Object 16

Object 16

The Object of Psychoanalysis
精神分析的对象

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

15.6.66 XXII 49
Seminar 4: Wednesday 22 December 1965

C – The o, object of desire 欲望的这个客体

In effect, Lacan postulates the existence of an ideal ego as a precocious form of
identification of the ego to certain objects which operate both as love objects and
objects of identification, but in so far as they are extracted, cut out, taken from a series
which makes the lack appear. I who am speaking identify you to the object which you
yourself are lacking, says Lacan.

实际上,拉康提出一个理想自我的存在,作为自我认同与某些客体的早熟的形式。这些客体运作既当著是爱的客体,又当著认同的客体。但是当它们被抽取出来,被切割出来,从一系列让这个欠缺消失当中被拿出来。作为言说者的我,将你认同为你自己欠缺的这个客体,拉康说。

The relationship between (o) and O is therefore clearly shown. If O only reaches its full meaning by being sustained by the Name of the Father which is not, is it necessary to specify, either a name or a God, it passes as we have seen through the maternal defile and is only reached when the cut between the subject and maternal object irremedially separates him from the aforesaid object.

这个括弧的小客体与大他者之间的关系,因此显而易见地显示出来。假如大他者仅是到达这个充分的意义,由于受到「以父亲之名」的维持。需要指明的是,这个「以父亲之名」,要就是一个名字,要不就是一个上帝。它被认为是我们曾经看见过的东西,通过母亲的管道。它仅能够被到达,当主体与母亲的客体的这个切割,无可挽回地分开他,跟前述的客体。

Or again when there is revealed the lack which affects the primordial object, in the
experience of castration. The series of castrations postulated by Freud: weaning,
sphincter training, castration properly speaking, renders this experience in its
repetition, in its recurrence, signifying and structuring.

而且,当影响到这个原初客体的这个欠缺被显示出来,在阉割的经验里。由弗洛伊德提出的这一系列的阉割:断奶,括约肌的训练,适当地说是阉割,使得在它的重复里的这个经验,在它的重复发生,成为能指化及结构化。

The o-object will then be that which through these experiences, is going to fall, as
Lacan says, from its position of being “exposed to the field of the Other” but in order
to attain the status of object of desire. The tribute paid to this accession is to exclude
the desiring subject from saying, from naming the object of desire.

这个客体因此将是,通过这些经验,将会掉落的东西,如拉康所说,从它被暴露到大他者的领域的立场。但是为了维持欲望客体的这个位置。对于这种认同给予的致敬,就是要排除这个欲望的客体不要说,不要命名欲望的客体。

Having being situated in the field of the Other now allows there to be conceived the
function of mediation such an object plays less between the subject and the Other but
in their relationship: my desire enters the Other where it is expected from all eternity
in the form of the object that I am in so far as it exiles me from my subjectivity by
resuming all the signifiers to which this subjectivity is attached.

由于曾经被定位在大他者的这个领域,容许仲介的功用被构想,这样一个客体扮演的角色,与其说是处于主体与大他者之间,不如说是处于它们的关系:我的欲望进入大他者,在那里,从所有的永恒理,我们期望,以「我在」的这个客体的形式,因为它将我从我的主体性放逐出来,凭借重新开始所有的能指,主体性跟它连接在一块。

We know that phantasy allows the establishment of this formula of relationship, in so
far as it reveals here the subject in effacing his trace. The phantasy as a structure
constitutive of the subject, where the latter is imprinted in the hollow, through which
fascination operates, opens the relationship of the o-object to the ideal ego.

我们知道,幻见容下这个关系的公式的建立,因为它在此显示这个主体抹除他的痕迹。这个幻见,作为主体的结构本质。在主体那里,后者被铭记在这个空洞,通过这个空洞,著迷运作,运作客体跟这个理想自我的关系。

D – The (o) as fetish 客体的物神化

This formulation indicates everything that separates the theorisation of Lacan from
that of other authors. Let us say schematically that while the latter are above all going
to mark the positive aspect of the qualities of the object Lacan valorises the negative
approach.

这个说明指示著分开拉康的理论跟其他作者的一切。让我们以基模的方式说,虽然后者特别是要标示客体的特质的正面,而拉康则是推崇负面的方法。

A clear example shows us this. Before the image of the phallic mother the
post-Freudian authors will say that she is terrifying because she is phallic. Because
the phallus can be a maleficent instrument, a destructive weapon, etc… . Freud said
that the bewilderment produced by Medusa‟s head took place because the reptiles
which took the place of hair for her denied, as many times as there were serpents,
castration and by this reversal it was recalled in a multiplied way to the one who
wanted to cancel it out.

有一个清楚的例子跟我们显示这一点。在作为阳具的母亲的意象之前,后弗洛伊德的作者将会说,她是可怕的,因为她是阳具。因为阳具有时会是一个邪恶的工具,一个毁灭的武器,等等。弗洛伊德说,由蛇髮的美杜莎的头所产生的困惑会发生,是因为蛇替代了头髮,作为她被拒绝给予多少次,就有多少的蛇,阉割。然后根据这个倒转,以多重的方式,让人回想的想要取消这个阉割的人。

Lacan is happier to follow this path. The case of fetishism to which he gives a lot of attention is the apologue of this reflective mode. The object of the fetish will be the witness, the veil of the castrated sexual organ – of the lack in the field of the Other.

拉康很乐于遵照这个途径。他给予许多专注的物神化的案例,是替这个反思的模式作辩解。物神化的客体将是这个证人,这个被阉割的性器官的面纱,大他者的领域的这个欠缺。

E – The (o) object of lack, cause of desire 欠缺的客体,欲望的原因

In connection with his seminar on the Symposium there appears with a particular force
the metonymical and metaphorical structure of the o-object in the mapping out that
Lacan gives in Plato‟s text about the particular position of the agalmata, in the
discourse of Alcibiades where the latter depicts Socrates: “He is just like the silenuses
that one sees in sculptors‟ lofts which the artist represent as holding a pipe or a flute;
if you open the middle of them you see that within they contain little figurines of
gods”.

有关他论柏拉图的会饮篇的研讨班,出现时具有一个特别的力量。这个客体的换喻与比喻的结构,拉康在柏拉图的文本里,给予的描绘,关于这个「贡物」的特别的立场,在阿西比底斯的论述里。在那里,后者描述苏格拉底:「

We are dealing both with fragments of the body, with a part of the body and its
symbolisation and this is to be taken literally, in the form of a divine figurine.
It is precisely in so far as this o-object is going to emerge as objective lack that it is
going to be deployed in a double register which will be at once the revelation of the
lack of the Other and also of the lack as it appears in the process of meaning.

我们正在处理身体的这些碎片,带着身体的一部分及它的象征。这应该以实质来处理,以一个神的肖像的形式。确实是当这个客体将要出现,作为客体的欠缺,它将要以一种双重的铭记被被运用。这双重铭记既是大他者的欠缺的启示,也是这个欠缺的启示,当它出现在意义的过程。

What is lacking to the Other is what cannot be conceived of. The (-phi) which is introduced here in the shape of what does not appear – it is the Nothing which cannot be pictured – in which there is ordered the encounter with castration as unthinkable, whose hiatus is filled with the processes of meaning, by the mirage of knowledge. I quote again: “(o) symbolises that which in the sphere of the signifier as lost is lost to meaning. What resists this loss is the subject designated once the processes of knowledge come into play, once that is known, there is something lost.”

对于大他者所欠缺的东西,就是无法被构想的东西。这个负数的(-phi),在此被介绍,以所没有出现的形状。那就是「空无」无法被描绘。在这个空无里,跟阉割的遭遇被规范秩序,作为不可思议。我再一次引述:括弧的客体象征在能指的这个球形,作为丧失意义的丧失的东西。抗拒这种丧失的东西,就是被指明的主体,一旦知识的过程运作起来,一旦那件事情被知道,就有某件东西丧失。

It is this apparition in the shape of the object of lack which specifies what our presentation is going to revolve around, namely the non-specularisable nature of the (o).

就是欠缺的这个客体的形状的这个魅影,指明我们的呈现,将会环绕它旋转的东西。换句话说,这个括弧的客体,具有无法被理想魅影化的特性。

Everything happens as if the barred subject takes on the function of i(o) as Lacan puts it or again as if, shortcircuiting the impossible specularisation of lack, the subject thus identifies himself to knowledge, coming to the locus and the place of the loss which stimulates its promotion, covering over this loss to the extent of forgetting its
existence.

这一切发生,好像这个被划槓禁制的主体具有自我理想魅影的功用,如同拉康所表达。或者,好像将欠缺的不可能的自我理想魅影化,给予短路,主体因此认同自己就是知识,来到刺激它的骚动的丧失的这个轨迹及位置。掩盖住这个丧失,甚至到的忘记它的存在。

Starting from this appearance of lack, there is going to come into play the function of
the remainder issuing from the desire of the other, the function of the remainder which is manifested as a residue left by the bar, which affects the big Other and whose homologue in the subject interests him in knowledge. Here again Lacan makes a distinction of a logical order where nullifying does not suppress having, which
precisely makes the remainder appear.

从欠缺的这个表象开始,从大他者的欲望发出的这个剩余物的功用将会运作,这个剩余物的功用被证明,作为这个禁制遗留的残渣。它影响到大他者,而且它在主体身上的同质性,让他对知识感到興趣。在此,拉康再一次区别一个逻辑的秩序,在那里,使无效并没有压制拥有,这个拥有确实让这个剩余物出现。

The function of the remainder is what is saved from the menace which weighs on the
subject; “desire is constructed on the path of a question: not to be”. The o-object is
the cause of desire.

这个剩余物的功用,就是从这个威胁里拯救出来的东西。这个威胁重重压迫主体:「欲望被建构,在一个问题的途径:客体不存在」。这个客体是欲望的原因。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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