Object 21

Object 21

The Object of Psychoanalysis
精神分析的对象

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

15.6.66 XXII 49
Seminar 4: Wednesday 22 December 1965

B – The problem of the differential distribution of the mode of representation

B. 再现的模式的不同分配的问题

Another type of differentiation interests us here, that of representations of words and
representations of things, a distinction which is not contingent. I am only recalling
this, which is already known, in order to put forward that: if there is a theory of the
signifier in Freud it cannot avoid passing through the perceived. This is tangible in
the organisation of discourse. In the narrative of the analysand, the secondary
elaboration of the dream, the present or revived phantasy, the image are renewed
testimonies to it in the text of our sessions. The question is whether all of this is really
of the order of the perceived.

另外一种差异让我们在此感到興趣,文字再现与冲动的再现的差异性。这种区别并非偶然性。我仅是提醒已经是众所周知的这件区别,为了提出:在弗洛伊德,假如有能指的理论,它无法避免要经历受到感觉者的这个阶段。在论述的组织,这是具体可见的。在分析者的叙事里,梦到第二次建构,在我们谘商的文本,目前或是苏醒的幻见,意象是梦的重新呈现的证词。

This representative of representation shows that one cannot reduce its status to that of
perception. Let us note once again that it is never a question of a presentation but of a
representation. The perceived only represents the point of fascination, the centring
effort of specularisation as Lacan would say. What allows a functioning at the level of
zero, is of the order of the subject, but what is going to emerge and take the place of
the one is here the o-object, on condition that one considers it in this differential
distribution, where the non-identity to itself is manifested in this disparity.

这种再现的代表显示, 我们无法将它的地位还原成为感觉的地位。让我们再一次注意,这从来就不是呈现的问题,而是再现的问题。受到感觉者仅是再现著迷的这个点,自我理想魅影化的核心努力,如拉康所言。容许在零度的层次发挥功用,是属于主体的秩序,但是所正要出现及代替这个自我理想的魅影化的,在此是这个小客体,只要我们认为它,在这个差异的分配。在那里,这个对于它自己的非认同,在这个差异性里,被证明出来。

The economic point of view is illustrated here not simply by being put in question
when it is a matter of the quantitative evaluation of the processes, but because it can
be identified in this differential distribution. It is the damming effect which weighs on
discourse which compels not alone the combinatorial, but again the changes of
register, of materials and of the modes of representation of the signifier. These
mutations have as object the accentuation of non-identity to itself not alone in the
resurgence of the signifier but in its metonymical metamorphoses. The metaphor is
infiltrated even into the metonymical enchaining.

生命力的观点在此被说明,不仅是由于受到质疑,当问题是过程的数量的评估,而且是因为它能够用差异的分配被辨明。就是这个该死的影响沉重地压在论述上面。这个论述不仅是驱迫著这种组合,而且再一次驱迫著能指的铭记,材料,及再现模式的改变。这些变种拥有非认同于它自己的强调,作为客体,不仅在能指的复兴,而且在能指的换喻的蜕变。比喻甚至被渗透到换喻的意符锁链里。

It is not for nothing that Freud opposes two systems: what functions at the level of the
one is the identity of perceptions and in the other the identity of thoughts. It is in so
far as both have a relationship with truth that they form part of our concepts. But the
disturbing and fascinating point comes from the fact that perception can be seen as a
field of identity while identity operates there in accordance with a register which is not that of the perceived.

这并非毫无意义,弗洛伊德让两个系统对立。在前者的层次发挥功用的是各种感觉到认同,后者则是各种思想的认同。因为两者都具有跟真理的关系,它们形成我们的观念的部分。但是这个令人困扰,令人着迷的要点来自这个事实:感官能够被视为是一种认同的领域,而认同在那里运作,依照并不是受到感觉者铭记的铭记。

It is this identity which abolishes difference as sustained by lack and which finds itself
being materialised in the perceived, in the same way as the identity of thoughts in the
order of thinking only become operational after the loss of the object.

就是这种认同废弃了由欠缺所维持的差异。这种认同发现它自己在受感觉者那里被具体化,就像在思维的秩序,思想的认同仅有在客体的丧失之后,它才开始运作。

Lacan did not seem to me to be quite right to have so severely criticised the works
dealing with negative hallucinations.

我觉得拉康并不是完全正确,对于处理负面幻觉的著作,如此严厉地批判。

At the very most one can only deplore their imprecise reference points. If negative hallucination is this emergence of the zero in so far as it has absolutely nothing to do with representation, is of the order of the representative of representation. Its value is to give support to the notion of aphanisis which has played such an important role for Lacan after Jones.

充其量,我们仅能够哀叹它们不是很明确的指称点。假如负面幻觉就是零度的这个出现,因为它跟再现绝对没有关系,它是属于再现的代表的秩序。它的价值是要给予支持,对于「主体消失」的观念。对于追随琼斯的拉康,这个「主体消失」扮演一个重要的角色。

One must also remember the alternative picked out by Lacan in Jones‟ work on
feminine sexuality, whose importance is probably greater: either the object, or the
desire. Negative hallucination would thus give the model of a subjective structure in
so far as it implies the mourning of the object and the advent of a negated subject thus
rendered apt for desire.

我们必须也记得拉康挑选的替代选择,在琼斯的「对于女人的性的研究」,这个研究的重要性可能更大,无论是客体,或是欲望。负面的幻觉因此将会给予一个主观性的结构模式,因为它暗示着客体的哀悼,及一个被否定,因此倾向于欲望的主体的来临。

Might one not recall here that the first modes of representation of the subject – the first i(o) – is precisely the product of a representation that is homologous with negative hallucination: the negative hand of the artist appearing in the contour of the painting which delimits its shape.

在此我们难道不是要提醒?主体的再现的最初模式,最初的自我理想的魅影,确实就是跟负面幻觉同质性的再现。艺术家的负面的手,出现在图画的轮廓里,这种轮廓除掉它的形状的限制。

One sees then how the phantasy is placed, since it is the function that Lacan assigns to it of rendering pleasure apt for desire. Here then there appears a form of emergence of a subject which escapes the annihilation of the signifying power in aphanisis, since the negative hallucination manages to be produced but as a specular lack. It seems to me to be the inaugural relationship of narcissistic identification in the sense conceived by Freud as a relationship to the mourning of the primordial object. It is the meeting
point of the cut and of the suture.

我们因此看出,这个幻见如何被摆置,因为拉康指定将倾向于欲望的快乐的诠释功用给它。因此在此,一个主体的出现的形态出现,这个主体逃避在「主体消失」时能指化的力量的消灭。因为这个负面的幻觉成功地被产生,仅是作为自我理想魅影的欠缺。我觉得,这是自恋的认同的开始的关系,弗洛伊德构想为对于原初的客体的哀悼的关系。这是切割与缝合的会合点。

It becomes clear that this process is the same as the one which grounds desire as the
desire of the Other, since mourning is interposed in the relationship of the subject to
the Other and of the subject to the object.

显而易见地,这个过程跟将欲望作为大他者的欲望的基础不谋而合。因为哀悼介入于主体跟大他者之间的关系,与主体跟这个客体之间的关系。

If the (o) operates between all these forms (one could say that it plays with the
fascination of the perceived in running through these registers), it is indeed because it
is, not as perceived, but as the trajectory of the subject, the circuit of discourse. I will
give an example of it taken from Othello. In Othello it is the handkerchief which
might appear as (o).

假如这个小客体,运作与所有的这些形式之间,(我们能够说,当彻底运作这些铭记时,它玩搞被感觉者的著迷),这确实是因为它不是作为被感觉者,而是作为主体的投射,真理论述的迴圈。我将给予从莎士比亚的「奥赛罗」取来的一个例子。在「奥赛罗」的悲剧,手帕出现作为小客体。

In fact it is here that we are witnesses to the fascination effort of the perceived, the truth is that it is not so much the handkerchief which is important as the circuit that it goes through from the magician who gave it to Othello‟s mother or her father (both versions are in Othello) until it ends up on the bed of Bianca, the whore, in order finally to reveal Othello to his desire, “my mother is a whore”. This must be demonstrated with the help of knowledge, for Othello like every jealous person wants an avowal more than the truth.

事实上,就在这里,我们见证到被感觉者的著迷的努力。真理是:重要的并不是手帕,它所经历的迴圈,从这位魔术家将它给予奥赛罗的母亲或她的父亲(奥赛罗有两种剧本),直到手帕结果出现在毕安卡的床上,这位妓女,最后为了显示奥赛罗看到他的欲望,「我的母亲是一位妓女」。这必须凭借知识才能被证明。因为奥赛罗,就像每一位妒忌的人,想要的是宣誓忠贞,而不是真理。

Is this not the way then that one must listen to his soliloquy, when he enters the
nuptial chamber where he is going to kill Desdemona to make of her wedding night a
night of mourning.

那么,这难道不是这种方式,我们必须倾听他的独白,当他进入婚姻的洞房,在那里,他将要杀死德丝底梦娜,为了要将她的结婚之夜,形成是哀悼之夜。

“It is the cause, it is the cause my soul
Let me not name it to you, you chaste stars.
It is the cause.”
(Act 5, Scene 2.)

「就是这个原因,这个原因,我的灵魂
让我不要跟你提的它,你们贞洁的星辰
就是这个原因。」

The function of the cause is here what orders the indubitable perception of his
mother‟s handkerchief in the hands of a whore.

原因的功用在此就是规范他的母亲的手帕,在一位妓女的手中,那种无可置疑的感觉。

Freud underlines in An outline of psychoanalysis that we live in the hope that with a
refining of our instruments of perception we may finally accede to certainty about the
sensible world. In fact he accentuates once more the affirmation that reality is
unknowable and that we can only allow ourselves a deduction of the truth from the
connections and the interdependencies existing between different orders of the
perceived. This is obviously to affirm the pre-eminence of the symbolic, if it were
needed.

弗洛伊德在「精神分析的轮廓」强调,我们生活在这个希望当中:凭借我们的感觉的各种工具的精炼,我们最后可能会同意关于可理解世界的这种确定性。事实上,他再一次强调这个肯定:现实界是不可知晓的,我们仅能容许我们,根据存在于被感觉的事物的不同秩序之间,那些连接与互相依靠,来从事真理的推论。

But his originality was to introduce at the level of the perceived an order, an
organisation, which allows him to get out of the dilemma of appearance and reality, in
order to substitute for it that of the ideal (Idealfunktion) and the truth, this couple
functioning moreover in the order of the perceived and of the thought. The confusion
repeated more than once between the symbol and the symbolic ought to make us more
attentive not to take one for the other.

但是他的原创性,是要在被感觉到事物里,介绍一种秩序,一种组织,让他能够逃脱这个表象与现实界的困境,为了用理想与真理的困境代替它。而且,理想与真理的这双重功用,属于被感觉事物与思想的秩序。这种混淆不仅一次地重复在符号与符号象征之间,应该让我们更加小心,不要将前者看待成为后者。

What then becomes then of the o-object? It exists as a structure of transformation
where the object of desire takes on a new mutation in which it is the desire that
becomes the object. Through what operation is the cross-checking (recoupement)
through the non-identity to themselves of these enumerated forms accomplished? I
think that one can grasp them in accordance with the two major axes of synchrony and diachrony taking Freud‟s theorisation as a reference.

那么,这个小客体发生什么事呢?它存在作为一个转变的结构。在那里,欲望的客体形成一种新的变种。在这新的变种里,欲望成为客体。通过怎样的运作,这个交互检视被完成呢?通过对于这些被列举的形态的不认同它们自己。我认为,我们能够理解它们,依照同时性与历时性的这两个主要的枢纽,它们将弗洛伊德的理论化,作为一种指称。

1 – In the axis of synchrony we have a series formed by thoughts in so far as they are
thoughts of the unconscious (and where it is necessary to distinguish between
representations of words and representations of things), affects (as secondary
signifiers) and two other categories which it seems to me must come into
consideration in so far as we observe them in the analytic situation and not outside it;

其一,这同时性的枢纽,我们拥有由思想形成的一连串,因为它们是无意识的思想 (在那里,文字的再现与冲动的再现需要被区别出来),情感(作为次级的能指),及其他两个范畴,我觉得它们必须被考虑到,因为我们观察它们,是在精神分析的情境里面,而不是在情境的外面。

I am thinking about states of one‟s own body – depersonalisation or hypochondria,
etc…- and all the manifestations which relate to what the English authors call
paraparaxes as expressions of the register of the act (acting-in and not acting-out).

我正在思考我们的身体的状态—除掉个体化,或是忧郁症,等等,以及跟英国作者所谓的「口误」息息相关的证明,作为是这个行动的铭记 (在里面的演出,而非是外面的演出)。

2 – But we can also map out another series on the axis of diachrony which is the axis
of the succession of oral anal phallic objects etc… I wonder whether the scopic object
and the auditory object that Lacan brings into this register gain from being included in
this series and whether they do not rather form part of the register of transmission
between synchrony and diachrony that one can pick out in discourse in the diverse
forms of the dream and its secondary elaboration, of phantasy, of memory, of
reminiscence, in short of all the ways which make synchrony and diachrony function.

其二、根据历时性,我们也能够描绘出另外一个系列。这个历时性是口腔、肛门、阳具,等客体的连续性枢纽。我想要知道,拉康带进这个铭记的这个视觉的客体及听觉的客体,是否由于被包括在这个系列里,而被获得。它们是否不会形成同时性与历时性之间的传递的铭记的部分。在梦与其次要的建构的形态,幻见,记忆,回忆的形态,总之,让同时性与历时性发挥功用的所有的方式。我们在论述里能够挑选出同时性与历时性。

It is upon this sampling that there operates the creation of the o-object in which desire
becomes the object and accounts for subjective positions. This non-identity to oneself
which the blank images is linked for me to the processes of the effacing of the trace.

这个小客体的创造,就是根据这个同时性与历时性的样本在运作。在那里,欲望成为客体,并且解释主体的各种立场。这种非认同于我们自己,对于我而言,这些空洞的意象,跟这个痕迹的抹除的过程息息相关。

This is what compels this system to be transformed.

这是驱迫这个系统被转变的原因。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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