超越主体间性 05

超越主体间性 05

拉康第二研讨班
The Ego in Freud’s Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis
弗洛伊德理论的自我与精神分析的技巧

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

Xv Odd or even? Beyond intersubjectivity
第十四章: 奇数或偶数?超越互为主体间性

T H E M A C H I N E W H I C H PLAYS
运作的机器

M E M O R Y A N D R E MI N I S C E N C E
记忆与回忆

I N T R O D U C T I O N TO T H E PURLO I N E D L E T T E R
被偷窃的信导论

2

1 + –
2 + –
3 + –
4 + +
Having lost three gos. the machine. then. begins to react. What am I to do? I
say to myself – perhaps it will persevere, so I’ll change my tune. Let us assume
that I win’ ?

由于输掉三次尝试后,这台机器就开始反应。我应该怎么办?我对自己说—或许它将会坚持下去,所以我将改变方式。让我们假定我赢。

5 – +

I’m not forced to reason like this. but I want to show you its limits. I can tell
myself that, now that it has won, the machine will wait until after the third go
to change. So I think that it will play plus one more time and I play minus. But
suppose that the second section comes into play when there has been minus
three times. So now my machine plays minus, and wins yet again.

我并没有被迫像这样推理,但是我想要跟你们显示它的极限。我能够告诉我自己,既然它已经赢了,机器将会等到第三次尝试的改变。所以我认为它将会再一次玩加的遊戏,我就玩减。但是假设第二个部分运作,当第三次玩减时。所以,我的机器玩减,又再一次赢。

6 – –
I want to draw your attention to the fact that the machine has won twice
using rather similar means. This isn’t to show you that this is the way in which
the machine will win.

我想要提醒你们注意这个事实:这台机器使用相当类似的方法,已经赢得两次。这并不是要告诉你们,这就是这台机器将会赢的方法。

But depending on the complexity of the elaborated mechanism. and the successive sections which can furnish a certain amount of information as to the pluses or minuses. Transformations,which in their turn may be coordinated amongst themselves. will end up yielding a temporal modulation analogous to what takes place in the confrontation of two players.

但是依靠这个复杂机械结构的复杂性及连续性的部分,它们能够供应某些数量的资讯,关于加跟减。轮到转变可能在其中被协调,结果产生时间性的调解,类同两个棋逢对手时,发生的情况。

All one needs to posit is a machine complex enough to have a sufficient number of superimposed sections bringing together a large enough count of previous goes – instead of grouping three of them. it could group eight or ten – and its range will be beyond my understanding.

我们所需要提出的是,一台机器足够复杂拥有足够多的监控部门,将许多先前的充分次数的尝试汇集一块。不仅是汇集三次,它能够汇集八或十次。它的范围之大将不是我所能了解。

Nevertheless it cannot go beyond its reproduction on paper. that is to say I myself can also examine it on condition that I go over the entire combinatory myself before I risk my hand at it. So there I am entering into some sort of rivalry with it.

可是,它无法超越它在纸上的复制。换句话说,我自己也能够检视它,只要我在冒险尝试之前,我自己检视完整的组合。所以,我正在进入跟他具有某种的敌意。

I want to draw your attention to the fact that. under these conditions. there’s
no reason why the machine should win rather than me. except for my
exhaustion. To reconstruct the number of sections in this machine. the sets
sampled by it at every moment whereby it determines its play. I would be faced
with problems of such mathematical complexity that I would have to have
recourse to – note the irony – an adding machine.

我想要提醒你们注意这个事实:在这些情况之下,没有理由为什么机器应该赢,而不是我赢。除了我精疲力尽。为了重新建构在这台机器的部门的数目,它决定要玩的每个时刻的给予的集合,我将会面对如此数学的复杂性的问题,我将必须诉诸于一台计算机—你们瞧,那是多么反讽!

But then. I’m not playing at even and odd. I am playing at predicting the play
of the machine. Now. I will start playing ,to find out what will happen.
One could suppose the machine to be capable of drawing up a psychological
profile of its adversary. But earlier on I drew your attention to the fact that the
latter only functions within the framework of intersubjectivity.

然后,我并不是在玩偶数与奇数。我是在玩预测机器的遊戏。现在,我将开始玩,为了发现会发生什么事。我们能够假设机器能够拟想它的对手的心理轮廓。但是早先,我提醒你们注意这个事实:后者只有在主体间性的架构之内,才能运作。

The whole question is summed up as the problem of knowing whether the other is cunning enough to know that. I too. am an other for him. If he is capable of going beyond this second period [temps].

整个的问题被总结为这个难题:要如何知道对手是否足够狡猾地知道。对于他而言,我也是一个对手他者。假如他能够超越这第二个时期。

If I suppose him to be identical to myself. by the same token I suppose him capable of thinking with respect to me what I am in the process of thinking concerning him. and to think that I am going to think that he will do the opposite of what he thinks I am in the process of thinking.

假如我假设他认同我,同样地,我假设关于我,他能够思想我是什么样子,在思想有关他,然后思想我正在思想,他将会相反于他所认为,我正在思想的过程。

A simple oscillation which always comes back. From this fact alone. everything
pertaining to the order of the psychological profile is completely eliminated.
What happens if. on the other hand. I play at random? You know the chapter in The Psychopathology of Everyday Life which deals with the production of a random number.l

一个简单的摇摆将总是会回来。仅是根据这个事实,每一样属于心理轮廓的秩序的东西,会完整地被减少。万一在另一方面,我胡乱玩,那会发生什么事?你们知道在「日常生活的心理病理学」,有一章处理随机数目的产生。

That’s an experiment which certainly does escape the well known metaphor of the rabbit which one is always advised to remember was previously put in the hat.

有一个试验,确实逃避众所周知的兔子的比喻。我们总是被劝告要记住先前被放在帽子里的兔子。

Freud – with the assistance .of his subject. but it is clearly because the subject is speaking to Freud that it works – Freud is the first to notice that a number drawn from the hat will quickly bring out things which will lead the subject to that moment when he slept with his little sister. even to the year he failed his baccalaureat because that morning he had masturbated. If we acknowledge such experiences. we will be obliged to postulate that chance doesn’t exist.

弗洛伊德,由于他的主体的帮忙,但是显而易见地,因为主体正在与弗洛伊德说话时,它才有效运作。弗洛伊德是第一位注意到,从帽子拿出的一个数字,很快就会显示一些东西,引导主体到达那个时刻,当他跟他的小妹睡觉,甚至到达那一年他没有通过大学毕业考试,因为那天早上他曾经手淫。假如我们承认这些经验,我们将不得不提出,机率并不存在。

While the subject doesn’t think about it, the symbols continue to mount one another, to copulate, to proliferate, to fertilise each other, to jump on each other, to tear each other apart. And when you take one out, you can project on to it the speech of this unconscious subject we’ve been talking about.

虽然主体并没有思考它,符号象征继续互相增加,交媾,繁殖,互相物化,互相跳跃,互相撕裂。当你们拿出一个,你们能够在它身上投射,我们正在谈论的无意识主体的言说。

In other words, even if the word of my life had to be sought in something as
long as an entire recital of the Aeneid, it isn’t unthinkable that a machine would
in time succeed in reconstituting it. Now, any machine can be reduced to a series of relays which are simply pluses and minuses. Everything, in the symbolic order, can be represented with the aid of such a series.

换句话说,只要我完整地背诵《埃涅阿斯紀》,甚至我一生的话语必须在某件事情里被寻找,这是匪夷所思的,机器到时会成功地重新建构我的一生的话语。现在,任何机器都能够被还原成为一系列加与减的转接运作。从符号秩序来说,每一样东西都能够用这样的一种系列来代表。

One mustn’t confuse the history, in which the unconscious subject inscribes
himself, with his-memory – a word I wouldn’t be the first one to tell you is used in a confusing way. On the contrary, at the point we have reached, it is important to draw a ‘ very sharp distinction between memory and remembering
[rememoration}. which pertains to the order of history.

我们一定不要混淆历史。在历史里,无意识的主体用他的记忆铭记他自己。我并不是第一位告诉你们,记忆这个字词被使用得相当混乱。相反地,在我们到达的这点,清楚地区别记忆跟回忆是很重要的。回忆是属于历史的秩序。

Memory has been spoken of as a means of characterising the living organism
as such. One then says that a living substance, following a given experience,
undergoes a transformation such that it will no longer react to the same
experience in the same way as before.

记忆曾经被提到,作为一种表现生命有机体本身的方法。我们因此说,一个具有生命的物质,跟随着某个特定的经验,经历一种转变,以致于他不再以相同的方式,像先前那样反应相同的经验。

This is all rather ambiguous – to react differently, what does that mean? within what limits? No longer reacting at all, isn’t that an effect of memory? Is the experience of death, definitively recorded, a memory?

这是相当暧昧的—以不同方式重新反应,那是什么意思?在什么限制之内?根本就不再反应,那难道不是记忆的影响?死亡的经验,当明确地被记录时,是一种记忆吗?

In any case, there is no reason to identify this memory, a definable property of living substance, with remembering, the grouping and the succession of symbolically defined events, the pure symbol engendering in its turn a succession.

无论如何,没有理由将这种记忆,一个可定义的具有生命的物质的特性,认同于回忆,也就是认同于用符号象征定义的事件的汇集与连续,纯粹的符号象征轮到自己产生一种连续性。

What goes on in the machine at this level. to confine ourselves just to that, is
analogous lo the remembering we deal with in analysis. Indeed, memory is
here the result of integrations. The first section added on to the basic memory is made up of a section which groups results by threes.

在这个层次,机器所进行的,我们仅限制在那里,是类比于我们在精神分析处理的回忆。的确,记忆在此是综合的结果。被增加到基本记忆的第一个部门,是用三倍的结果汇集的部门所组成。

This result, memorised, is available to be brought in at any moment. But the next moment, it may well no longer be at all the same. It is possible that it has changed content, changed sign, changed structure.

被记忆的这个结果,在任何时刻,都可使用。但是下一个时刻,它很有可能根本就不相同。很有可能,它已经改变内容,改变符号,改变结构。

If an error occurs in the course of the experience, what happens? It’s not what happens afterwards which is modified, but everything which went before. We have a retroactive effect – nachtriiglich, as Freud calls it specific to the structure of symbolic memory, in other words to the function of remembering.

假如一个错误发生在经验的过程,什么事会发生?这并是被修正的后来发生的情况,但是以前进行的一切事情。我们拥有一支反作用的影响,Nachtriiglich,如同弗洛伊德所称呼的,明确属于符号记忆的结构。换句话说,属于回忆的功用。

I think that this little apologue, with its problematic character, has
introduced you to the following, that for there to be a subject who asks a
question, all that is needed is a quod upon which the interrogation bears. Do we even have to concern ourselves with what this subject is and with respect to which other it is to be located?

我认为,这篇小小的辩解,具有它的棘手的特性,已经跟你们介绍以下:为了成为一位询问问题的主体,我们所需要的是,成为质问跟他有关的一位无意识的主体。我们甚至必须关心到,这个主体是什么,关心这位主体应该被定位为怎样的他者。

That is totally useless. The most important thing is the symbolic quod. For the subject it is like an image in the mirror, but of a different order – it isn’t for nothing that Odysseus pierces the eye of the Cyclop.

这是完全无用的。最重要的事情是,符号界的无意识主体。对于这位主体,它就像是镜中的一个影像,但是属于不同的秩序。奥德赛戮穿赛克洛普巨人的眼睛,并不是毫无意义。

In so far as he speaks, the subject can perfectly well find his answer, his return, his secret, his mystery, in the constructed symbol which modern machines
represent for us, namely something far more acephalic still than what we
encountered in the dream, of Irma’s injection.

当他言说,主体能够清楚地找到他的回答,他的回转,他的秘密,他的神秘,在这台机器跟我们代表的这个被建构的符号象征。换句话说,某件比我们在艾玛的注射的梦里,所遭遇的更加是没有头的东西。

It raises the question Of the relation of signification to the living man.

它引起这个问题:作为活生生的人,有什么意义?

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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