Object 22

Object 22

The Object of Psychoanalysis
精神分析的对象

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

15.6.66 XXII 49
Seminar 4: Wednesday 22 December 1965

IV – IDENTITY AND NON-IDENTITYTO ONESELF: THE DEATH DRIVE

IV. 认同与非认同自己:死亡冲动

The signifier reveals the subject while effacing its trace, says Lacan. It is here, I
believe, that there is situated the divorce with all non-psychoanalytic structuralist
thinking: in the visible/invisible opposition, in the perceived/ known opposition, we
bring into play the order of truth, but in so far as this truth always passes by way of the problem of the effacing of the trace.

能指显示主体,当它抹除它的痕迹,拉康说。 就在这里,我相信,这这个分离被定位在这里,跟一切所有非精神分析的结构主义,他们以可见与不可见的对立,及可感觉与可知道的对立等方式来思考。我们运作真理的这个秩序,但是因为这个真理总是凭借抹除痕迹的问题来通过。

Freud says in Moses and monotheism (1938): “In its consequences, the distortion of a
text is like a murder, the difficulty is not to commit the act but to get rid of its traces”.
Now, it is this process which, starting from traces, makes it possible to go back to
their cause in which we find the very process of paternity.

弗洛伊德在1938年的「摩西与一神教」说到:「在它的结果,对于文本的扭曲就像谋杀。困难之处不在于犯下这个罪行,而是要抹除它的痕迹。」现在,就是这个过程,从各种痕迹开始,让我们回溯它们的原因成为可能。在这个原因里,我们发现父权的这个过程。

In Moses and monotheism, again, taking up a remark already made at the time of the Ratman, he recalls that maternity is revealed by the senses while paternity is a conjecture based on deductions and hypotheses. The fact of having thus given priority to cogitative processes over sensorial perception “was heavy with consequences for humanity”.

而且,在「摩西与一神教」,从事一种在「鼠人」的时候已经开始的谈论,弗洛伊德提醒: 虽然父权是一种根据推论及假设的推想,母权则是凭借感官而显示出来。因此将认知的过程,给予优先顺序,超过感官的感觉,对于人类而言,这个事实形成各种的结果。

I point out here that if Freud established a very close link between the phallus and
castration, between sexual curiosity and procreation, it seems curious to me that he
never in an explicit fashion related the role of the phallus in procreation, in the child‟s
desire for a child or in sexual curiosity.

我在此指出,假如弗洛伊德建立一个紧密的关联,处于阳具与阉割之间,处于性的好奇与繁殖后代之间,我觉得耐人寻味的是,他从来没有以一种明确的方式,描述阳具在繁殖后代,在小孩的欲望小孩,或是在性的好奇,扮演的角色。

What functions as cause in the subject (in the search for truth in so far as it is a
question of origins, a relationship to the begetter) functions as Law at the socio-anthropological level. Here also the combinatorial only comes into action through the compulsion of a rule.

作为主体的原因,发挥功用的东西,( 在对于真理的追求,因为这是起源的问题,跟父亲的关系),在社会与人类学的层次,发挥功用,作为法则。在此,这个组合也仅是通过一种规则的驱动,才开始运作。

To the prohibition of incest, the interdiction to the sight and to the knowledge of all
which removes the mother and the sister from choice in order to designate other
objects in their place, there is added the funeral ritual which establishes the presence
of the absent one, of the dead Father.

对于乱伦的禁忌,禁止看见及知道一切将母亲与姐妹从选择移除掉的事情,为了指明其他客体代替他们,这个葬礼仪式被增加,这个葬礼仪式建立这个缺席者的存在,死去的父亲的存在。

A double process, let us note, of cutting and of suturing. Among the living, a cutting off of the mother and a suturing by her substitutes, among the dead a suturing of the disappearance of the father by the ritual or the totem which is consecrated to him, a cutting off from him through the inaccessible beyond where he henceforth holds himself.

让我们注意到切割与缝合的双重过程。在生者当中,母亲的被切割,然后以她的代用品缝合。而在死者当中,用奉献给他的仪式与图腾,让父亲消失的缝合,然后通过这个不可接近界,跟他切割,他因此在这个不可接近界,拥有他自己。

We have here a striking example of the cut between Lévi-Strauss and Freud which is
illustrated in an unexpected encounter.

我们在此有一个生动的这个切割的例子,处于列文、史特劳斯与弗洛伊德之间的这个切割,从用不期而遇来说明。

In connection with the mask Lévi-Strauss insists on its function as being at once
negative (of dissimulation) and positive (the accession to another world). But what
seems to be involved for him is a homology, a correspondence such that in this twofaced reality nothing is in any way lost on the way. One might pose the question :

关于这个面具,列文、史特劳斯坚持它的功用,作为既是(属于欺骗的)负面,又是(进入另外一个世界的)的正面。但是对于他而言,似乎被牵涉的东西,是一种同质性,一种一致性,以致于在这个两面脸孔的现实界,在途中,没有一样东西丧失。我们可以提出这个问题:

“What is it that necessitates dissimulation, what is it that requires this two-planed
structure?”

是什么让欺骗成为必需要?是什么要求这个结构要具有两个层面?

Lévi-Strauss speaks about a mask (Hamshamtses) among the Kwakiutl Indians made
up of several articulated shutters which allows there to be unveiled, to be “unmasked”
(sic) the human face of a God hidden under the outer form of a crow. We are in
agreement with him in concluding “that one masks not in order to suggest, but finally
in order to unveil”, now when this mask is deployed it makes appear the human face
in what could be taken to be the back of crow‟s throat.

列文、史特劳斯谈论到,科瓦丘族的印度人用好几层连接的帘幕制成的一种面具,隐藏在乌鸦的外在形状之下,容许神祗的人类脸孔被揭露,被揭开「面具」。我们同样他的这个结论: 「我们用面具遮蔽,不是为了暗示,而是最后为了揭露。」现在,当这个面具被运用时,它让人类的脸孔出现,,以被人认为是乌鸦的喉咙的背后。

We do not have to force the facts very much to say that the figure presented here makes there appear the four semi-halves of the beak (two upper ones and two lower ones) as the four members of a character whose trunk is represented by the face of a God. The analogy between this representation and the one Freud notes in an extremely short text – A mythological parallel to a visual obsession – is striking. He describes in it an obsessional representation which haunts the patient under the name Vater Arsch in which there is imagined a character constituted by a trunk and the lower part of this, its four members, with the genital organs missing and the head, the face drawn on the stomach.

我们并不需要用力强迫这些事实说:在此被呈现的这个人物,让乌鸦嘴的四个两半(上面两半及下面两半)出现,作为一个人物的四个成员。他的身躯由神祗的脸孔代表。耐人寻味的是这种类比,处于这个再现,与弗洛伊德在一篇极端短的文本注意到的再现之间:「视觉偏执狂的神话对照。」他在里面描述一种偏执狂的再现,以「父亲的躯体」的名义,萦绕著病人。在这里,一个人物被想象成为是由一个身躯及身躯的下面部位,它的四个成员组成,性器官不见了,头部,脸孔则是缩在腹部那里。

And Freud concludes to the link between the Vater Arsch the father‟s arse, and the
patriarch, this subject possessing of course a quite filial veneration for the author of
his days, like any obsessional.

弗洛伊德的结论则是将这个「父亲的躯体」及父权连接成一块。当然,这个主体拥有一个相当孝顺的尊敬,对于他当代的作者,就像任何的偏执狂。

It seems to me that what Lévi-Strauss misses is this sacrifice of the head and of the
genital organs represented by the Kwakiutal mask which goes beyond the relationship
of what is shown to what is hidden but reveals a relationship of the unveiled to the
effaced, to the barred, to the lack.

我觉得,列文、史特劳斯所忽略的是,科瓦丘族人的面具所代表的头跟性器官的牺牲,远超过所被显示与所被隐藏之间的这个层关系。这个面具显示所被遮蔽与所被抹除,所被划槓禁止,所欠缺之间的关系。

The cause of desire is here. The metonymy is highlighted by Freud in the representation of the substitutive body for the lack of one of its parts, the genitals. All of this takes on its value because it exposes to us the interest taken by Freud at the end of his life in Moses, not simply because of his quality as a Jew, but also because monotheism appears there to be closely linked to the interdiction of idolatry and to the total effacing of every sign of the presence of God otherwise then under the form of names of the father (Yahve, Elohim, Adonai). Let us note here again the duplication of the non-identity to oneself.

欲望的原因就在此。弗洛伊德强调的这个换喻,在于再现身体代替它其中一个部位,也就是性器官的欠缺。所有这一切,具有它的价值,因为它将弗洛伊德在他的晚年,对于摩西感到的興趣揭露给我们。不仅是因为他作为犹太人的特质,而且因为一神教出现在那里,跟偶像的禁止,跟神祗的存在的每个迹象的抹除息息相关。其它则是以父亲的各种名义的形式之下,(雅维、阿罗席、阿顿奈)。让我们在此再次注意到,非认同与自己的复制/

The work of the death drive which always operates in silence can be noted in this
reduction – the word is to be taken in all its dimensions – which forces itself always to
reach this point of absence where the subject rejoins its dependency on the Other, to
identify itself to its own effacing. The mutation of the signifier, its epiphany in its
polymorphous and distributed shapes, indicates the startled response that it intends to
oppose – as in the dream – to this annihilation and the effort to which it perdures
profoundly disguised and modified, as a witness.

在这个还原里,总是默默运作的死亡冲动发挥的功用能够被注意到,(字词应该从它所有的维度来看待)。死亡冲动强迫它自己,总是为了到达欠缺的这个点。在这里,主体重新加入对于大他者的依靠,将它自己认同于对他自己的抹除。 能指的这个变种,它的多样形态及分布的形状的神性显现,指示著它打算要反对的这个感到惊吓的回应,(如同在梦里),回应这个毁灭,与它以深刻伪装与修正的持续的努力,作为见证者。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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