所在的生命实存,在真理所需的了解模式的这些最通俗的法则里。它定向它自己,朝向一种形式主义。换句话说,一个思想学派的领导者同样重要,同样具有决定性,在它已经给予整个思想模式的一种定向。在我们的时代,如同布兰、罗素,他本来应该成功地将有关运算的批判的一切,运用在逻辑及数学的领域,运用到普通的形式主义,尽可能地严谨,尽可能精炼。

In short, the correlative effort of Russell, the thrust of Russell’s effort in the same direction, in mathematics, culminates at the formation of what is called set theory, whose general import one can characterise in the fact that an effort is made in it to reduce the whole field of mathematical experience accumulated throughout centuries of development, and I believe that a better definition of it cannot be given than to reduce it to an interplay of letters (jeu de lettres). We should take this into account then as a given in the progress of thinking; let us say, at our epoch, this epoch being defined as a certain moment of the discourse of science.

总之,罗素的相关的努力,罗素朝相同方向的努力,在数学方面,形式所谓的集合理论达到颠峰。集合理论的一般意义,我们能够以这个事实表现特征:我们在里面努力还原几世纪的发展累积的整个的数学的经验。我相信,我们无法给予它更好的定义,除了将它还原成为字母的互动运作。因此,我们应该考虑这个当作是思考过程的一个指称。我们不妨说,在我们的时代,这个时代被定义为科学论述的某个时刻。

What is it then that Bertrand Russell finds himself led to give in these conditions, when he comes to interest himself in it, as a definition of a proper name?

那么,在这些情况,布兰、罗素发现他自己被引导要给予什么?当他自己对它渐渐感到興趣,作为一个专有名称的定义。

(11) It is something which in itself is worthwhile dwelling on, because it is what is going to allow us to grasp – it could be grasped elsewhere, and you will see that I will show you that it is grasped elsewhere – let us say the degree of miscognition
(méconnaissance) implied in a certain position which is found to be effectively the corner into which there is pushed the whole age-old effort of the elaboration of logic.

这是某件东西,它自己本身是值得详加叙述,因为这是它容许我们理解的东西—它在别的地方能够被理解。你们将会看出,我将跟你们显示,它在别的地方被理解—让我们说,在某个立场被暗含的这个误认的程度,它被发现有效地在这个角落。整个世代的逻辑建构的努力,就被逼进那个角落。

This miscognition is properly speaking something which no doubt I put before you in a
way from the beginning of what I have to pose here because of the requirements of my exposition: this is precisely the miscognition of the thinking subject’s most radical relationship to the letter.

适当来说,这个误认是某件东西,无可置疑地,我放置在你们面前,从我必须在此提出的这个东西的开始这个方式,因为我的陈述的这些要求: 这确实是这个思想主体,跟这个信息的最强烈的关系的误认。

Bertrand Russell sees everything, except this: the function of the letter. This is what I hope to be able to make you sense and to show you. Have confidence and follow me. You are going to see now how we are going to advance. What does he give as a definition of the proper name? A proper name is, he says, “word for particular” a word to designate particular things as such. Now, in every description there are two ways of
approaching things: to describe them by their quality, their reference-points, their co-ordinates from the point of view of the mathematician, I mean to designate them as such.

布兰、罗素看到一切,除了这个:这个信息的功用。这是我希望能够让你们理解及跟你们显示的。请你们信任我,跟随我。你们现在将会看出,我们将会如何前进。他会给予什么作为这个专有名称的定义?一个专有名称,他说,是「一个特别的字词」,一个字词用以指明特别事物的本身。现在,在每有描述里,有两种接近事物的方式:根据它们的特质,它们的指称点,它们跟数学家的观点的座标描述它们。我的意思是,根据它们的本身指明它们。

This point, for example, let us say that here I can tell you: it is on the right of the blackboard, at such a height more or less, it is white and so on and so on. That is a description, Mr Russell tells us. These are the ways of designating it, outside of any
description, as particular: that is what I am going to call proper name.

让我们在此说,我能够告诉你们,譬如,这一点,它在黑板的右边,处于某种的高度,它是白色,等等。那是一个描述,罗素先生告诉我们。这些都是描述它的方法,外在于任何的描述,作为特别性。那就是我将要称它为专有名称。

(12) The first proper name for Mr Russell – I already alluded to it in my preceding seminars – is the “this”, celui-ci (this is the question). Here the demonstrative has passed to the rank of proper name. It is no less paradoxical that Mr Russell cooly
envisages the possibility of calling this same point John. It must be recognised that we have all the same here a sign that perhaps there is something which goes beyond experience; because the fact is that it is rare for one to call a geometrical point
John.

给罗素先生的第一个专有名称—在我的前几个研讨班,我已经提到它—就是「这个」(这个就是问题)。在此,这个指示词已经转换到专有名称。这是同样地矛盾,罗素先生冷静地构想这个可能性: 将这个相同点,称为是约翰。我们必须承认,我们在此同样有一个符号。或许有某件超越经验的东西存在。因为事实上,我们很少称一个几何学的点为约翰。

Nevertheless Russell has never retreated from the most extreme expressions of his thought. It is all the same here that the linguist becomes alarmed, becomes all the more alarmed because between these two extremes of Russell1 s definition “word
for particular”, there is this altogether paradoxical consequence that, being logical with himself, Russell tells us that Socrates has no right to be considered by us as a proper name, it being given that for a long time now Socrates is no longer a particular. I am abbreviating what Russell says, I am even adding a touch of humour to it, but it is indeed the spirit of what he tells us, namely that Socrates was for us Plato’s master,
the man who drank the hemlock, etc…

可是,罗素从来没有从他的思想的最极端的那些表达撤退。仍然是在这里,语言学家感到惊骇,而且更加变得惊骇,因为在罗素的「特别的字词」的定义的两个极端之间,有着这个完全的矛盾的结果。由于跟他自己前后一贯,罗素告诉我们,苏格拉底没有权利被我们认为是一个专有名称。因为考虑到,长久以来,苏格拉底不再是一个具有特别性。我正在简约表达罗素的说法,我甚至替它增加一点幽默的趣味。但是这确实是他告诉我们的内容的精神,换句话说,对于我们而言,苏格拉底是柏拉图的老师,喝饮毒酒殉道的这个人、、、

It is an abbreviated description; it is therefore no longer as such what he calls a
word to designate the particular in its particularity. It is quite certain that we see here that we are completely losing any of the advantages that a linguistic consciousness
gives us, namely that, if we have to eliminate everything that in proper names is inserted into a community of the notion, we arrive at a sort of impasse which is indeed that against which Gardiner tries to oppose properly linguistic perspectives as
(13) such.

这是一种被简约表达的描述。它的本质因此不再是他所谓的在它的特别性里,指明的这个特别物。千真万确地,我们在此看到,我们渐渐完全丧失一种语言意识给予我们的,任何的这个利益。换句话说,假如我们必须减少在专有名称里,每一样被插入这个观念的社团里,我们会到达某种的僵局。这个僵局确实是:噶帝那尝试提出完全是语言的观点本身,跟这个僵局对立而论。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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