The Psychoses 15

The Psychoses 15
精神病患
Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

Ill

PARANOID KNOWLEDGE
偏执狂的知识

GRAMMAR OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
无意识的文法
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Now, there is another level. She is talking about herself, and she happens to say a little bit more than she would have liked to. This is where we perceive that she is deluding.

现在,还有另外一个层次。她正在谈论她自己,她恰好稍微多说了一下超过她想要说的事情。这就是我们感觉她正在欺骗。

Here she is talking about what is our common object – the other, with a small o. It is indeed still she who is talking, but there is another structure here, which moreover doesn’t reveal itself entirely.

在此,她正在谈论关于我们的公同的客体。这个他者,带有一个小写的o。确实依旧就是她在谈话。但是在此还有另外一个结构。而且,这个结构并没有完全显示它自己。

It’s not quite as if she were talking to me about nothing in particular, she is talking to me about something which to her is very interesting, vital, she is talking about something to which she nevertheless continues to be committed – in short, she bears witness.

这并不完全好像她正在跟我谈论到并没有什么特别的事情。她正在跟我谈论关于某件对她非常有趣而重要的事情。她正在谈论有关某件她仍然继续致力的事情。总之,她作为见证。

Let us try to probe a bit the notion of bearing witness. Is bearing witness purely and simply communication, too? Surely not. It’s clear however that everything we attach value to as communication is of the order of bearing witness.

让我们尝试探索一下作为见证的观念。见证纯粹并且仅仅也是沟通吗?当然不是,可是,显而易见地,每一件我们重视的跟沟通有关的事情,是属于见证的层次。

Disinterested communication is ultimately only failed testimony, that is, something upon which everybody is agreed. Everyone knows that this is the ideal of the transmission of knowledge. The entire system of thought of the scientific community is based on the possibility of a communication that concludes with an experiment that everybody can agree on. The very institution of the experiment is a function of testimony.

客观性的沟通,最后仅是失败的证明。换句话说,人人都同意的事情。众所周知,这是知识传递的理想。科学社团的思想的整个系统,就是以结论是人人都同意的试验的这种沟通的可能性,作为基础。这种试验的体制是一种证明的功用。

Here we are dealing with another sort of otherness. I can’t repeat all I once said about what I have called paranoid knowledge, since I shall also have to take it up again constantly over this year’s discourse, but I am going to give you some idea of it.

在此,我们正在处理另外一种他者。我无法重复所有我曾经说过的关于我所谓的偏执狂的知识。因为我也将必须再一次地不断地从事它,在这一年的论述里。但是我将给予你们有关它的观念。

What I designated thus in my first communication to the group Evolution psychiatrique, which at the time was quite remarkably original, was aimed at the paranoid affinities between all knowledge of objects as such. All human knowledge stems from the dialectic of jealousy, which is a primordial manifestation of communication. It’s a matter of an observable generic notion, behavioristically observable. What takes place between two young children involves this fundamental transitivism expressed by the fact that one child who has beaten another can say – The other beat me. It’s not that he is lying – he is the other, literally.

在我第一次跟「精神分裂进展论」的团体沟通时,我所指明的,在当时是相当原创性,目标朝着偏执狂在各种客体的知识本身之间的密切关联。所有的人类的知识都起源于妒忌的辩证法。这是一种沟通的原初证明。两个小孩之间发送的事情,牵涉到这个基本的转移,根据这个事实表达。有个小孩打到另外一个小孩,却能够说:另外一个小孩打我。这并不是他正在说谎,而是他实质上就是那另一个小孩。

This is the basis of the distinction between the human world and the animal world. Human objects are characterized by their neutrality and indefinite proliferation. They are not dependent on the preparation of any instinctual coaptation of the subject, in the way that there is coaptation, housing, of one chemical valency by another. What makes the human world a world covered with objects derives from the fact that the object of human interest is the object of the other’s desire.

这是人类的世界跟动物的世界之间的区别的基础。人类的客体的特色是它们的中立性及不限定地繁殖。它们并不依靠主体的任何本能的坚持,一个化学原子价会被另外一个原子价所坚持,收容。使人类的世界成为一个被盖满客体的世界的东西,来自于这个事实:人类感到興趣的客体,是大他者的欲望的客体。

How is this possible? It’s possible because the human ego is the other and because in the beginning the subject is closer to the form of the other than to the emergence of his own tendency. He is originally an inchoate collection of desires – there you have the true sense of the expression fragmented body – and the initial synthesis of the ego is essentially an alter ego, it is alienated.

这如何是可能呢?这是可能的,因为人类的自我就是大他者,因为在开始,主体靠近大他者的形式,比靠近他自己的倾向的出现更加接近。他原先就是欲望的不完全的收集。在那里,你拥有「片断的身体」这个词语的真实的意义。自我的最初的综合,基本上是一种「改变的自我」,这个自我是异化的。

The desiring human subject is constructed around a center which is the other insofar as he gives the subject his unity, and the first encounter with the object is with the object as object of the other’s desire.

这个欲望的人类主体,环绕着一个以大他者作为中心被建构。因为他给予主体他的一致性。跟这个客体的第一次遭遇,就是跟客体作为大他者的欲望的客体。

This defines, within the speech relationship, something that originates somewhere else – this is exactly the distinction between the imaginary and the real. A primitive otherness is included in the object, insofar as primitively it’s the object of rivalry and competition. It’s of interest only as the object of the other’s desire.

在言说的关系里,这个定义某件起源于某个其他地方的东西。这确实就是想象界与实在界之间的这个区别。一个原始的大他者被包括在这个客体里。因为它是敌意与競争的客体。它引起興趣,因为它是大他者欲望的客体。

The said paranoid knowledge is knowledge founded on the rivalry of jealousy, over the course of the primary identification I have tried to define by means of the mirror stage.

所说的偏执狂的知识,就是以妒嫉的敌意作为基础的知识,在我曾经尝试凭借镜像阶段,来定义的原初的认同的过程。

This rivalrous and competitive ground for the foundation of the object is precisely what is overcome in speech insofar as this involves a third party. Speech is always a pact, an agreement, people get on with one another, they agree – this is yours, this is mine, this is this, that is that

dudes with an experiment that everybody can agree on. The very institution
of the experiment is a function of testimony.

这个敌意与競争的立场,作为客体的基础,确实就是在言说被克服的东西。因为这牵涉到第三者。言说总是一个盟约,一种协定,人们互相交往,他们同意。这是你的,这是我的,这是这个,那是那个。

But the aggressive character of primitive competition leaves its mark on every type of discourse about the small other, about the Other as third party, about the object. It’s not for nothing that in Latin testimony is called testis and that one testifies on one’s balls. In everything of the order of testimony there is always some commitment by the subject, and a virtual struggle in which the organism is always latent.

但是原始競争的攻击性的特性留下它的记号,在每一种关于这个小他者的论述,关于这个大他者作为第三者,关于这个客体。在拉丁文,证明被称为证词,并不是毫无道理的。我们根据我们的睾丸来证明。在一切属于证明的层次,总是会有主体所做的某个奉献,一个虚拟的奋斗,在那里,有机体总是具有潜能。

This dialectic always carries the possibility that I may be called upon to annul the other, for one simple reason. The beginning of this dialectic being my alienation in the other, there is a moment at which I can be put into the position of being annulled myself because the other doesn’t agree. The dialectic of the unconscious always implies struggle, the impossibility of coexistence with the other, as one of its possibilities.

这个辩证法总是带有这个可能性:我可能会被要求使大他者无能,理由很简单。因为这个辩证的开始成为我的异化,有某个时刻,我会被处于自己成为无能的这个立场,因为大他者不同意。无意识的这个辩证总是暗示着奋斗,跟大他者的共同存在的不可能,作为它的可能性之一。

The master-slave dialectic reappears here. The Phenomenology of Mind probably doesn’t exhaust the whole question, but surely its psychological and psychogenetic value can’t be misrecognized. It’s in a fundamental rivalry, in a primary and essential struggle to the death, that the constitution of the human world as such takes place. Except that at the end one is present when the stakes reappear.

这个主人与奴隶的辩证法在此再一次出现。「精神现象学」可能并没有穷尽全部的问题。但是确定地,它的心理与心因性的价值不可能被误认。在一个基本的敌意里,在一个原初及基本的奋斗到死,人类世界本身的组成会发生。除了,在最后,当赌注重新再出现是,我们在现场。

The master has taken the slave’s enjoyment from him, he has stolen the object of desire as object of the slave’s desire, but at the same time he has lost his own humanity. It was in no way the object of enjoyment that was at issue, but rivalry as such. To whom does he owe his humanity? Solely to the slave’s recognition. However, since he doesn’t recognize the slave, that recognition literally has no value.

主人曾经从奴隶身上获得奴隶的享乐,他曾经偷走欲望的客体,作为奴隶欲望的客体。但是同时,他已经丧失他自己的人性。受到争议,根本不是享乐的客体,而是敌意的本身。他将他的人性归功于谁呢?仅仅是归功于奴隶的承认。可是,因为他并不承认奴隶,那种承认实际上没有价值。

As is habitual in the concrete development of things, the one who has triumphed and conquered the enjoyment becomes a complete idiot, incapable of doing anything other than enjoying, while he who has been deprived of it keeps his humanity intact. The slave recognizes the master, and thus he has the possibility of being recognized by him. Over the centuries he will engage in the struggle to be effectively recognized.

如同事情的具体发展的习性,已经获胜及征服享乐的这个人,成为一个完全的白痴,不能够做任何事情,除了享乐。而被剥夺掉享乐的奴隶,却保持他的人性完整。奴隶承认主人,因此,他拥有可能被主人承认的这个可能性。几个世纪以来,他将从事将会有效地被承认的这个奋斗。

This distinction between the Other with a big O, that is, the Other in so far as it’s not known, and the other with a small o, that is, the other who is me, the source of all knowledge, is fundamental. It’s in this gap, it’s in the angle opened up between these two relations, that the entire dialectic of delusion has to be situated. The question is this – firstly, is the subject talking to you? – secondly, what is he talking about?

大他者带有这个大写字母O,也就是说,这个不为人所知的大他者,和这个小他者,带有一个小写的o,也就是,作为我的这个小他者,所有知识的来源。这种区别是基本的。就在这个差距,在这两个关系之间,被展开的这个角度幻觉的整个辩证法必须被定位。问题首先是,主体跟你谈话吗?其次,他正在谈论什么?

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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