The Psychoses 21

The Psychoses
精神病患
Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

IV

3
After having looked at speech, we shall now take a quick look at language, to which the triple division of the symbolic, the imaginary, and the real appropriately applies.
Certainly, the care Saussure took to eliminate considerations of motor articulation from his analysis of language clearly shows that he discerns its autonomy.9

已经观看言说之后,我们现在将迅速地观看语言。符号界,想象界,实在界的三重区分可适当地运用到语言上。的确,索绪尔相当费心将动力表达的考虑,从他对于语言的分析减少出去,这种费心清楚地显示:他觉察到语言的自主性。

Concrete discourse is real language, and language speaks [le langage, qa park]. The registers of the symbolic and the imaginary recur in the two other terms in which he expresses the structure of language, namely, the signified and the signifier.

具体的论述是真实的语言,并且语言会言说。符号界与想象界的铭记,重新发生在其他两个述要。他表达语言的结构在这两个其他术语,换句话说:所指与能指。

The signifying material, such as I am always telling you it is, for example on this table, in these books, is the symbolic. If artificial languages are stupid it is because they are constructed on the basis of meaning. Someone recently reminded me of the forms of deduction that rule over Esperanto and which are such that once one knows ax one can deduce caw, heifer, veakr, and whatever else one wants to.

能指化的材料,譬如我总是在告诉你们的,例如,在这个表格,在这些书,都是符号界。假如人为的语言是愚笨的,那是因为它们是根据意义的基础被建构。最近有某人提醒我,规范「万国语」的推论的形式。内容如下:一旦我们知道ox (牛),我们就能推论出cow (母牛),heifer (小牛),vealer( 小牛肉),以及其他我们想要知道的东西。

And I asked him how one says, Death to the bastards!10 – this must be deducible from Lang live the king! This alone suffices to refute the existence of artificial languages, which attempt to model themselves on meaning, this as a rule being the reason why they are unused.

我就问他我们如何说:「该死的私生子!」–这个一定可从「国王万岁!」推论出来。光是这个就足够反驳人为语言的存在。它们企图自己模拟意义,通常这就是这个理由,为什么它们没有被使用。

And then there is meaning, which always refers to meaning. Of course, the signifier may be caught up therein as soon as you give it a meaning, as soon as you create another signifier as signifier, something in this function of meaning. This is why it’s possible to speak of language.

然后,再有意义的问题。它总是提到意义。当然,能指可能被套限在里面,只要你一给予它意义,只要你一创造另外一个能指充当能指,某件具有意义的功用的东西。这就是为什么言说语言是可能的。

But the signifier-signified division will always reproduce itself. There’s no doubt that meaning is by nature imaginary. Meaning is, like the imaginary, always in the end
evanescent, for it is tightly bound to what interests you, that is, to that in which you are ensnared.

但是能指与所指的区分,总是会复制它自己。无可置疑的,意义的特性是想象。意义,就像想象界,总是最后会处于逐渐消失。因为意义跟你感到興趣的东西息息相关。换句话说,跟你们被套陷的东西息息相关。

You would know that hunger and love are the same thing, you would be like any animal, truly motivated. But owing to the existence of the signifier your personal little meaning – which is also absolutely heart-breakingly generic, human all too human – leads you much further.

你们将会知道,饥饿与爱情被激发的情况是相同的事情,你们就像动物一样。但是由于能指的存在,你们的个人的小意义—那也是绝对是令人伤心地人性化,人性,太过人性地引导你们更加深入。

Since there is this damned system of the signifier, such that you have not yet been able to understand either how it came to be there, how it came to exist, what purpose it serves, or where it is leading you, it is what leads you away.

因为有这个该死的能指的系统,以致于你们还不能够了解能指如何开始存在,它充当什么目的,或是它引导你们去哪里,它引导你们离开。

When he speaks, the subject has the entire material of language at his disposal, and this is where concrete discourse begins to be formed. Firstly, there is a synchronic whole, which is language as a simultaneous system of structured groups of opposition, then there is what occurs diachronically, over time, and which is discourse. One cannot but give discourse a certain direction in time, a direction that is defined in a linear manner, M. de Saussure tells us.11

当他言说时,主体拥有语言的完全材料可使用。这就是具体论述开始被形成的地方。首先,有这个共时性的整体,语言作为对立的结构团体的同时的系统。然后还有历时性发生的语言,随着时间过去,会有论述产生。我们禁不住会给论述某个在时间中的方向,一种方向以直线方式被定义。索绪尔先生告诉我们。

I leave the responsibility for that statement with him. Not that I believe it to be false – it is basically true that there is no discourse without a certain temporal order, and consequently without a certain concrete succession, even if it is a virtual one.

我留下这个责任给对于他的那个陈述。不是因为我相信那是虚假的。基本上这是真实,没有一种论述不是具有某种时间的秩序。结果,一定会带有某种具体的连续性,即使它是虚拟的论述。

If I read this page starting from the bottom reading up, backwards, the effect won’t be the same as if I read it in the right direction, and in certain cases this may give rise to an extremely serious confusion. But it is not quite exact to say that it is a simple line, it is more probably a set of several lines, a stave. It is in this diachronism that discourse is set up.

假如我阅读这一页,从底端往上阅读,倒退着阅读,效果不会是一样,好像我阅读它,朝著正确的方向。在某些的情况,这可能会产生一种极端严重的混淆。但是说语言是一条简单的直线,也未必完全正确。更有可能的,语言是一组好几条直线,像五线谱那样。论述就是以这种历时性被建立。

The signifier as existing synchronically is sufficiently characterized in delusional
talk by a modification I’ve already pointed out here, namely that certain elements become isolated, laden, take on a value, a particular force of inertia, become charged with meaning, with a meaning and nothing more. Schreber’s book is overflowing with them.

能指作为历时性的存在,由在此我已经指出的一个修正的幻觉的谈话,充分地表现特征。换句话说,某些的要素变成孤立,沉重,形成价值,一种特别的墮性力量,载负著意义,载负意义之外,别无他物。首席法官苏瑞伯的书,就是充溢着这些的意义。

Take a word such as Nervenankang, for example, nerve-contact, a word of the fundamental language. Schreber discerns perfectly well which words have come to him through inspiration, precisely by way of the Nervenanhang, which have been repeated to him in their elective meaning which he does not always understand terribly well.

譬如「Nervenankang,」这个字为例。它是脑神经的突触,基本语言的一种字词。苏瑞伯清楚地觉察到,哪些字词是通过灵感来到他那里,确实是凭借脑神经突触。这些字词曾经对他反复陈述,但是他并未必清楚了解这些字词被选择的意义。

Seelenmord, soul murder, for example, is another of these words, which is problematic for him, but which he knows has a particular sense. Nevertheless, he talks about all this in a discourse that is indeed our own, and his book, it must be said, is remarkably written, clear, and natural.

譬如,「灵魂的谋杀」就是另外一个这些字词之一。那对他而言是问题重重。但是他知道这个字词具有特别的意义。可是,谈论所有这一切,在一种确实是我们的论述里。我们必须说,他的书文情并茂,自然通顺。

Moreover, he is as coherent as are many philosophical systems of our time, where we constantly see somebody suddenly get stung, at a detour on the path, by a tarantula that makes him regard Bovaryism and duration as the key to the world and reconstruct the entire world around this notion, without one’s knowing why it is this one that he has gone and picked out.

而且,他跟许多我们当代的哲学系统互相一致。在那里,我们不断看见某个人突然被大蜘蛛刺到,在这个途径的迂回处。这隻大蜘蛛强迫他将世俗享乐及存活期间,当著是世界的关键,并且环绕这个观念,重新建构整个世界,自己却不知道为什么他要走这条途径及挑选这条途径。

I do not see how Schreber’s system is of any less value than those of philosophers
whose general theme I’ve just profiled. And what Freud remarks at the end of his study is that this character has written some amazing things that resemble what I, Freud, have described.

我并不明白,苏瑞伯系统,如何会比我刚刚描绘轮廓的一般主题的哲学家的系统的价值来得低。弗洛伊德在研究苏瑞伯个案后谈论说:这个人物曾经写了某些令人叹为观止的东西,类似我弗洛伊德所描述的。

This book, then, written in ordinary discourse, signals the words that for the subject have taken on such a particular weight. Let’s call this erotization, and let’s avoid explanations that are too simple. When the signifier finds itself charged thus, the subject is perfectly well aware of it.

因此,这本书,以普通的论述书写,指明这些字词给具有特别份量的主体。让我们称这个为色情化,让我们避免过于简单的解释。当这个能指发现它自己载负这些意义,主体很清楚地知道它。

The moment Schreber employs the term instance to define the various forces articulated in the world he is implicated in – he also has his little instances – he says, Instance, that is mine. The others didn’t say it to me, it is my normal discourse.12

当苏瑞伯一开始使用「瞬间」这个术语,来定义他被牵涉在内的世界,所被表达的各种的力量,他也拥有他的微小的瞬间。他说,「瞬间,属于我的瞬间。其他的人没有跟我说到这个瞬间,那是我的正常的论述。」

What happens at the level of meaning? The insult is always a rupture in the system of language, just as words of love are. Whether or not Sow! Is charged with obscure meaning, and probably it is, we already have here an indication of this dissociation.

在意义的层次,发生什么事情?这种侮辱总是语言的系统的一种断裂,正如爱的字词一样。「母猪!」这个字词,无论是否载负下流的意义,可能它载负著,我们在此已经拥有这种分裂的指示。

This meaning, like all meaning worthy of the name, refers to another meaning. It is indeed what here characterizes the allusion. In saying, I’ve just been to the butcher’s, the patient points out to us that it refers to another meaning. Naturally, it is a bit oblique, she would prefer it was I who understand. .

这个意义,就像名符其实的所有的意义,提到另外一个意义。这确实是表现间接暗示的特征。当病人说:「我刚刚去过屠夫的店」,他跟我们指出,它提到另外一个意义。当然,它有一点拐弯抹角,她是希望我了解。

Beware those who say to you – You understand. It is always so as to send you somewhere else than where it is a question of going. That’s what she’s doing. You understand perfectly well, this means that she herself isn’t very sure of the meaning, and that the latter refers not so much to a system of continuous and reconcilable meaning as to meaning as ineffable, to the meaning of’ her own reality, to her own personal fragmentation.

请注意那些跟你谈话的人说:「你了解」。它总是为了送你到某个其他地方,而不是去那里的问题。那就是她所正在做的。「你很清楚地了解」。这意味着,她自己并不确定这个意义。后者与其说是提到一种连续而和谐的意义的系统,不如说是提到无法言喻的意义,提到属于她自己的现实界的意义,提到她自己的个人的碎片。

And then there is the real, the well and truly real articulation, the other’s sleight of hand. Real speech, I mean speech that is expressed, appears at another point of the field, not just at any point, but at that of the other, the puppet, as an element of the external world.

然后,还有这个实在界,这个实实在在的真实表达,小他者灵巧的手腕。真实的言说,我的意思是被表达的言说,出现在这个领域的另外一点,不仅是在任何点,而是在小他者的那个点,木偶,作为这个外在世界的一个要素。

The big S whose medium is speech, analysis warns us, is not what a vain people thinks it is.13 There is the real person who is before you and who takes up space – there is this in the presence of human beings, they take up space, at a pinch you can get ten of you into your office, but not a hundred and fifty- there is he whom you see, who manifestly captivates you and is capable of making you jump up and hug him – an ill-considered act of the imaginary order.

这个大的主体的媒介是言说。精神分析警告我们,这个大的主体并不是一种虚荣的人们以为他的样子。有一个真实的人在你面前,并且佔据空间。在人类的面前,有这么一个真实的人,他们佔据空间。你只要压一下,就有十几个你们这样的人,进入你们的办公室,但不是一百五十。你们看到这个他显而易见地迷住你,并且能够让你跳起来拥抱他,这是想象界的秩序胡思乱想的行径。

And then there is the Other whom we were talking about, who is the subject also, but not the reflection of what you see in front of you, and not simply what takes place insofar as you see yourself seeing yourself.

然后,有我们正在谈论的这个大他者。他也是这个主体,但并不是你们看到在你们面前的主体的反映。那不仅是发生的事情,因为你看到你自己看见你自己。

If what I am saying is not true, then Freud said nothing true, for this is what the unconscious means.

假如我正在谈论的并不真实,那么弗洛伊德说的就没有一样真实。因为这是无意识的意思。

There are several possible othernesses, and we shall see how they manifest themselves in a complete delusion like Schreber’s. First there are day and night, the sun and the moon, those things that always return to the same place, which Schreber calls the natural world order.14

他者可能有好几个,我们将会看到,他们如何展现他们自己,在诸如苏瑞伯的他者的完整幻觉里。首先,有日与夜,太阳与月亮,那些总是回到相同的地方的东西,苏瑞伯称为自然世界的秩序。

There is the otherness of the Other that corresponds to the S, that is, the big Other, the subject who is unknown to us, the Other who is symbolic by nature, the Other one addresses oneself to beyond what one sees. In between there are objects.

还有大他者的他者对应着这个主体,换句话,这个大他者,不被我们认识的主体。这个大他者在本质上说符号象征,我们自己跟他对谈的大他者,超越我们所看见的。在大他者与主体中间,有许多小客体。

And then, at the level of the S, there is something that is of the dimension of the imaginary, the ego and the body, whether fragmented or not, but more fragmented
than not.

然后,在主体的层次,有某件东西属于想象界,自我与身体的维度,它们非常零人,无论它们是否真的零碎。

I shall leave you there for today. This analysis of structure begins what I shall speak to you about next time.

今天我将在那里告一段落。下一次,我将跟你们开始谈论结构的这个分析。

We shall try to understand, on the basis of this little picture, what is happening
to Schreber, the delusional who has arrived at complete fulfillment and, ultimately, at a perfectly adapted delusion.

我们将根据这个小画面的基础,尝试了解苏瑞伯所发生的事情。这位妄想症患者已经到达一个完整的满足,最后到达一个调适的很完美的幻觉。

What is characteristic of Schreber in fact is that he never stopped raving at full bore, but had adapted himself so well that the director of the psychiatric hospital said of him – He is such a nice man.

事实上,作为苏瑞伯的特征是,他对于人生的沉闷无聊,咆哮不停,而且自己调适得天衣无缝,以致于精神科医院的院长说到他:他真是个好人。

We are fortunate in having in him a man who communicates his entire delusional system to us, and at a time when it is full-blown. Before we start wondering how he entered psychosis and giving the history of the prepsychotic phase, before we take things up in the sense of their genesis, as everyone always does, which is the source of inexplicable confusions, we shall convey them such as they are given to us in Freud’s observation, who only ever had this book, who never saw the patient.

我们很幸运在他身上发现这么一个人物,他将他的整个幻觉的系统跟我们沟通,而且是在幻觉登峰造极的时刻。在我们开始惊奇不已之前,对于他如何进入精神病,然后描述精神病发作之前的这段历史,在我们如同一般人所为,从它们的病因的意义去探讨事情之前,这种病因素是匪夷所思的混淆的来源,我们将表达它们,依照从弗洛伊德的观察,所给予我们的东西。弗洛伊德仅是阅读这本书,他从来没有见过病人。

You will see how the different elements of a system are modified when constructed as a function of the coordinates of language. This approach is certainly legitimate, concerning as it does a case that is only given to us through a book, and it is what will enable us to reconstitute its dynamics in an effective way. But we shall start with its dialectics.
7 December 1955

你们将会看出,一个系统的不同要素如何被修改,当它们被建构,作为语言协调的一种功用。这个方法确实是合法的,因为它关系到一个仅是透过一本书给予我们的个案。这使我们能够有效地重新创建它的动力结构。但是我们将以它的辩证法开始。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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