超越主体间性 04

超越主体间性 04

拉康第二研讨班
The Ego in Freud’s Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis
弗洛伊德理论的自我与精神分析的技巧

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

Xv Odd or even? Beyond intersubjectivity
第十四章: 奇数或偶数?超越主体间性

T H E M A C H I N E W H I C H PLAYS
运作的机器

M E M O R Y A N D R E MI N I S C E N C E
记忆与回忆

I N T R O D U C T I O N TO T H E PURLO I N E D L E T T E R
被偷窃的信导论

2
That the subject should think the other to be similar [semblable] to himself,
and that he, reasons as he thinks the other must reason – in the first period
[temps] like !his, in the second period like that – is a fundamental point of
departure failing which nothing can be thought, yet is nonetheless totally
inadequate in helping us penetrate in any degree to where the key to success
might be found.

主体应该思维他者跟他自己类似。因为他推理,如同他认为他者必须推理的方式,(在像这样的第一时期,及像那样的第二时期),他是一个基本的离开点。若没有这个离开点,没有一样东西能够被思考。可是,这是完全不够充分来帮助我们,有任何程度的贯彻到成功的关键可能被找到的地方。

I don’t consider the interpsychological experience to be excluded in this case, but it insinuates itself within the fragile framework of the imaginary relation to the other, and it hangs on that very uncertainty. Within this framework, the experience is one which fades away. It cannot be made logical.

我不认为这个互为主体间性的经验,在这个情况被排除。但是它揶揄它自己,在跟他者的想象的关系的脆弱的架构里面。它依靠着那种不确定。在这个架构里面,这个经验是消隐的经验。它无法被弄成逻辑化。

Take another look at the dialectic of the game of black and white discs placed on the backs of the three characters who have to work out what their own sign is on the basis of what they see on the two others. You will be in a position to discover something of the same order.

再看一次黑与白盘子被放在三个人物背后的遊戏的辩证法。他们必须根据他们在其他两位身上所看到的,来解决他们自己的讯息是什么(他自己背上盘子是黑色或是白色)。你们将会处于这么一个立场,发现相同秩序的东西

We will take the other path, the one which can be made logical. the one
which can be upheld in discourse. Obviously it imposes itself as soon as your
partner is the machine.

我们将会採驱另外一条图径,能够被弄成逻辑化的这条途径。这条途径在论述能够受到支持。显而易见地,当你的伴侣是机器时,它赋加在它自己身上。

It is clear that you don’t have to ask yourself whether the machine is stupid or
intelligent, whether it will play in accordance with its first or its second go.
Inversely, the machine has no means of placing itself in a reflexive position in
relation to its human partner.

显而易见地,你们不需要询问你们自己,这个机器是愚笨或是聪明,它是否会依照它的第一或它的第二步骤运作。相反地,机器没有方法放置它自己处于一个反身的立场,相关于它的人类的伴侣。

What is it to play with a machine? The physiognomy of the machine,
however prepossessing it may be, can be of no help whatsoever in this instance.

跟机器下棋是怎样一回事?机器的外貌,无论它是多么的千娇万媚,在这种情况,根本就没有帮助。

No means of getting out of it by way of identification. One is thus from the start
forced to take the path of language [langage], of the possible combinatory of the machine.

机器没有方法凭借认同来避开它。因此从一开始,我们就被迫要採取语言的途径,机器的可能的组合的途径。

One knows one can expect from the machine a series of relations, operating with an excessive rapidity thanks to those amazing relays, the electronic phases, and, according to the latest news, these transistors the
papers can’t stop talking about, with a commercial aim in mind no doubt, but
one which doesn’t put in question the quality of these objects.

我们知道,我们无法从机器,期待会有一系列的关系,迅速敏捷地运作,因为会有那些令人惊奇的转接,电子的部分。依照最近的新闻,这些文件谈论不休的转接器,无可置疑地,心里构想著商业的目标,但是这种机器并没有置疑这些东西的品质。

But before we ask ourselves that the machine is going to do, let us ask
ourselves what it means to win • and lose at the game of even and odd.
On the basis of one single go, it has no meaning whatsoever. Whether your
answer coincides with what’s in your partner’s hand is no more surprising
than the converse. For one go, it makes no sense, except purely conventionally, to win or to lose. Odd, even, it has no importance whatsoever.

但是在我们询问我们自己这台机器将做什么之前,让我们询问我们自己,在偶数与奇数的遊戏,赢跟输送什么意思。根据单一的尝试,它根本没有意义。你的回答是否符合你的对方手中所拥有的,跟没有符合,并没有令人惊奇的地方。就一次的尝试而言,它根本没有意义,除了纯粹是传统观念上的赢或输。奇数,偶数,它根本就不具有重要性。

Do remember that the best translation of the odd number is the number two, which rejoices in being odd, and with reason, for if it didn’t have a reason for rejoicing in being odd, it wouldn’t be even either. So, all you have to do is invert this game into the game who loses wins [qui perd gagne], for it to be quite evident that these things are equivalent.

请记住,奇数的最佳翻译是二这个数字,它很欣喜于成为奇数,而且理由充分,因为即使它并没有理由欣喜成为奇数,它也不会是偶数。所以,你们必须做到,就是倒转这个遊戏成为谁输或赢的遊戏,为了让它成为显而易见:这些东西都是相等的。

What is more surprising is losing or winning twice in a row. For if on one go
you have a 50% chance each way, you have only a 2 5% chance of repeating it the second time.

更加令人惊奇的是,在一回合理,输或赢两次。因为假如在一次的尝试,你拥有各百分之五十的机率。第二次,你拥有第二次重复它的百分之二十五的机率。

+ +
– –
+ –
– +

And on the third go, there is only a 12.5% chance of continuing to win or
lose,

在第三次尝试时,仅有12.5 %的机率,继续赢或输。

Moreover, this is purely theoretical. for from then on, I’d like you to see that
we are no longer at all in the domain of the real, but in that of the symbolic
signification which we’ve defined by these plus-minuses and these minus-pluses.

而且,这纯粹是理论,因为从那时开始,我想要你们看出,我们根本不再处于实在界的领域,而是处于符号象征的意义的领域。我们根据这些加减,及这些减加,来定义符号象征的意义。

From the point of view of the real. on each occasion there are as many chances of winning as of losing. The very notion of probability and chance presupposes the introduction of a symbol into the real. It’s a symbol you’re addressing, and your chances bear only on the symbol In the real. At each go, you have as many chances of winning or of losing as on the preceding go. There is no reason why, by a pure fluke, you might not win ten times in a row.

从实在界的观点,在每个场合,赢的机率跟输的机率同样的多。机率与机会的这个观念,预先假设符号象征被介绍到实在界。这是你们正在处理的一个符号象征,你们的机会仅是跟实在界的符号象征有关系。在每次的尝试,跟前一次的尝试,你们拥有同样多的赢跟输的机会。没有理由为什么你不可能纯粹靠运气连续赢十次。

This only begins to have meaning when you write a sign, and as long as you’re not there to write it, there is nothing that can be called a win. The pact of the game is essential to the reality of the experience sought after.

只有当你们书写一个符号时,这才开始拥有意义。只有当你们不在那里书写它,没有一样东西能够被称为是赢。遊戏的规定是很重要的,对于被寻求的经验的现实界。

Now let us see what is going to happen with the machine.

现在,让我们看看对于这个机器,将会发生什么事情。

What’s interesting is that you end up going through the same motions as you
would with a partner. By pushing a button, you ask it a question about a quod
which you have there in your hand, and all this is about knowing what it is.
That already tells you that this quod may perhaps not be reality but a symbol.

有趣的是,你们结果经历这个相同的动作,如同你们跟伴侣经历的动作。你们按一个按钮,问它一个关于无意识主体的问题,你们在手中拥有它。所有这一切都是关于要知道那是什么。那已经告诉你们,这个无意识主体或许并不是现实界,而是一个符号象征。

You are asking the machine a question about a symbol. a machine whose
structure must in fact bear some family resemblance to the symbolic order, and that is precisely why it is a machine for playing, a strategic machine. But let us not go into details.

你们询问机器一个关于符号的问题,事实上,这一台机器的结构,必须类似符号象征的秩序。那确实是为什么这是一台遊戏,一个策略的机器。但是让我们不要去探究细节。

The machine is constructed in such a way that it gives a response. You had
plus in your hand. It gives the answer minus. It lost. The fact that it lost consists
solely in the dissimilarity [dissemblance] of plus and minus.

这台机器以这种方式被建构,它给予一种回应。你们用手按加的按钮,它给予减的回答,它就输了。它输了的这个事实仅是在于加与减的不相类似。

You are obliged to inform the machine that it has lost by inscribing a minus. I
really don’t know whether that is how the machine works. but it’s all the same
to me-there’s no other’ way it can work. and if it does work some other way, it is
equivalent to that.

你们不得不告诉机器,它由于铭记一个减号,它输了。我确实并不知道,是否那就是机器运作的方式。但是对我而言,这仍然一样。它没有别的运作方式。假如它确实用某个其他方式运作,它会跟那个相等。

How on earth can this machine. which in principle should beat me. be put together? Will it play at random? That makes no sense at all. It may well be that for its first three answers it always says the same thing. but that isn’t the point. It is in the succession of its answers that we find the beginnings of the phenomenon。

原则上应该打败我的这种机器,究竟如何能够被装配起来?它将随意运作吗?那根本就没有意义。很有可能的是,对于它的前三次的回答,它总是说相同的事情,但是那并不是重点。就在它的回答的连续当中,我们找到这个现象的开始。

Let us suppose that at the start the machine is really stupid – it really doesn’t
matter in the least whether it is stupid or intelligent, since being stupid is the
height of intelligence. Let us say that, to begin with, it always answers the same thing.

让我们假设,在开始时,机器确实很愚笨—机器上愚笨或是聪明,确实根本就不重要,因为愚笨是智慧的最高点。让我们说,起初,机器总是回答相同的事情。

It so happens that I, who am intelligent, say plus. As it still answers me
minus. it puts me on the right track. I say to myself – the machine must be a bit
slow – I could just as well tell myself the contrary – and in actual fact let us
suppose that it loses again.

恰巧的是,我,作为聪明者,说加。当它回答我减时,它让我们处于正确的轨道。 我对我自己说,这台机器一定有点缓慢。我同样有理由告诉我自己相反的话—实际上,让我们假定,它再一次输。

This is where the fact that we have had several gos must necessarily come
into the construction of my machine. Here another section of the machine
starts coming into play. recording the fact that it has lost three times – I’m not
sure of that. but I can assume it. Besides. as I am very intelligent. but
nonetheles,not as intelligent as all that, I can suppose that the machine quite
stupidly changes and that it’s me that is a bit slow on this occasion. This time
the machine wins.

这就是我们曾经有好几次的尝试,这个事实必须放进我的机器的结构里。在此,这台机器的另外一个部分开始运作,记录这个事实: 它已经输了三次。我并不确定那件事情,但是我能够假设它。除外,因为我非常聪慧,可是又没有聪慧到那个程度。我能够假设,这台机器非常愚笨地改变。在这个场合,是我比较缓慢。这一次,机器赢了。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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