The Psychosis 16

The Psychoses 16
精神病患
Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

Ill

GRAMMAR OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
无意识的文法

4
I am not going to answer the first question. Is it true speech? – at the outset we can’t know. On the other hand, what does he talk to you about? About himself no doubt, but first about one object that isn’t like any of the others, about an object that is situated in the prolongation of the dual dialectic – he speaks to you about something that has spoken to him.

我将不会回答第一个问体。这是真实的言说吗?在开始,我们无法知道。在另一方面,他对你谈论什么?无可置疑地,他谈论他自己,但是首先谈论有关一个客体,那个客体并不像任何其他一个客体,关于一个被定位在双重辩证的延长的客体—他跟你言说,关于某件对他言说的东西。

The very basis of the paranoid structure is the fact that the subject has understood something that he formulates, that something has taken the form of speech and speaks to him. No one, of course, is in any doubt that this is a fantasized being, not even he, for he is always in a position to admit the totally ambiguous character of the source of the utterances that have been addressed to him.

偏执狂的结构的基础是这个事实:主体已经了解某件他说明的东西,某件东西曾经形成言说的形态,并且对他言说。当然,没有人会有任何怀疑:这是一个被幻想的存在,甚至他自己,因为他总是处于一个立场要承认,对他言说的这些表达,其来源具完全暧昧的特性。

The paranoiac bears witness to you concerning the structure of this being that speaks to the subject.

偏执狂对你见证,关于这个对着主体言说的这个存在的结构。

You must already be able to tell the difference in level between alienation as the general form of the imaginary and alienation in psychosis. It’s not simply a matter of identification, and of scenery swinging over onto the side of the little other. From the moment the subject speaks, the Other, with a big O, is there. Without this there would be no problem of psychosis. Psychotics would be speaking machines.

你们一定已经能够区别这个差异,处于异化作为想象界的一般形式,跟精神疾病的异化之间。这不仅是认同,及风景摆荡进入小他者的这边的问题。从主体言说的是时刻,大他者拥有一个大写字母O,就在那里。假如没有这个,就不会有精神疾病的问题。精神疾病将会是言说的机器。

It’s precisely insofar as he speaks to you that you take his testimony into account. The question is this. What is the structure of this being that speaks to him, and that everybody agrees is fantasmatic? It’s precisely the S in the sense in which the analyst understands it, but an S with a question mark.

确实是当他跟你言说,你会考虑到他的证词。问题就是这个。跟他言说的这个存在,以及每个人都同意是幻觉的这个存在,其结构是什么?

What part in the subject talks? Analysis says it’s the unconscious. Naturally, for this question to make sense you have to have already admitted that the unconscious is something that speaks within the subject, beyond the subject, and even when the subject doesn’t know it, and that says more about him than he believes.

主体身上什么部分在言说?精神分析说,那是无意识。当然,为了要这个问题有意义,你必须已经承认,无意识是某件在主体之内,超越主体之外的言说,甚至主体并不知道它,而它说出的关于他的事情,超过他所相信的。

Analysis says that in the psychoses this is what speaks. Is this enough? Absolutely not, for the whole question is how it [ga] speaks and what the structure of paranoid discourse is. Freud gave us an altogether gripping dialectic on this point.

精神分析说,在精神疾病,这是他言说的东西。这样就足够吗?绝对不足够。因为整个的问题是它如何言说,偏执狂的论述的结构是什么?对于这一点,弗洛伊德给予我们一个完全迷人的辩证法。

It’s based on the utterance [enonci] of a fundamental tendency that might eventually be recognized in a neurosis, namely – / love him and You love me.

就是以一个基本的倾向的表达作为基础,这个倾向最后可能在神经症身上,被体认为出来。换句话说,那就是:「我爱他而你爱我」

There are three ways of negating this, says Freud. He doesn’t beat about the bush, he doesn’t tell us why the unconscious of psychotics is such a good grammarian and such a bad philologist – from the philologist’s viewpoint all this is in fact extremely suspect. Don’t think that this works like a high school grammar book – there are, depending on the language, many ways of saying / love him. Freud doesn’t stop there, he says there are three ways, and three types of delusion, and it works.

有三个方法来否定这个,弗洛伊德说。他并没有拐弯抹角,他并没有告诉我们
为什么精神疾病的无意识是如此优秀一位文法家,如此差劲的一位语言学家。从语言学的观点,所有这一切事实上都极端可疑。你们不要以为,这种运作就像中学的文法书。凭借着语言,有许多方法说:「我爱他」。弗洛伊德并没有停在那里,他说有三个方法,三种幻觉,它运作。

The first way to negate it is to say – Its not I who love him, its she, my conjoint, my double. The second is to say – Its not him that I love, its her.
第一个否定它的方法是说:「并不是我爱他,而是她,我的共同体,我的双重人。第二的否定的方法是说:「我爱的并不是他,而是她」。

At this level the defense isn’t adequate for the paranoid subject, the disguise is inadequate, he isn’t safe, projection has to enter into play. The third possibility
-I do not love him, I hate him. Here inversion is also inadequate, this at least is what Freud tells us, and the mechanism of projection must also intervene, namely – He hates me. And there we have the delusion of persecution.

在这个层次,防卫并不充分,对于偏执狂的主体,伪装也不充分。他并不安全,投射必须开始运作。第三个可能性是:「我并不爱他,我恨他。」在此,倒转也是不充分,这至少是弗洛伊德告诉我们的。这个投射的机制必须也介入,换句话说:「他恨我」。在那里,我们拥有受到迫害的幻觉。

原注:
10 “Case of Paranoia/’ SE 12:63-65. Freud in fact mentions four kinds of contradiction.
The fourth is: “I do not love him at all – 1 do not love anyone.”

在「偏执狂的个案」,弗洛伊德事实上提到四种矛盾。第四个否定是说:「我根本不爱他—我并不爱任何人。」

The high degree of synthesis that this construction contributes is illuminating for us, but you see the questions that remain open. Projection has to intervene as a supplementary mechanism whenever there is no effacement of the I

这种建构所贡献的高程度的综合,对于我们而言,颇具启发性。但是你们看出这些始终是开放的问题。投射必须介入,作为一种补助的机制,每当没有这个「我」的抹除。

This isn’t totally unacceptable, though we would like more information about it. Furthermore, it’s clear that the not, the negation taken in its most categorical form, definitely doesn’t have, when applied to these different terms, the same value. But on the whole this construction comes close to something, it works, and it situates things at their true level by tackling them from this angle of, I would say, principal logomachy.

这并非完全不可接受,虽然我们想要更多关于它的资讯。而且,显而易见的,这个「并不」,这个否定,以其最分类的方式被接受。当它被运用到这些不同的术语时,它确实并没有拥有相同的价值。但是大体上,这个建构靠近某件东西,它运作,它定位事情在它们的真实的层次,从主要的词语的这个角度来处理它们,我可以这么说。

Perhaps what I have said to you this morning will give you some indication that we can rephrase the question differently. / love him – is this a message, an utterance, a testimony, the brute recognition of a fact in its neutralized state?

或许,今天早上我曾经跟你们说的,将会给予你们某些的指示,我们能够重新以不同方式来诠释这个问题.「我爱他」,这是一个讯息,一种表达,一种证词吗?
这是一种事实处于它的中立状态的严酷体认吗?

Take things in terms of a message. In the first case, Its she that loves him, the subject gets another to carry his message. This alienation surely places us on the level of the little other – the ego speaks through the intermediary of the alter ego, which has meanwhile changed sex. We shall restrict ourselves to observing the inverted alienation. In delusions of jealousy, this identification with the other with a reversal of the sign of sexualization is in the foreground.

以讯息的术语来看待事情。在第一个情况,「是她在爱他」,这个主体要求另外一个主体来载负他的讯息。这个异化,确实将我们摆置在这个小它者的层次,这个「自我」言说,通过这个「超我」的仲介,它同时也改变性别。我们将限制我们自己观察这个倒转的异化。在妒嫉的幻觉,这个认同于小他者,带有性化的讯息的倒转,处在前景。

On the other hand, by analyzing the structure this way, you see that it isn’t, in any case, a question of projection in the sense in which it can be integrated into a mechanism of neurosis. This projection consists in effect of imputing one’s own infidelities to the other – when one is jealous of one’s wife, it’s because one has a few little peccadilloes of one’s own to reproach oneself with.

在另一方面,凭借以这个方式分析结构,你们能够看出,无论如何,这并非是投射的问题,因为它能够被合并成为神经症的机制。这个投射在输入我们自己对小他者的不忠实的影响。当我们妒嫉我们的妻子,那是因为我们有一些我们自己的微小的错误行为,要用来责备我们自己。

The same mechanism can’t be invoked in the delusion of jealousy, probably psychotic, such as it’s presented either in Freud’s case or in the register into which I myself have just tried to insert it, where it’s the person you are identified with through an inverted alienation, namely your own wife, that you make the messenger of your feelings concerning, not even another man, but, as the clinic shows, a more or less indefinite number of men.

相同的机制无法在妒嫉的幻觉里被召唤。在精神疾病的幻觉里,或许可以。譬如,它被呈现在弗洛伊德的个案,要不就是被呈现在这个铭记。我自己刚刚尝试插入它的铭记。在那里,你认同的这个人,通过一个倒转的异化。换句话说,你自己的妻子,你让你的感觉的信差,甚至不是成为另外一个人,而是如同临床所显示的,是一大群的不确定数目的人。

The properly paranoid delusion of jealousy is repeatable indefinitely, it re-emerges at every turning point of experience and may implicate fairly well any subject who appears on the horizon, and even ones that don’t.

妒嫉的适当的偏执狂幻觉,可无穷尽地重复。它重新出现在经验的每一个转捩点,可能会牵连到出现在视野的任何主体,甚至没有出现的主体。

Now, Its not him that I love, its her. This is another type of alienation, no longer inverted, but diverted. The other addressed in erotomania is very special, since the subject doesn’t have any concrete relations with him, so much so that it has been possible to speak in terms of a mystical bond or platonic love.

现在,「我爱的并不是他,而是她。」这又是另外一种异化,不再倒转,而是偏离。在色情狂所被对谈的小他者非常特别。因为主体跟他并没有任何的具体的关系,这样以致于很有可能是以神秘的心灵默契,或是柏拉图式的精神爱的术语来言说。

He is very often a distant object with whom the subject is happy to communicate in writing, without even knowing whether what’s written will get to its destination. The least that can be said is that there is diverted alienation of the message. The accompanying depersonalization of the other is apparent in that heroic perseverance through every trial, as the erotomaniacs will themselves say.

他往往是一个摇远的客体,主体很高兴以书写跟他沟通,而甚至不知道所写的东西,会不会到达它的目的地。至少能够被说的是,这种讯息的异化是一种偏离。小他者伴随而来的除掉人格化,显而易见出现在那种英雄式的坚持,通过每个考验,如同色情狂自己所说的。

The erotomaniacal delusion is addressed to such a neutralized other that he is inflated to the very dimensions of the world, since the universal interest attached to the adventure, as de Clerambault used to say, is an essential part of it.

色情狂的幻觉是针对如此一个中立化的小他者对谈,以致于他自我膨胀到世界的维度,因为对于冒险息息相关的普遍性兴趣,是它的一个基本要素,如同克勒蓝伯特过去常说的。

In the third case we are dealing with something much closer to negation. It’s a converted alienation, in that love has become hatred. The profound deterioration of the entire system of the other, its reduction ratio, the extensive nature of interpretations about the world, shows you here the properly imaginary disturbance at its maximum extension.

在第三个情况,我们正在处理某件更加靠近否定的东西。这是一个倒转的异化,因为爱已经变成恨。小他者的整个系统的深刻恶化,它的沦落速度,关于这个世界的诠释的广泛特性,都给你们显示:在此,这个适当的想象界的困扰,处于它最大量的延伸。

The relations with the Other in delusions now call for investigation. Our terms will help us to reply all the better, through making us distinguish between the subject, he who talks, and the other with whom he is caught in the imaginary relation, the center of gravity of his individual ego, and in which there is no speech. These terms will enable us to characterize psychosis and neurosis in a new way.
30 November 1955

在幻觉里,跟大他者的这些关系,现在需要研究。我们的术语将有助于帮助我们回答得更好,因为它们让我们区别这个主体,会言说的这个主体,跟他被陷住的想象的关系的这个大他者,他的个人自我的引力的中心,在那里,没有言说。这些术语将使我们能够以新的方式,表现精神疾病与神经症的特征。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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