超越互为主体间性 03

超越互为主体间性 03

拉康第二研讨班
The Ego in Freud’s Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis
弗洛伊德理论的自我与精神分析的技巧

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

Xv Odd or even? Beyond intersubjectivity
第十四章: 奇数或偶数?超越互为主体间性

T H E M A C H I N E W H I C H PLAYS
运作的机器

M E M O R Y A N D R E MI N I S C E N C E
记忆与回忆

I N T R O D U C T I O N TO T H E PURLO I N E D L E T T E R
被偷窃的信导论

2
You know that a great fuss is made of adding machines in cybernetics. They
have even been called thinking machines. in so far as some of them certainly
are capable of solving logical problems, conceived, it is true, in a quite artificial
manner. so as to confuse the mind for a moment. in such a way that we don’t do as well at them as they do.

你们知道,电脑的计算机引起强烈的讨论。它们甚至还没有被称为思想的机器,虽然它们有有一些确实能够解决逻辑的问题。它们确实被构型,以一种完全是人为的方式,为了暂时混淆心灵,以表现得比我们还高明的这样一种方式。

Today we won’t go into these arcana. You can bring a horse to water. but
you can’t make him drink. and so as not to instill too great an aversion in you to
this exercise. I am going to try to lead you into this domain in a more
entertaining manner. We have never despised the entertainments of physics
and mathematical recreations – you can get a lot out of it.

今天,我们将不探讨这些专业的领域。你能够带马到水边,但是你无法强迫它喝水。为了不要灌输给你们,对于这种运用,太强烈的恶感,我将尝试引导你们到这个领域,以更加娱人的方式。我们从来没有轻视物理的娱乐及数学的消遣。你们从它那里能够获得许多。

Amongst these adding or thinking machines there are others which have
been dreamt up, which have endearing peculiarities – these are machines
which play. inscribed within the functioning and, quite singularly, within the
limit of a certain strategy.

在这些计算及思想的机器当中,还有一些曾经被梦想,会有可爱的特性。诸如遊戏的机器,被铭记在这个功用里。相当独特地,被铭记在某种策略的极限里。

Just this fact. that a machine can have a strategy, already leads us to the
heart of the problem. For in the end, what is a strategy? How can a machine
partake in it? Today I will try to bring home to you the elementary truths which
are swept away by that.

就是这个事实,机器能够拥有策略,已经引导我们到达问题的核心。因为追根究底,策略是什么?机器如何参与它?今天,我将让你们明白由它们所涵盖的这些基本的真理。

A machine has been constructed. so I hear. which plays the game of even and
odd. I won’t vouch for this. as I haven’t seen it. but I can promise you that before the end of these seminars I will – our good friend Riguet told me that he would confront me with it. One must have experience of these things. one can’t talk about a machine without having had a shot at it. seen what it can do. made some discoveries. even some sentimental ones.

我听说,有一种机器曾经被建造,它会玩偶数,还是奇数的遊戏。我不确实保证,因为我没有看见过它,但是我能跟你们承诺,在这些研讨班结束之前,我将会看见,因为我们的好朋友瑞古特告诉我,他将带我去见识它。我们一定会有这些事情的经验,我们无法谈论一种机器,而不去尝试它,瞧瞧它能做些什么,做些发现,甚至某些是带有情感的机器。

The real eye-opener is that the machine I’m talking about ends up winning. You know the game. you must still have some memories of school. You put two or three marbles in your hand. and you put out your closed fist to the opponent. saying – Odd or even? I have. Two marbles say. and if he says odd, he must hand one over to me. And so on.

真正让人开眼界的东西是,我正在谈论的这种机器,结果会赢。你们知道这个遊戏,你们一定还有学校的某些记忆。你们将两三粒玻璃珠拿在手里,然后你伸出你紧握的手掌给对方说,「我手里,是奇数?还是偶数?」譬如,两粒玻璃珠。假如他说是奇数,他必须交一粒给我。等等。

Let us try to consider for a moment what it means for a machine to play the
game of even and odd. We couldn’t work it all out by ourselves. because it
would look a bit heavy-handed in the circumstances. A short text comes to our
aid. from Edgar Poe. which the cyberneticists, I noticed. make something of.
This text is in The Purloined Letter. an absolutely sensational short story, which could even be considered as essential for a psychoanalyst.

让我们尝试考虑一下,让一台机器玩偶数与奇数的遊戏,意味著什么。我们自己无法完全解决它,因为在这些情况,它看起来有点棘手。爱伦坡有一短篇小说可帮助我们,我注意的,电脑界很重视这篇小说。这篇小说名称是「被偷窃的信」,是一篇非常精彩的短篇小说。对于一位精神分析家,它甚至被认为是很重要的。

The characters concerned to recover the purloined letter, which I will tell you
more about later. are two policemen. One is the prefect of police. that is to say, in accordance with literary conventions. an idiot. The other is a nobody, an
amateur policeman with dazzling intelligence. called Dupin. who foreshadows
Sherlock Holmes and those other heroes of the novels you devour in your free
time.

相关的这些人物是两位警探,想要找回这封被偷窃的信。信的内容,我稍后将告诉你们。有一位是警察局长,换句话说,用符合文学传统的形象,是庸碌之徒。另一位是无名小卒,一位业余侦探,聪慧过人,名叫杜屏。他比福尔摩斯及小说中的其人角色更加杰出。你们有空时读一读。

The latter comes out with ‘the following – I knew one about eight years of age, whose success at guessing in the game of ‘even and odd’ attracted universal admiration. This game is simple, and is played with marbles. One player holds in his hand a number of these toys. and demands of another whether that number is even or odd.

后者说出以下的经过—「我认识一位大约八岁的小孩,他成功地猜测超「偶数与奇数」的遊戏,举世崇拜。这种遊戏简单,用玻璃珠就能玩。一个人手里拿着许多这些玻璃珠,然后要求另外一个人,那是数目是偶数或是奇数?

If the guess is right. the guesser wins one; if wrong, he loses one. The boy to whom I allude won all the marbles of the school. Of course he had some principle of guessing; and this lay in mere observation and admeasurement of the astuteness of his opponents. For example. an arrant simpleton is his opponent. and. holding up his closed hand. asks, “Are they even or odd?”

假如猜测正确,猜测者赢得一粒,假如猜错,他输掉一粒。我提到的这个男孩,赢得全校的所有玻璃珠。当然,他有某种猜测的原则,这在有仅是观察及估算他的对手的高明度。譬如,一位道地的傻瓜是他的对手,然后举起他的紧握的手,问说:「它们是偶数?还是奇数?」

Our schoolboy replies. “Odd, ” and loses; but upon the second trial he wins,for he then says to himself, “The simpleton had them even upon the first trial. and his amount of cunning is just sufficient to make him have them odd upon the second; I will therefore guess odd;” – he guesses odd, and wins.

我们的学童回答:「奇数」,然后输了。但是在第二次尝试时,他赢,因为他因此对自己说,「这个傻瓜在第一次尝试时,拥有偶数,他的狡猾的数量仅足够让他在第二次尝试时,拥有奇数。我因此猜奇数。」他猜奇数就赢了。

Now, with a simpleton a degree above the first, he would have reasoned thus: ” This fellow finds that in the first instance I guessed odd, and. in the second, he will propose to himself upon the first impulse. a simple variation from even to odd. as did the first simpleton; but then a second thought will suggest that
this is too simple a variation, and finally he will decide upon putting it even as before I will therefore guess even; ” – he guesses even, and wins.

现在,对于比第一位高一等的傻瓜,他会这样推理: 「这个人发现,在第一个情况,我猜奇数,在第二次,他将根据第一次尝试跟他自己建议,一个简单的变化,从偶数成为奇数,如同第一位傻瓜。但是再次思考将会建议,这是太过简单的变化,最后他将会决定像以前一样放进偶数,我因此猜偶数。」他猜偶数,他就赢了。

Now this mode of reasoning in the schoolboy, whom his fellows termed “lucky, ” – what, in its last analysis, is it?’ ‘It is merely, ‘ I said, ‘an identification of the reasoner’s intellect with that of his opponent. ‘

现在,在这个学童的推理模式,他的同伴称之为「幸运」,「追根究底,那是什么?」我说,「那仅是一种对推理者的智慧的辨认,用他的对手的辨认。」

‘It is, , said Dupin and, upon inquiring of the boy by what means he effected the
thorough identification in which his success consisted, I received answer as follows:

「确实如此」,杜屏说,当他询问那位男孩,用什么方法造成全面的辨认,让他获得他的成功。我收到的回答如下:

“When I wish to find out how wise, or how stupid, or how good, or how wicked is any one, or what are his thoughts at the moment, I fashion the expression of my face, as accurately as possible, in accordance with the expression of his, and then wait to see what thoughts or sentiments arise in my mind or heart, as if to match or correspond with the expression. ”

「当我想要发现一个人有多聪明,或多愚笨,或多善良,或多邪恶,或是他当下的思想是什么,我塑造我的脸上的表情,尽可能正确地,符合他的脸上的表情,然后等着瞧在我的脑海或心里浮现的思想或情感是什么,好像为了跟那个表情相配或一致。」

This response of the schoolboy lies at the bottom of all the spurious profundity which has been attributed to Rochefoucault, to La Bougive, to Machiavelli, and to. Campanella. ‘

这位学童的这个回应,就是所有欺敌奥秘能力的根源,这种奥秘能力可归属于罗奇福科,拉玻及弗,马奇维利,及坎潘内拉所具有。

‘And the identification, ‘ I said, ‘of the reasoner’s intellect with that of his opponent, depends, if I understand you aright, upon the accuracy with which the opponent’s intellect is admeasured. ‘

我说,「推理者的智力,用来辨认他的对手的智力,假如我了解得正确,那是依靠对手的智力被估算的正确性而定。」

We are here faced with reasoning which raises a certain number of problems.
At first glance, it is a matter of simple psychological penetration, a kind of
ego miming. The subject adopts a mirror position, enabling him to guess the
behaviour of his adversary.

我们在此面对的这种推理,引起某些的问题。乍然一看,问题是简单地看透对方心里,一种自我的模拟。主体採用一种镜子的立场,使他能够猜测他的对手的行为。

Nonetheless, even this method already presupposes the dimension of intersubjectivity, in that the subject has to know that he is faced with another subject, in principle homogeneous with him. The variations to which he may be subject have far less importance than the possible scansions of the position of the other. There is no other ground for psychological reasoning.

可是,甚至这个方法已经预先假设互相主体间性的维度,因为主体必须知道,他面对着另外一位主体,原则上是跟他同质性的。他可能承受的这些变化,重要性远不如对手立场的可能的审查。没有其他的理由来从事心理的推理。

What are these scansions? There is a first period [temps] in which I suppose
the other subject to be in exactly the same position as me, thinking what I am
thinking at the very moment I am thinking it.

这些审查是什么呢? 有一个最初的时期,在这个时期,我假设另一个主体是跟我处于确实相同的立场,思想我正在思想,就在我思想它的这个时刻。

Let us suppose that it seems to me, for my part, that it would be more natural for the other to change theme, for him to switch from even to odd, for instance. In the first period [temps], I believe that this is what he will do.

让我们假设,就我而言,我觉得,更加自然的做法,是让对方改变主题,让他从偶数转变成为奇数,譬如,在第一个时期。我相信,这是他将会做的。

The important thing is that there may be a second period [temps], in which a less partial subjectivity is manifested. The subject is in fact capable of making himself other, and to end up thinking that the other, being himself an other, thinks like him, and that he has to place himself in the position of a third party, to get out of being this other who is his pure reflection.

重要的事情是,可能有第二个时期,在这个时期,一个比较不偏移的主体性被证明出来。事实上,主体能够让他成为对手,结果的思想是:对手,成为他自己的一个对手,像他一样地思考,他必须将他自己放置在第三者的立场,避开成为这个作为他的纯粹的投影的这个他者。

As third party, I realise that if that other doesn’t play the game, he fools his
opponent. And from then on I’m ahead of him, by opting for the position
opposite to the one which seemed to me, in the first period [temps], to be the
most natural.

作为第三者,我体会到,假如那个他者并没有玩这个遊戏,他愚弄他的对手。从那时开始,我领先他,因为我选择的立场,相反于第一个时期我觉得最自然的立场。

But after this second period [temps], you can suppose a third, which makes it
extremely difficult to pursue the same analogical reasoning. After all, someone
of superior intelligence can in fact understand that the trick is, notwithstanding the fact that one seems to be very intelligent, to play like an idiot, that is to
return to the first formula.

但是在第二个时期之后,你能够假设第三者,这第三者让追寻相同的类比的推理变得极端困难。毕竟,某位智力高超的人事实上能够了解,这个诡计是要扮演像一位白痴,也就是回到第一个公式,尽管事实上我们似乎很聪明。

What does that mean? This -if the game of even and odd is played on the level of the dual relation, of the equivalence of one and the other, of the alter ego and the ego, you will very quickly realise that you haven’t reached any kind of second order, since as soon as you think of the third, an oscillation returns you to the first. 、

那是什么意思?假如偶数与奇数的遊戏,是在玩弄双重关系的层次,某人跟他者,超我与自我的相等,你们很快地会体会到,你们还没有到达第二个秩序,因为当年们一想到第三者,一种摇摆会将你们回转到第一时期、、、

This doesn’t preclude something in the technique of the game from partaking as a matter of fact in the mythical identification with the opponent. But that’s a fundamental bifurcation.

事实上,在遊戏的技巧,这并没有预先排除某件东西,不能参与跟对手神秘地认同。但是那时一个基本的两种的分叉。

It may be that something like a divination, which, however, is problematic, is
put into effect, a divination by the subject who has a certain sympathetic
rapport with the opponent. It’ s not out of the question that there may have been such a young child who won more frequently than his turn should allow – .. which is the only definition one can give in this instance of the word win. But
the heart of the matter lies in a completely different register from that of
imaginary inter-subjectivity.

可能的是,某件像是猜测的东西,问题重重,在此被实行。这是主体的猜测,他跟对手具有某种同情的支撑关系。这并非不可能,有某位小孩,赢的次数更加超过他应赢的次数。就「赢」这个字词的例子而已,这是我们能够给予的唯一定义。但是问题的核心在于一种完全不同的铭记,跟想象的相互主体间性的铭记。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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