Archive for December, 2011

迴圈 08

December 28, 2011

拉康第二研讨班
The Ego in Freud’s Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis 1954-1955
弗洛伊德理论的自我与精神分析技术

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

VII The circuit 06
第七章: 迴圈
4
Here, it’s more complicated. We call that a message. It’s very ambiguous.
What is a message inside a machine? Something which proceeds by opening
and not opening, the way an electronic lamp does, by yes or no. It’s something
articulated, of the same order as the fundamental oppositions of the symbolic
register.

在此,它变得更加复杂。我们称那个为一个讯息。这个讯息非常模糊暧昧的。一台机器里面的讯息是什么?某件东西以开放与不开放的方式前进,就像一台电子灯笼的方式,一闪一灭。它是被表达的某件东西,跟符号象征的铭记的基本的对立,属于相同的层次。

At any given moment, this something which turns has to, or doesn’t,
come back into play. It is always ready to give a reply, and be completed by this self same act of replyIng, that is to say by ceasing to function as an isolated and closed circuit, by entering into the general run of things. Now this comes very close to what we can conceive of as Zwang, the compulsion to repeat.

在任何特定的时刻,这个某件会回转的东西,必须回来运作,或是没有。它总是准备给予一个回答,然后被这个自我的相同的回答举动来完成。换句话说,它停止作为一个孤立而封闭的迴圈的功用,它进入事情的一般运转。现在,这种运转非常靠近我们能够构想作为「重复的推动力」。

As soon as we have this little model, we realise that in the very anatomy of
the cerebral apparatus there are things which return back on themselves.

当我们拥有这个小模式,我们体会到,在脑的仪器的解剖里,有些东西会回转到它们本身。

Thanks to Riguet, on whose recommendation I read the work of an English
neurologist, l became very interested in a certain octopus.

感谢黎桂特,由于他的推荐,我阅读一位脑神经科专家的著作。我对于某种的章鱼感到强烈興趣。

It seems that its nervous system is sufficiently simple to have an isolated nerve which governs what is called the jet, or the propulsion of liquid, thanks to which the octopus has this delightful way of moving.

似乎,章鱼的神经系统非常简单,拥有一个孤立的神经。这个神经统管所谓的这个喷射,液体的喷射。由于这个喷射,章鱼拥有这种愉快的移动方式。

You can also think of its memory apparatus being pretty much reduced to this message circulating between Paris and Paris, on tiny points of the nervous system.

你们也想到它的记忆的仪器,相当地被减化成为流通在巴黎与巴黎之间的这个讯息,在神经系统的微小点上。

Think back on what we said in preceding years about those striking
coincidences Freud noted in the sphere of what he calls telepathy. Very
important things, in the way of transference, occur in parallel in two patients,
whether one is in analysis and the other just on its fringes, or whether both are
in analysis.

回顾一下我们在前几年所说的,关于弗洛伊德注意到那些引人注意到巧合,发生在他所谓的心电感应的领域。非常重要的事情,以移情的方式,在两个病人身上,对比地发生,无论一位是在精神分析,另外一个就在精神分析的外围,或是两位都在精神分析。

At that time, I showed you how it is through being links, supports,
rings in the same circle of discourse, agents integrated in the same circle of
discourse, .that the subjects simultaneously experience such and such a
symptomatic act, or discover such and such a memory.

在当时,我跟你们显示,如何在论述的相同圈子里,代理物被合并在论述的相同圈子里,通过成为连接,成为支持,成为环圈,主体同时经验到诸如其类的病征的举动,或是发现诸如其类的记忆。

At the point we have reached, I propose, looking ahead, that you conceive of
the need for repetition, such as it concretely manifests itself in the subject, in
analysis for instance, as the form of behaviour staged in the past and
reproduced in the present in a way which doesn’t conform much with vital
adaptation.

在我们到达的这个时刻,往前展望时,我建议,你们应该构想这个重复的需要,譬如它具体地在主体身上展现它自己,譬如在精神分析里,作为过去被展示,及现在被复制到行为的形态。它们的方式并没有很符合精力能量的适应。

Here we rediscover what I’ve already pointed out to you, namely that the
unconscious is the discourse of the other.

在此,我们发现我们已经跟你们指出来的东西,换句话说,无意识是大他者的真理论述。

This discourse of the other is not the discourse of the abstract other, of the other in the dyad, of my correspondent, nor even of my slave, it is the discourse of the circuit in which I am integrated. I am one of its links.

大他者的真理论述,并不是这个抽象的大他者的真理论述,在这个四角对立关系的大他者的真理论述,也不是我的奴隶的真理论述。它是我被合并在里面的这个迴圈的真理论述。我是迴圈的联线的其中之一。

It is the discourse of my father for instance, in so far as my father made mistakes which I am absolutely condemned to reproduce – that’s what we call the super-ego.

譬如,这是我的父亲的真理论述,因为我的父亲犯了错误,我绝对被注定要复制。那就是我们所谓的超我。

I am condemned to reproduce them because I am obliged to pick up again the discourse he bequeathed to me, not simply because I am his son, but because one can’t stop the chain of discourse, and it is precisely my duty to transmit it in its aberrant form to someone else.

我被注定要复制他们,因为我不得不再一次接续他遗留给我的这个真理论述,不仅是因为我是他的儿子,而是因为我们无法阻止真理论述的锁链。这确实是我的责任,要以偏离的方式传递它,给某个其它的人。

I have to put to someone else the problem of a situation of life or death in which the chances are that it is just as likely that he will falter, in such a way that this discourse produces a small circuit in which an entire family, an entire coterie, an entire camp. an entire nation or half of the world will be caught.

我必须跟某个其他的人,提出生存或死亡的情境的问题。在这个情境里,很有可能,他同样可能摇摆,以这样一种方式,这个真理论述产生一种小的迴圈。在这个迴圈里,一整个家庭,一个排外的圈子,一整个阵营,一整个国家,或一半的世界被陷住。

The circular form of a speech which is just at the limit between sense and non-sense. which is problematic.

一种言说的循环的形式,就处于意义与无意义之间的限制,这是问题重重。

That’s what the need for repetition is. as we see it emerge beyond the pleasure
principle. It vacillates beyond all the biological mechanisms of equilibration. of
harmonisation and of agreement. It 1s only introduced by the register of
language, by the function of the symbol, by the problematic of the question
within the human order.

那就是重复的需要的本质。如同我们看见它在超越快乐原则里出现。这个重复的需要摇摆,超越所有平衡,和谐及协同的生物机械结构。它被介绍,仅是凭借语言的铭记,凭借符号象征的功用,凭借在人类的层次里的问题重重。

How does Freud project that in the most literal manner on to a level which
ostensibly belongs to the order of biology? We will have to come back to that the next few times. Life is only caught up in the symbolic piece-meal, decomposed, The human being himself is in part outside life. He partakes of the death instinct.

弗洛伊德如何以最实质的方式投射那一点,到虚饰地属于生物秩序的层次?我们将必须回的以下的几行。生命仅是被切碎,被瓦解地套陷在这个符号象征里。人作为生命的本身,有部分是在生命之外。他参与到这个死亡本能。

Only from there can he engage in the register of life.
1 9 January 1 955

仅有死亡本能那里,人才是从事于生命的铭记。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

迴圈 07

December 28, 2011

拉康第二研讨班
The Ego in Freud’s Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis 1954-1955
弗洛伊德理论的自我与精神分析技术

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

VII The circuit 06
第七章: 迴圈
4
Kierkegaard. who was, as you know, a humorist. discussed the difference
between the pagan world and the world of grace, which Christianity
introduces. Something of the ability to recognise his natural object, so apparent in animals, is present in man.

你们知道,齐克果是一位幽默大师,他讨论异教徒的世界,跟承受上帝恩典的世界之间的差异。人的身上具有某种的能力,认识他的自然的能力,这种能力在动物身上是如此显而易见。

There is being captured by form, being seized by play, being gripped by the mirage of life. That is what a theoretical. or theorial, or contemplative, or Platonic thought refers itself to, and it isn’t an accident that Plato places reminiscence at the centre of his entire theory of knowledge.

有种生命实存被形态捕捉,被遊戏掌握,被生命的幻觉迷惑。那就是一种理论,沉思,或柏拉图思想提到的东西。所以,柏拉图将「回顾」放置在他的知识的完整理论的核心,不是偶然的。

The natural object, the harmonic correspondent of the living being, is
recognisable because its outline has already been sketched. And for it to-have
been sketched, it must already have been within the object which is going to
join itself to it. That is the relation of the dyad. Plato’s entire theory of
knowledge – Jean Hyppolite won’t contradict me – is dyadic.

自然的客体,生物的和谐的对应,能够被体认出来。因为它的轮廓已经被描绘出来。然后为了让它曾经被描绘,它一定已经是在将要跟它结合的客体里。那就是这个四角对立的关系。柏拉图的整个知识的理论是四角对立。海坡来特的观点跟我没有牴触。

But for certain specific reasons, a change occurred. Sin is from then on
present as the third term, and it is no longer by following the path of
reminiscence, but rather in following that of repetition, that man finds his way.

但是为了某种明确的理由,一种改变发生。从那时开始,原罪被呈现作为第三个术语。它不再跟随回顾的图径,而是跟随重复的途径,人才找到他的道路。

That is precisely what puts Kierkegaard on the track of our Freudian intuitions,
in a small book called Repetition. I recommend reading it to those who are
already somewhat ahead. Those who don’t have much time should at least
read the first part.

那确实是让齐克果前往追踪我们的弗洛伊德的直觉,在一本被称为「重复」的小书。我推荐那些已经具有相当基础的人去阅读它。那些时间不充裕的人,至少应该阅读第一部分。

Kierkegaard wants to avoid precisely those problems which stem from his
accession to a new order, and he encounters the dam of his own reminiscences, of who he thinks he is and of what he knows he will never be able to become.

齐克果想要确实避免那些起源于他认同新秩序的问题。他遭遇到他自己回顾的阻拦水坝,他以为他是什么,他知道他永远不会成为是什么的这个水坝阻拦。

He then tries the experiment of repetition. He returns to Berlin where. during his previous stay he had experienced infinite pleasure. and he retraces his own steps.

他于是尝试重复的这个试验。他回到柏林,在那里,他以前停留时,他曾经经验到无限的快乐。然后他重新追踪他自己的脚步。

You will see what happens to him , seeking his well-being in the shadow of his pleasure. The experiment fails totally. But as a result of that ,he puts us on
the track of our problem. Namely, how and why everything which pertains to
an advance essential to the human being must take the path of a tenacious
repetition.

你们将会看出他发生什么事情,他在他的快乐的阴影里寻找他的幸福。这个试验完全失败。但是作为那件事情的结果,他让我们追踪到我们的问题的途径。换句话说,属于人类非常重要的一种进步的一切事情,都必须採取不屈不桡的重复的途径。

I’m getting close to the model which I want to leave with you today. so you
can see the meaning of man’s need for repetition. It’s all to do with the intrusion
of the symbolic register. Only, I’ll illustrate it for you.

我渐渐靠近我今天想要跟你们告一段的这个模式。这样,你们能够看出:人需要重复,具有什么意义。这完全跟符号铭记的介入有关系。只是我还要跟你们说明。

Models are very important. Not that they mean anything – they mean
nothing. But that’s the way we are – that’s our animal weakness – we need
images. And. sometimes, for lack of images, some symbols don’t see the light of day.

模式是非常重要的。倒不是因为它们有任何的意义—它们什么意义也没有。但是那就是我们生存的方式。那就是我们作为动物的弱点—我们需要意象。有时候,由于缺乏意象,某些的符号象征永远就不见天日。

In general. it is rather the symbolic deficiency which is worrisome. The
image comes to us from an essentially symbolic creation, that is to say from a
machine, that most modem of machines, far more dangerous for man than the
atom bomb, the adding machine.

相反地,通常是符号象征的欠缺会令人焦虑。这个意象从一个基本上是符号象征的创造,来到我们这里。换句话说,从一台机器,最现代化的机器,对于人类而言,计算机比原子弹还要危险万分。

You’ve been told, you’ve understood, and you don’t believe it – the adding
machine has a memory. You quite like saying it, but you don’t believe it. Do get
it right! The sort of memory it has is destined to put all the images of memory
which up to now we had given ourselves into question.

你们曾经听过,你们曾经了解,但是你们并不相信,计算机拥有记忆。你们很喜欢谈到计算机,但是你们并不相信它。请你们接纳它吧!它拥有的这种记忆,注定会将迄今我们给予自己的所有的记忆的意象,让它们受到质疑。

The best thing we’ve found for giving an image of the phenomenon of memory is the Babylonian wax seal. a thing with a few little reliefs and some lines which you roll out on to a wax plaque, what we call an engram. The seal is also a machine, only no one notices that.

我们曾经找到的最好的东西,给予记忆的现象的一种意象,就是巴比伦的腊封印,这一个东西拥有一些小小浮雕及线条,你们将它们倾倒在腊的嵌板上,这就是我们所谓的浮雕版。这个腊封印也是一台机器,只是没有人注意到这一点。

For machines to remember every question, questions which have already
been put to them, which is sometimes necessary, something a bit more cunning was discovered -the machine’s first experience circulates inside it in the form of a message.

然机器记忆每个问题,已经跟它提过的问题,这有时候是需要的。在这里,有某件更加狡狯的事情被发现—机器的第一个经验,以一种讯息的形式,在它内部演算。

Suppose that I send a telegram from here to Le Mans, with the request that Le
Mans send it back to Tours, from there to Sens, from there to Fontainebleau,
and from there to Paris, and so on indefinitely.

假如我从这里送出一个电报到雷曼思,要求雷曼思将电报送回给涂尔思,从那里送到贤思,从那里送到范滕尼洛,从那里送到巴黎,等等,不断送过去。

What’s needed is that when I reach the tail of my message, the head should not yet have arrived back. The message must have time to tum around. It turns quickly, it doesn’t stop turning, it turns around in circles.

所需要的是,当我到达我的讯息的尾端,头部本来应该还没有回来。这个讯息当时一定有时间回转。它很快地回转。它并没有停止回转,它绕着圈子回转。

It’s funny. this thing turning back on itself. It’s called feedback,s and its
related to the homeostat. You know that that is how the admission of steam
into a steam-engine is controlled. If it heats up too quickly, a governor registers
it, two things are forced apart by the centrifugal force. and the admission of
steam is regulated. We have oscillation about a point of equilibrium.

这真是好可笑。这个东西回转到它自己本身。这被称为回馈。这种回馈跟体内平衡有关系。你们知道,那就是蒸汽被容许进入蒸汽机,能够被控制的方式。假如它加热得太快,一个控制开关规范他,两样东西被这个离心力量强迫分开。蒸汽的被容许进入被规范。我们对于平衡点,会有摇摆。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

迴圈 06

December 27, 2011

拉康第二研讨班
The Ego in Freud’s Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis 1954-1955
弗洛伊德理论的自我与精神分析技术

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

VII The circuit 06
第七章: 迴圈
3
When we are told, employing the notion metaphorically, that analysis is an
apprenticeship• in freedom, you must admit that it has an odd ring to it. All the
same, at our point in history, as Merleau-Ponty was saying yesterday, one
should be on one’s guard.

当我们被告诉,比喻地使用这种观念,精神分析是一种获取自由的学徒制度。你必须承认,精神分析具有一种古怪的意涵。在我们处于历史的这个时刻,仍然如梅洛庞帝昨天所说的,我们应该小心翼翼防范。

What does analysis uncover – if it isn’t the fundamental. radical discordance
of forms of conduct essential to man in relation to everything which he
experiences?

精神分析揭发什么?难道不就是:对人非常重要的行为模式,相较于他经验到的一切,会有这个基本的强烈的不协调?

The dimension discovered by analysis is the opposite of anything which progresses through adaptation, through approximation, through being perfected. It is something which proceeds by leaps, in jumps. It is always the strictly inadequate application of certain complete symbolic relations, and that implies several tonalities, immixtions, for instance of the imaginary in the symbolic, or inversely.

精神分析发现的这个维度,恰恰相反于通过适应,通过接近,通过被改善,正在进展的一切。这是跳跃且翻滚前进的东西。它总是某种完整的符号象征关系,非常不恰当地应用。那意味着好几种调色,混合,譬如,想象界跟符号界的调色与混合,或是倒过来调色与混合。

There is a radical difference between any investigation of human beings,
even in the laboratory, and what happens in animals. On the animal side, one
shifts within a fundamental ambiguity between instinct and learning, as soon
as one tries, as is done now, to keep rather close to the facts.
对于人类的任何研究,甚至在实验室,与在动物身上所发生的事情之间,有一个强烈的差别。在动物这一边,当我们一尝试接近事实,如同现在所做的,我们的转变处于本能与学习之间的基本模糊暧昧。

In animals, the so called preformations of the instinct don’t in any way exclude learning. In addition, one constantly finds in them possibilities for learning within the instinctual frameworks. What is more, one discovers that the actualisations of instinct would not occur without a call from the environment, as they say, which stimulates and provokes the crystallisation of forms, of behaviour and modes of conduct.

在动物身上,所谓的本能的形成丝毫并没有排除学习。除外,我们不断地在它们身上找到,在这个本能的架构里,学习的可能性。而且,我们发现,假如没有环境的要求,本能的实践不会发生。如他们所说的,环境会刺激及激发形式,行为及行为模式的具体实现。

There is a convergence, a crystallisation, here which gives us the feeling,
however sceptical we may be, of a pre-established harmony, subject to be sure to all kinds of difficulties cropping up.

在此,有一种汇集,一种具体实现,给予我们这种预先建立的和谐的感觉,无论我们多么怀疑。当各种困难出现时,这种预先建立的和谐一定会受到影响。

The notion of learning is in some way incapable of being differentiated from the maturation of instinct. It is in this domain that Gestalt categories naturally arise as indicators.

学习的观念以某种的方式无法跟本能的成熟,被区别出来。就在这个领域,格式塔学派的行为范畴自然会出现作为指标。

An animal recognises its brother, its fellow being, its sexual partner. It finds its place in paradise, its environment, it also molds it, it impresses itself on it. The
Stickleback makes a certain number of small holes, for no apparent reason, but one can tell that it is its leap which marks, its leap of which its entire body is the bearer.

动物会认出它的同袍,它的同类动物,它的性的伴侣。动物找到它的位置,在天堂,在它的环境,动物也塑造它的环境,在环境里自得其乐。无鳞鱼会挖掘许多小洞,没有明显的原因。但是我们能够说,无鳞鱼的跳跃标示着,它的整个身体的跳跃作为它的自主者。

The animal fits into its environment. There’s -adaptation, and it’s an
adaptation which, quite precisely, has its end, its term: its limit. In this way,
animal learning displays the characteristics of an organised and finite mode of
becoming perfect.

动物适应它的环境。那就是适应,相当明确地,这种适应具有它的目的,它的术语。以这种方式来说,它的限制。动物的学习展示这些特色:一个有组织的有限模式,来力求完美。

How different it is from what the same research – so one thinks – reveals about learning in man! These researches clearly show the function of the desire to return to it, the privilege of tasks which haven’t been completed. Mrs Zeigarnik is invoked without knowing quite what she said, for saying that a task will be memorised all the better for having failed under determinate conditions.

这跟这个相同的研究所显示的,关于人的学习,真是有天渊之别,我们是这样认为。这些研究清楚地显示这个功用:想要回到自主者的这种欲望,这些还没有被完成的工作的特权。扎伽米克夫人常被引用,作为不知道她说些什么的代表。因为她说,在某些特定的情况下,一件工作因为功败垂成,反而会更加被记住。

Don’t you see that all of that goes totally against animal psychology, and even totally against the account we might give of memory as being the stacking up of engrams, of impressions, in which the individual being is formed? In man, it is the wrong form which prevails. In so far as a task is not completed the subject returns to it. The more abject the failure, the better the subject remembers it.

你们难道看不出来? 所有这一切跟动物心理学完全背道而驰,甚至跟我们描述的个人的形成,是因为记忆,作为铭记,印象的堆积,完全背道而驰。在人的身上,现在运行的是错误的形态。因为主体的工作还没有被完成,他就魂归西天。这种失败越是卑微,主体会越记得清楚。

In all this, we are not considering things at the level of the being and of
destiny -the thing was measured within the limitations of a laboratory. But it is
not enough to measure, one must also try to understand.

在这一切之中,我们并没有从生命实存及命运的层次,来考虑事情。在实验室的限制之内,事情被衡量。但是光是衡量无济于事,我们必须也尝试了解。

I am perfectly well aware that the mind is always abundant in modes of
understanding. I often say that to people I supervise – be very careful not to
understand the patient; there is no surer way of getting lost.

我知道得一清而楚,在了解的各种模式里,心灵总是丰沛。我时常说,对于我督导的人们,要小心谨慎,不要去了解病人, 因为这是最容易迷失自己的途径。

The patient says something which one can make neither head nor tail of, and, in repeating it to me – Well, I understand him, I’m told, to mean this. That is, in the name of intelligence, what should stop us in our tracks, what isn’t comprehensible, is simply dodged.

病人说某件我们完全无法了解到事情。当病人跟我重复一遍时—呵呵,我被告诉说,我了解他是这个意思。换句话说,以智慧理解的名义,在我们探索途中应该阻挡我们的,无法被理解的内容,就是突然闪烁不见。

The Zeigarnik effect, the abject failure, or the task left incomplete, everyone
understands that. We all remember Mozart – he gulped down the cup of
chocolate, and he came back to strike the last chord. But one fails to understand that it isn’t an explanation.

扎伽米克效应,就是卑微的失败,或是工作没有被完成地留下,每一个人都心知肚明。我们都记得莫扎特—他一口气吞下一杯巧克力饮料,然后他回来演奏这最后的琴键。但是我们无法了解,这并不是一种解释。

Or if it is one, that means we aren’t animals. We aren’t musicians the way my little dog is, going all dreamy when I put on certain records. A musician is always the musician of his own music.

或者,假如这是一种解释,那意味着我们并不是动物。我们并不是像我的小狗那样的音乐家,当我播放某些的音乐唱片时,我的小狗变得梦幻陶醉。音乐家总是陶醉于他自己的音乐的音乐家。

And except for people who write their own music. that is, who keep their distance from this music, there aren’t many people who come back to strike their last chord.

除了那些自己写作音乐的人们,换句话说,他们跟这种音乐保持距离。并没有很多人会回头来演奏他们最后的琴键。

I would like to get you to understand at what level the need for repetition is
situated. ,And once again, we will find our reference some way away.

我想要让你们了解,重复的需要被定位在什么层次。再一次,我们将在某个远处,找到跟我们有关的东西。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

迴圈 05

December 26, 2011

拉康第二研讨班
The Ego in Freud’s Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis 1954-1955
弗洛伊德理论的自我与精神分析技术

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

VII The circuit 05
第七章: 迴圈
3
At the level of the nervous system, when there are stimuli, everything works,
everything comes into action, the efferents, the afferents, so that the living
being returns to a state of repose. That’s the pleasure principle, according to
Freud.

在神经系统的层次,当刺激存在时,每件事情都行得通,每件事情都活跃起来,各种情感都活跃起来。这样,生命的实存回到安息的状态。依照弗洛伊德,那就是快乐原则。

On the intuitive level. there is, isn’t there, some discordance between the
pleasure principle defined thus, and what pleasure evokes in the way of
raciness. Every man runs after his lady, that’s what it looked like until now.

在直觉的层次,在如此被定义的快乐原则,与快乐以粗俗方式召唤的东西之间,会有一些不协调,不是吗?每个人都追求他的心里意中人,那就是迄今看起来的样子。

In Lucretius, it was clear, and rather fun. And from time to time, analysts,
despairing after all at having to use categories which seem to them so contrary
to the feeling, remind us that there is indeed a pleasure in activity, a taste for
stimulation. One seeks out entertainment, and one is taken in by the game.

在陆瑞修斯,这是清楚的,相当好玩。有时,精神分析,毕竟,对于必须使用跟感觉相反如此相反的范畴,而深感绝望。他提醒我们,在活动中确实有一种快乐,一种寻求刺激的品味。我们寻求娱乐,我们被遊戏所欺骗。

And, after all, wasn’t it Freud who introduced the function of the libido into
human behaviour? This libido, isn’t it something rather libidinous? People seek
their pleasure. So, why is this expressed theoretically by a principle which
states the following -what is sought is, in the end, the cessation of pleasure.

毕竟,难道不是弗洛伊德介绍生命力比多的功用,到人类的行为?这个生命力比多,难道不是某件相当具有生命活力的东西?人们寻求他们的快乐。所以,为什么这个快乐理论上被一个原则表达?这个原则陈述如下:所被寻求的东西,终归到底,就是快乐的中断。

But you can see that the direction the theory takes at this point goes exactly in the opposite direction to that of subjective intuition – in the pleasure principle,
pleasure, by definition, is bent on its end. The pleasure principle – the principle
of pleasure – is that pleasure should cease. 3

但是你们能够看出,在这一点理论採取的方向,确实是朝著跟主体直觉的方向相反的方向—在这个快乐原则,定义上,快乐是朝向于结束快乐。快乐原则—就是快乐应该停止。

Within this perspective, what becomes of the reality principle?

在这个观点里,现实原则会发生怎样的事情?

The reality principle is usually introduced with the simple remark that too
much pleasure-seeking ends in all kinds of accidents – you get your fingers
burnt, you get the clap, you get your face smashed in.

现实原则通常被介绍,用这个简单的谈论:过分地寻求快乐结果会造成各种意外事件—你让你的手指给烫伤,你遭到耳光被打,你遭遇你的脸孔被压到。

That is how we have the genesis of what is called human learning described to us. And then we are told that the pleasure principle is opposed to the reality-principle. In our perspective, that obviously acquires another meaning.

那就是我们让所谓的人类的学习的开始,跟我们描述。我们被告诉,快乐原则与现实原则互相对立。在我们的观点,现实原则获得另外一种意义。

The reality principle consists in making the game last, that is to say, in ensuring that pleasure is renewed, so that the fight doesn’t end for lack of combatants.” the reality principle consists in husbanding our pleasures, these pleasures whose aim is precisely to end in cessation.

现实原则在于让这个遊戏维持下去。换句话说,当我们确定快乐被更新,这样战斗并没有因为欠缺格斗者而结束。现实原则在于怀抱我们的快乐,这些快乐的目标,确实就是要以终止结束。

Don’t get the idea that analysts are satisfied with this way of looking at the
pleasure principle, which is nonetheless absolutely essential. from one end to
the other, to the theory – if you don’t think of the pleasure principle in this
register, it is useless to introduce you to Freud.

你们难道没有获得这个观念:精神分析满意于观看这个快乐原则。可是,这个快乐原则对于理论绝对是基本的,从一个目标到另外一个目标。假如你们没有想到在这种铭记的快乐原则,跟你们介绍弗洛伊德是白费口舌。

The notion that there is a kind of pleasure proper to activity, pleasure in play,
for instance, cripples the very categories of our thinking. What need would we
then have of our technique?

在活动的本体,有一种快乐,譬如,遊戏的快乐。这个观念让我们思想的范畴为之瓦解。那么我们对于我们精神分析技术,有何需要?

It would simply be a matter of teaching people , ‘Ie principe de plaisir’ is equally accurately translated by ‘the pleasure principle’ and by ‘the principle of pleasure’. gymnastics, music or anything else you want. Pedagogical procedures belong to a completely alien register to that of analytic experience.

问题仅是如何教导人们,Ie principe de plaisir’ 同样正确地被翻译为「快乐原则」,根据这个快乐原则,你从事运动,音乐,或任何其他你需要的东西。教学的程序,对于精神分析经验,属于一种完全的外来的铭记。

I’m not saying that they are without value, or that they might not be made to play an essential role in the Republic – we need only refer to Plato.

我并不说,它们没有价值,或是它们可能没有被迫扮演一个重要的角色,在理想国—我们只需要提到柏拉图。

One may want to fit man in to a harmonious, natural mode of functioning , one
may want to get him to connect the stages of his development, allow him the
free blossoming of what in his organism, reaches, in its own time, maturity, and
to give to each of these stages its time for play; then its time for adaptation, time for stabilisation, until the new living feature makes its appearance.

我们可能想要将人适合于一种和谐,自然的功用模式,我们可能想要让他连接他的发展的各个阶段,容许他自由地发展,在他的有机体,根据有机体的节奏,到达成熟,然后给予每一个这个阶段它的遊戏时间,然后它的适应时间和,它的稳定时间,直到这个新的生命的特征出现。

An entire anthropology can be ordered around this. But is that the anthropology that justifies psychoanalyses, that is to say, sticking them on a couch so that they can tell us a lot of bloody nonsense? What’s the relation between that and gymnastics, music? Would Plato have understood what psychoanalysis was about?

整个人类学能够像这样地被规范。但那不就是让精神分析能够自圆其说的人类学?换句话说,将他们仰躺在精神分析长椅上,这样他们才会告诉我们许多血腥的无聊八卦?在那种精神分析与运动,音乐之间的关系是什么?柏拉图本来会了解到精神分析是在幹啥?

No, he wouldn’t have understood it, despite appearances, because at this point there’s’ an abyss, a fault, and this is what we are in the process .of looking for, ‘With Beyond the Pleasure Principle.

不,柏拉图本来无法了解精神分析,尽管外表的酷似,因为在这个时候,有一个深渊,一个地面裂开。这是我们使用「超越快乐原则」,正在寻找的过程的生命本质。

I’m not saying that analysands are incapable of learning. You can teach
People play the piano – though it has to exist – and you notice, for instance, that having learned to play the piano with large keys, they can play on a piano
with small keys, on a harpsichord, etc. But this is only a matter of determinate
segments of human behaviour, and not, as in analysis, of man’s destiny, his
conduct when the piano lesson has ended and he goes and visits his girlfriend.
Then what he learns is more or less the same as Gribouille.

我并不是在说,分析者能够学习。你们能够教导人们弹钢琴—虽然必须要先有钢琴—譬如,你们注意到,当人们学会演奏拥有大的琴键的钢琴,他们就能够演奏小的琴键的钢琴,及大型豪华钢琴等等。但是问题仅是要如何决定人类行为的区分,而不是如同在精神分析里,要决定人的命运,人的行为。当钢琴课程结束后,他去拜访他的女友。然后,他所学习到的事情,跟格瑞伯利几乎大同小异。

You know the story of Gribouille. He goes to a funeral, and says – Many happy
returns! He gets himself in a mess, gets his hair pulled, goes back home – Come now, you don’t say ‘Many happy returns’ at a funeral. you say – May God rest his soul He goes back out, comes upon a wedding – May God rest his soul And he still gets into trouble.

你们知道格瑞伯利的故事。他去参加葬礼,他说:祝你生日快乐!他替自己惹来麻烦,头髮被拉扯,才回到家。现在算了吧!你并没有在葬礼上说:祝你生日快乐!你说: 愿上帝早日安息!他退回去后,又来参加婚礼说:但愿上帝早日安息!他依旧替自己惹来麻烦。

Well that is what learning is, so analysis shows us, and that is what we come •
upon in the first analytic discoveries – trauma, fixation, reproduction,
transference. What in the analytic experience is called the intrusion of the past
into the present pertains to this order. It is always the learning of someone who
will do better next time. And when I say that he will do better next time, that
means that he’ll have to do something completely different ‘next time.

呵呵,那就是学习是什么的问题,精神分析如此跟我们显示,那就是我们在早先的精神分析的发现所遇到的—创伤,固执,复制,移情。在精神分析经验,所谓的过去的闯入现在,都属于这个层次。总是有某个人的学习下一次会做得更好。当我说,他下一次将会做得更好,那意味着,下一次他将必须做某件完全不同的事情。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

迴圈 04

December 26, 2011

拉康第二研讨班
The Ego in Freud’s Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis 1954-1955
弗洛伊德理论的自我与精神分析技术

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

VII The circuit 04
第七章: 迴圈
The Bell Telephone Company needed to economise, that is to say, to pass the
greatest possible number of communications down one single wire. In a
country as vast as the United States, it is very important to save on a few wires, and to get the inanities which generally travel by this kind of transmission
apparatus to pass down the smallest possible number of wires.

贝尔电话公司需要有效利用,换句话说,为了将最大量的资讯通过一条线传递。在像美国那样幅员广大的国家,仅靠几条电话线,一般都凭借这种的传递工具,将所有的无聊的资讯,快速传送到尽可能少量的电线里,这是很精省的做法。

That is where the quantification of communication started .. $o a start was made, as you can see, by dealing with something very far removed from what we here call speech.

那就是资讯开始的特质。如你们所见,这种的开始,是凭借处理跟我们在这里所谓的言说,相当遥远的东西来达成。

It had nothing to do with knowing whether what people tell each other makes
any sense. Besides, what is said on the telephone, you must know from
experience, never does. But one communicates, one recognises the modulation of a human voice, and as a result one has that appearance of understanding which comes with the fact that one recognises words one already knows.

至于人们互相之间告诉的话,是否具有意义,在此并没有丝毫关系。除外,在电话里所说的话,从来就没有什么意义,你们根据经验一定知道。但是我们沟通,我们体认出人类声音的调适。结果是,我们拥有这个表象:从认识出我们已经知道的字词的这个事实,我们获得了解。

It is a matter of knowing what are the most economical conditions which enable one to transmit the words people recognise. No one cares about the meaning.

问题是要知道什么是最精省的情况,使一个人能够传递人们所认识的字词。没有人在乎有没有意义。

Doesn’t this underline rather well the point which I am emphasising, which
one always forgets, namely that language, this language which is the
instrument of speech, is something material?

这难道不是很清楚突显出我正在强调的这一点:我们总是忘记,换句是说,语言,作为言说的工具的语言,是某件具体的东西?

In this way it was realised that there was no need for everything that gets
inscribed on to the small sheet of an apparatus which has been more or less
perfected, and become electronic in the meantime, but which in the end is still a Marey’s apparatus, which oscillates and represents the modulation of the
voice. To obtain the same result all that is needed is to take a small slice from it, reducing the whole oscillation by a great deal – of the order of 1 to 10.

以这种方式,我们体会到,并没有需要将每件事情都被记载在已经相改善的这小条电线工具,同时又成为电子化。但是最后,这个工具依旧是梅瑞的工具。它摇摆并且代表声音的调适。为了获得相同的效果,所需要被做到是从它那里,拿出一小片,大量地减少从一到十的全部摇摆。

And not only does one hear, but one recognises the voice of the dearly beloved or of dear Mrs So-and-so, at the other end. The things of the heart, the conviction passed on from one individual to another, comes over in its entirety.

我们不但是听到,而且体认出亲爱情人,或某某亲爱的女士的声音,在电话线的另外一端。心灵的情感,从一个人传递到另一个人的信念,完整地笼罩着。

The quantity of information then began to be codified. This doesn’t mean
that fundamental things happen between human beings. It concerns what
goes down the wires, and what can be measured.

资讯的特征因此开始密码化。这并不意味着,在人与人之间,发生基本的变化。它是关心到电线的处理,以及能够被测量的东西。

Except, one then begins to wonder whether it does go, or whether it doesn’t, when it deteriorates, when it is no longer commmication. This is what is called, in psychology, the jam, an American word.

除外,我们然后开始想要知道,它是否行得通,或是否它行不通,什么时刻它会恶化,什么时刻它不再是沟通。在心理学,这就是所谓的「堵塞」,这是一个美国的用词。

It is the first time that confusion as such – this tendency there is in communication to cease being a communication, that is to say, of no
longer communicating anything at all – appears as a fundamental concept.
That makes for one more symbol.

第一次,混乱的本身出现作为一个基本的观念:在沟通时,有一种倾向会停止是一种沟通。换句话说,它不再沟通任何的东西。那导致又另外一个符号象征。

You must get acquainted with this symbolic system, if you want to gain
entrance to entire orders of reality which very much concern us. If you don’t
know how to manipulate these capital B’s and these capital P’s correctly, you
can’t be qualified to speak about inter-human relations. And this is in fact an
objection which we could well have made yesterday evening to Merleau-Ponty.

对于这个符号象征系统,你们一定耳熟能详,假如你们想要获得进入跟我们息息相关的现实界的整个秩序。假如你们不知道如何正确地操控这些大写字母B,及这些大写字母P,你就无法获的资格谈论人际之间的关系。事实上,这是昨天晚上,我们很有理由会对梅洛、庞帝提出反对。

At some point–in the symbolic system’s development, not everyone can speak
with everyone else;’ When we talked of closed subjectivity to him, he said -If you can’t talk with communists, the foundation of language vanishes, for the foundation of language is that it’ is universal.

在某个时刻,在符号象征系统的发展,并不是每个人都能够跟每一个其他人言说。当我们跟他谈论到封闭的主体性,他说:假如你无法跟共产主义者交谈,语言的基础将会消失,因为语言的基础是,语言是通用性的。

Well of course. But one still has to be introduced into the circuit of language, and know what one is talking about when one talks about communication. And you’ll see that this is essential in relation to the death instinct, which seems the opposite.

呵呵,当然。但是我们依旧必须被介绍到语言的迴圈,知道一个人正在谈论什么,当一个人谈论到资讯。你们将会看出,这是很重要的,它跟死亡本能有关系,表面上它是相反。

Mathematicians qualified to handle these symbols locate information as that
which moves in the opposite direction to entropy. When .people had become
acquainted with thermodynamics. and asked themselves how their machine
was going to pay for itself. they left themselves out.

数学家有资格来处理这些符号象征,他们将资讯定位为朝着镝效应的相反方向移动,然后询问他们自己,他的机器如何偿付它的代价,他们让自己被排除在外。

They regarded the machine as the master regards the slave – the machine is there. somewhere else. and it works. They were forgetting only one thing. that it was they who had signed the order form. Now. this fact turns out to have a considerable importance in the domain of energy.

他们看待这个机器,就像主人看待奴隶。机器在那里,某个其他地方,机器会运作。他们仅是忘记一件事情:他们已经签订这个订购单。现在,在精力能量的这个领域,这个事实结果具有相当的重要性。

Because if information is introduced into the circuit of the degradation of energy. it can perform miracles. If Maxwell’ s demon can stop the atoms which move too slowly. and keep only those which have a tendency to be a little on the frantic side. he will cause the general level of the energy to rise again. and will do ,using what would have degraded into heat. work equivalent
to that which was lost.

因为假如资讯被介绍进入精力能量的减少的迴圈,资讯能够行使奇迹。假如马克威尔的恶魔能够阻止移动太慢的原子,并且仅保留那些倾向于狂热活动的原子,他将会引起精力能量的一般层次再一次上升。然后,他将使用本来会减化成为热量的东西,去从事相当等于是损失的工作。

This seems far removed from our subject. You will see how we will meet up
with it again. Let us start again with our pleasure principle. and let’s plunge
back into the ambiguities.
这似乎距离为们的主体非常遥远。你们将会看出,我们将会如再一次跟它会合。让我们再一次以我们的快乐原则开始,然后让我们回转投入那些模糊暧昧里。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

迴圈 03

December 26, 2011

拉康第二研讨班
The Ego in Freud’s Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis 1954-1955
弗洛伊德理论的自我与精神分析技术

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

VII The circuit 03
第七章: 迴圈
In other words, the machine looks after itself, maps out a certain curve, a
certain persistence;’ And it is along the very path of this subsistence that
something else becomes manifest, sustained by this existence it finds there and which shows it its passage.

换句话说,机器照顾它自己,描绘出某个曲线,某个持续。就是沿着这条生存的途径,某件其它的东西变的显而易见,受到它在那里所找到的这个生存的支持。这种生存显示给它显示它的过程。

There is an essential link which must be made right away – when you draw a
rabbit out of a hat, it’s because you put it there in the first place. Physicists have a name for this formulation, they call it the first law of thermodynamics, the law of the conservation of energy – if there’s something at the end, just as much had to be there at the beginning.

有一个基本的关联必须立刻被形成—当你从帽子里,捉出一隻兔子,因为你事先将它存放在那里。物理学家对于这种创造有个名称。他们称它为「能量不灭动力学」,能量的保存法则—假如结束时有某件东西,在开始时也会有同样多的东西。

The second principle – I’ll try to give you a striking image of it -stipulates that
the manifestation ‘of this energy has undegraded modes and others which
aren’t. To put it another way, you can’t swim against the current. When you do
a job, a part of it is expended, as heat for instance – there’s a loss. That’s called
entropy.

第二条原则—我将尝试给予你们有关它的一个引人注意到意象—但书是,这个能量的证明拥有没有被减化的模式及其它欠缺的模式。换句话说,你们不能够逆著能量流向游泳。当你们做一件工作时,能量的一部分被消耗掉,譬如热量—会有损失。那就是所谓的「镝效应」。

There is no mystery to entropy, it’s a symbol, a thing you can write on the
blackboard, and you’d be very wrong to think it exists. Entropy is a capital E,
absolutely indispensable to our thinking.

镝效应没有什么神秘之处。它是一个符号象征,一件你们能够书写着黑板上的东西。但是你若以为它存在,那你就错误了。镝效应是一个大写字母E的开头,对于我们的思维方法,绝对是不可免除的。

And even if you couldn’t care less about this capitaLE, because a man called Karlus Mayer, a doctor in the navy, founded it, it is the principle, actually, of everything -one cannot avoid taking it into account when one runs a factory, atomic or otherwise, or a country. Karlus Mayer started thinking seriously about it while bleeding his patients sometimes the paths of thought are mysterious, those of the Lord are Unfathomable.

即使你们根本不在乎关于这个大写字母的E,因为有一位名叫卡拉斯、梅尔,是一位海军医生,创办镝效应。实际上,它是一切事情的原理。我们无法避免要考虑到它,当我们经营一家工厂,原子工厂或其它,或一个国家。当卡拉斯、梅尔正在替他的病人放血时,开始认真地思考关于镝效应。有时,思想到途径是神秘的,上帝的那些思想途径是深不可测。

It is quite striking that having thought this one out, and this is, to be sure, one of thought’s great moments, he was extremely enfeebled by it – as if giving birth to capital E might have left its mark on the nervous system.
这是引人注意的,曾经构想这个镝效应后,这确实是思想的重要突破时刻,他因此变得极端的虚弱,好像生下大写字母的E,当时很有可能在神经系统留下它的记号。

You’d be wrong to think that, when I take up positions which are commonly
thought of as anti-organicist, it is because -as someone I like a lot said one day the nervous system annoys me.

假如你们这样认为,你们可就错误了。当我採取那些通常被认为的是反对有机体的立场时,那是因为—如同有某一位我非常喜欢的人,有一天说,神经系统让我感到懊恼。

I don’t take such sentimental reasons as my guide. I think ordinary organicism is a stupidity, but there is another variety which doesn’t in any way neglect material phenomena.

我并没有将诸如其类的情感上的理由,作为我的响导。我认为普通的有机体主义是愚蠢的想法。但是有另外一种变种的有机体主义,丝毫没有忽略物质的现象。

Which leads me to tell you -in all honesty, if not in complete truth, for truth would require looking for its traces in experience – that I think that, for an unhappy individual to have been charged by} know not what, the holy language as Valery put it, with the task of bringing capital E to life, doesn’t perhaps come about without cost.

这引导我非常诚实地,甚至奉为完整的真理地告诉你们,因为真理会要求在精神分析经验里寻找它的痕迹。我认为,对于一位不快乐的个人,他曾经受到攻击,那个东西我无以名之,如同诗人梵乐希所表达的,那是神圣的语言。它的工作是让大写字母E的镝效应恢复能量,或许不必另花代价,就能达成。

Karlus Mayer certainly had two parts to his life, the one before and the one after, when nothing else happened – he had said what he had to say.

卡拉斯、梅尔的一生,确实拥有两个部分。一个前面部分,另一是后面部分。当没有其它事情发生时,他曾经说出他必须说的话。

Well, this entropy, Freud encounters it, and he already does so by the end of
the Wolfman. He has a firm sense that it has some kind of relation to his death
instinct but without being able, there either, to be quite at ease with it, and
throughout this article he pursues his infernal little. merry-go-round, like
Diogenes seeking a man with his lantern. He was missing something.

呵呵,这个镝效应,弗洛伊德遭遇过它。在「狼人」的个案分析结束前,他已经遭遇到镝效应。他坚定地感觉到,镝效应跟他的死亡本能有某种的关系,但是他对镝效应,也还不能够完全自在。在这篇文章通篇里面,他追求他的炼狱一般的狂欢作乐,就像戴奥尼修斯提着灯笼寻找人。他当时迷失了某件东西。

It would be too easy if I were to tell you – I will tell you – that all you have to do is add a capital F or a capital I to the capital E. That is certainly not it, because it hasn’t thereby been entirely elucidated.

假如我要告诉你们,那将是非常容易。让我告诉你们,你们所必需要做的,就是将一个大写字母F的镝效应,增加到这个大写字母E的镝效应。确实并不是那个样子,因为镝效应并没有这样就完全被诠释。

Contemporary thought is in the process of trying to get ahold of this down
paths which are often ambiguous, even confusional. and you can’t be unaware
that you are present at its birth. I would go even further – in so far as you are
here, following my seminar, you are in the process of see-sawing into this
childbirth.

当代的思想正在尝试掌握这个向下的途径,那往往是模糊暧昧,甚至是混乱。你们不可能不知道,在镝效应诞生时,你们就在现场。我甚至还可探究更深入。当你们在这里,追随地听我的研讨班,你们正处于颠沛前进到这个镝效应的诞生。

You are entering into that dimension in which thought tries to order itself and find its correct symbol. its capital F following on from capital E. In the
present state of things, it’s the quantity of information.

你们正在进入那个维度,在那里,思想尝试要规范自己,并且找到它的正确的符号象征。思想的大写字母F的镝效应,从大写字母E的镝效应,尾随而来。在事情的目前状态,它是这个资讯的数量。

Some aren’t taken aback by this. Others seem completely baffled.

有些人并没有因此而受到惊吓。还有些人则是惊惶失措。

The great adventure of the research concerning communication began at
some distance, at least ostensibly, from our concerns. Rather let’s say, for how
are we to know where it all began, that one of its significant moments is to be
found in the company of telephone engineers.

关于资讯的研究的最大冒险,从某些距离就开始,至少虚张声势地说,从我们关心的东西开始。相反地,让我们这样说,因为我们如何能够知道,它全部是从哪里开始。它最重要的时刻之一,能够在电话工程师的公司那里被找到。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

迴圈 02

December 26, 2011

拉康第二研讨班
The Ego in Freud’s Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis 1954-1955
弗洛伊德理论的自我与精神分析技术

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

VII The circuit
第七章: 迴圈

2
What impasse had we reached last time? The organism already conceived by
Freud as a machine. has a tendency to return to its state of equilibrium -this is
what the pleasure principle states.

上一次我们曾经遭遇怎样的僵局?已经由弗洛伊德所构想作为机器的有机体,有一种倾向会回转的平衡状态—这是快乐原则所陈述的。

Now. at first sight. this restitutive tendency is not clearly distinguishable. in Freud’s text. from the repetitive tendency which he isolates. and which constitutes his original contribution. So we ask ourselves the following question – what distinguishes these two tendencies?

现在,乍然一看,这个回转的倾向并不是那么容易区别出来。在弗洛伊德的文本,从他孤立出来的这个重复的倾向,这个重复的倾向形成弗洛伊德最初的贡献。所有我们询问自己以下的问题:这两个倾向的区别是什么?

In this text. the middle terms are very strange. because they are part of a
circular dialectic. Freud is constantly returning to a notion which always seems to elude him. It resists, but he doesn’t stop, he tries to maintain the originality of the repetitive tendency at all costs. Without the shadow of a doubt, there was something he lacked. of the order of categories or of images, so as to give us a clear sense of it.

在这个文本,这些中间的术语非常奇怪,因为它们是循环辩证法的部分。弗洛伊德不断地回到一个他总是捉摸不定的观念。这个观念会抗拒,但是他并没有因而停止。他尝试不计任何代价,维持这个重复倾向的原创性。没有丝毫怀疑的馀地,属于意象范畴的层次,有某件他欠缺的东西,为了让我们清楚地明白它。

From the beginning of Freud’s work to the end, the pleasure principle is
explained in the following way – when faced with a stimulus encroaching on
the living apparatus, the nervous system is as it were the indispensable delegate of the homeostat, of the indispensable regulator, thanks to which the living being survives, and to which corresponds a tendency to lower the excitation to a minimum. To a minimum, what does that mean?

从弗洛伊德著作的开始到结束,快乐原则用以下的方式解释:当神经系统面临一种刺激物侵犯生命的工具,它就是所谓的平衡状态的无法免除的代表,这个无法免除的调节器。由于有这个调节器,生物才能生存下去。为了降低刺激的兴奋到最小量的程度,有一个倾向会回应这个调节器。降低到最小量,那是什么意思?

There is an ambiguity here, which puts analytic authors under some difficulty. Read them, you’ll see them slide down the slope which Freud’s way of rendering the question dialectical opens to them.

在此有一个模糊暧昧,让精神分析的作者感到相当的困难。假如你们阅读它们,你们会滑下这个斜坡,弗洛伊德以辩证方式来解释问题,展开的斜坡。

Freud here offered them the opportunity for yet one more misunderstanding,
and in chorus they all succumb to it, in their panic.

弗洛伊德在此提供它们这个机会,产生又一次的误解,并且异口同声地,他们在惊恐万分中,屈服于这个斜坡。

The minimum tension can mean one of two things, all biologists will agree,
according to whether it is a matter of the minimum given a certain definition of
the equilibrium of the system, or of the minimum purely and simply, that is to
say, with respect to the living being, death.

最小量的紧张意味着两件事情,所有的生物学家将会同意,依照这个最小量是如何被给于神经系统的平衡的某种定义,或是依照单纯实在的最小量,也就是说,关于生物的死亡。

Indeed one can consider that with death, all tensions are reduced, from the
point of view of the living being, to zero. But one can just as well take into
consideration the processes of decomposition which follow death. One then
ends up defining the aim of the pleasure principle as the concrete dissolution of the corpse. That is something which one cannot but see as excessive.

的确,我们能够认为,随着死亡,一切都紧张都被减低,从生物的观点来说,那是零度状态。但是我们同样考虑到跟随死亡而来的瓦解的过程。我们因此结果是定义快乐原则的目标,作为尸体的具体的瓦解。那是我们不得不视为是多余的某件东西。

However, I can cite you several authors for whom reducing the stimuli to the
minimum means nothing more nor less than the death of the living being.

可是,我能够跟你们引述几位作者,对于他们,将刺激简低到最小量,仅是意味着生物的死亡。

That is to assume that the problem has been resolved, that is to confuse the pleasure principle with what we think Freud designated under the name of the death instinct. I say what we think, because, when Freud speaks of the death instinct, he is, thank God, designating something less absurd, less anti-biological. antiscientific.

也就是假定,这个问题已经被解决。那就是将快乐原则,与我们认为弗洛伊德以死亡本能的名义所指明的东西,混淆在一块。我说我们所认为,因为当弗洛伊德谈论到死亡本能时,感谢上帝,他指明的某件东西,并没有那么荒谬,没有那么违反生物,或违反科学的法则。

There is something which is distinct from the pleasure principle and which
tends to reduce all animate things to the inanimate – that is how Freud puts it.
What does he mean by this? What obliges him to think that? Not the death of
living beings. It’s human experience, human interchange, intersubjectivity.
Something of what he observes in man constrains him to step out of the limits of life.

有某件跟快乐原则不同的东西,它倾向于将所有生命的东西,都减少到成为没有生命。那就是弗洛伊德表达他的方式。他说这样的话是什么意思?是什么强迫他这样认为?这并不是生物的死亡,这是人类的经验,人类的交换,人际的互为主体性。某件他在人的身上观察到的东西,约束他不要跨越到生命的限制的外面。

No doubt there is a principle which brings the libido back to death, but it
doesn’t bring it back any old how. If it brought it back there by the shortest
paths, the problem would be resolved. But it brings it back there only along the
paths of life, it so happens.

无可置疑的,有一个原则将生命的力比多带回到死亡,但是它并没有带力比多回到任何旧有的地方。假如这个原则用最短的途径,将力比多带回那里,问题将会被解决。但是这个原则将力比多仅是沿着生命的途径,带回那里,情形就是那样。

The principle which brings the living being back to death is situated, is marked out behind the necessity it experiences to take the roads of life – and it can only take that way. It cannot find death along any old road.

将生物带回死亡的原则,被定位,被标示在它经验到的需要的背后,为了要採取生命的途径—它仅能走那条途径。它沿着任何旧的途径,不会找到死亡。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

弗洛伊德理论的自我与精神分析技术

December 25, 2011

拉康第二研讨班
The Ego in Freud’s Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis 1954-1955
弗洛伊德理论的自我与精神分析技术

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

VII The circuit
第七章: 迴圈

M A U R I C E M ER L E A U-PONTY A N D U N D E R S T A N D I N G
梅洛庞帝及其了解

– C O N S ER V A T I O N . E N T R O P Y . I N F O R M A TI O N
保存:镝的资讯

•PLE A S U R E P R I N C I P L E A N D R E A L I T Y P R I N C I P L E
快乐原则及现实原则

G R I B O U I L L E ‘ S A P P R E N T I C E S H I P
格瑞博洛的学徒生涯

R EM I N I S C E N C E A N D R E PETITION
回顾与重复

We are going to reflect on yesterday evening’s extraordinary paper. Did you
make some sense of it? The discussion was remarkably well focused, and I was very pleased with that. But do you really see the heart of the problem, and the distance which Merleau-Ponty unyieldingly keeps from the analytic
experience? .

我们将要反思一下昨天晚上的特别论文。你能够理解那论文的意义吗?这个讨论的专注非常清楚,我非常对它非常满意。但是你们看见这个问题的核心吗?梅洛、庞帝跟精神分析经验不屈不桡地保持距离。

1
There is a term towards which the discussion could have turned if we had had
more time, namely Gestaltism. I don’t know whether you spotted it in passing, it arose a tone point in Merleau-Ponty’s talk as what for him is truly the measure, the standard of the encounter with the other and with reality.

有一个术语,讨论本来会朝向它,假如我们当时跟充分时间的话,那就是格塔式行为模式。我不知道你们是否偶尔觉察出它,它在梅洛庞帝的谈话里,引起一个关键点。因为这对于他确实是作为衡量的东西,跟他者及跟现实界的邂逅的标准。

And, indeed, what lies’ at bottom of his teaching is understanding. In spite of the distance he tries to keep from what he calls the traditional liberal position, well, as was quite rightly-pointed out to him, he isn’t that far from it. Because in the end, his only advance is to have realised that some things are difficult to understand, hard to swallow.

的确,处于梅洛庞帝的教学的基础是了解。尽管他设法跟他所谓的传统的开明的立场保持距离,呵呵,如同有人跟他合宜地指出,他其实并没有保持很远。因为最后,他唯一的进步,就是曾经体会到:某些东西是很难于了解,很难于接受。

It’s no accident that he has taken his point of reference from contemporary
political experience. You know how greatly concerned he is about this, the
breaking off of the dialogue with communism.

这并非是偶然,他曾经从当代的政治经验,获得他的参考点。你们知道,他是多么的关心到这一点,跟共产主义对话的这个中断。

For him it’s a historical crisis spanning human experience. He realises both that we don’t understand one another, and he reaffirms that we must understand. As the title of one of his recent articles in a weekly expressed it – D’abord comprendre les Communistes.

对于他而言,横跨人类的经验是一个历史的危机。他体会到,我们并没有互相了解,他重新肯定,我们必须了解。如同他最近在週刊的文章的标题表达它,「D’abord comprendre les Communistes.」。

A very paradoxical title, since he realises precisely that, from his point of
view, he can’t understand.

这是一个非常矛盾的标题,因为他确实体会到,从他的观点,他并不了解。

It was just the same yesterday evening. It is unfortunate that he didn’t
examine more closely, no doubt because of insufficient familiarity with this
area, whether understanding has a place in the field of analysis.

就在相同的昨天晚上,很不幸地,他并没有更加仔细地检查,是否了解在精神分析的领域具有地位。无可置疑地,因为他对这个地区,并没有充分地熟悉。

In other words, can the field of analysis accede to homogeneity? Can everything in it be understood? That is the question which Jean Hyppolite raised – is Freudianism a humanism, yes or no? Merleau-Ponty’s position is essentially a humanist one.

换句话说,精神分析的领域会同意同质性吗?在精神分析领域的一切,能够被了解吗?这就是海坡来特提出的问题?弗洛伊德学说是一种人文主义吗?是或不是?梅洛庞帝的立场基本上是一个人文主义的立场。

And you can see where that leads him.

你能们能够了解,他会被引导到哪里?

In effect, he hangs on to the notion of totality, of unitary functioning, he
always presupposes a given unity accessible to what in the end will be an
instantaneous, theoretical. contemplative apprehension, to which the experience of the good form, so very ambiguous in Gestaltism, gives a semblance of support.

实际上,他紧紧捉住整体性,统一性的功用的这个观念,他总是预先假设一个特有的统一性可以获得,通过最后将会是瞬间的,理论的,沉思的理解。这个良好形式的经验,对于一种类似的支持,虽然在格塔式的行为主义非常模糊暧昧。

Not that this notion doesri’t correspond to measurable facts, a wealth
of experimentation. But the ambiguity lies in a theorisation in which physics
becomes confused with phenomenology, in which a drop of water, so long as it
takes on a spherical form, is on the same level as this something which requires that we always tend to perceive the approximate form we see as circular.

倒不是因为这个观念跟可测量的事实,跟许多的试验不相吻合。而是这个模糊暧昧在于一种理论化,在这个理论化里,物理跟现象学变得混淆。在现象学,一滴水只要具有球形的形状,它就处于相同的层次,跟某件要求我们倾向于感觉我们看到近似圆形的形式。

That is a correlation which to be sure makes for a striking image, but it elides
the essential problem.

那是一个相关,确实地,它朝向一个显著的意象,但是它闪躲这个基本的问题。

No doubt something tends to produce this good form at the back of the retina, something in the physical world tends to produce certain analogous forms, but putting these two facts together isn’t a way of giving an account of experience in all its richness.

无可置疑地,某件东西倾向在瞳孔的背后,于产生这个美好的形式,在物理的世界的某个东西,倾向于产生某种类似的形式,但是将这两个事实汇集在一块,并无法描述经验的丰富性。

In any case, if one does so, one can no longer assert, as Merleau-Ponty would like to, the primacy of consciousness.

无论如何,假如我们这样做,我们不再能够如同梅洛庞帝所想要的,主张意识到优先地位。

Consciousness, in the end, itself becomes a mechanism. And it plays, without
him realising it, the function which I argue here to be the first stage [temps] of
the dialectic of the ego. Except, for Merleau-fonty, it’s all there, in consciousness.

最后,意识的本身会成为一种机械。他自己并没有体会到,意识扮演这个功用,我在此主张,作为自我的辩证法的第一阶段。除了就是在意识,对于梅洛庞帝而言,一切都在意识那里。

A contemplative consciousness constitutes the world through a series of
syntheses, of exchanges, which at every moment place it within a renewed,
more enveloping totality, but which always finds its origin in the subject. (To M.
Hyppolite) Don’t you agree?

一个沉思式的意识,通过一系列的综合,一系列的交换,组成这个世界。在每个时刻,这些综合及交换将意识放置在一个更新的更加涵盖的整体性里。但是它总是在主体身上找到它的起源。( 问海坡来特),你同意吗?

M . H Y PP O L I T B: I’m listening to the movement you’re unfolding starting off from the Gestalt. In the end, it is a phenomenology of the imaginary, in the sense in which we use this word.

海坡来特:我正在倾听你从格塔式行为主义开展的推演。最后,这是想象界的现象学,根据我们使用这个字词的意义。

O . M A N N O N I: It can nonetheless go beyond the imaginary level. I see the seed of Gestaltist thinking in Darwin ‘s thinking. When he replaces variation with mutation, he discovers a nature which yields good forms. But the existence of forms which aren’t simply mechanical then raises a problem. It seems to me that the Gest,alt is an attempt to resolve it.

奥、曼诺:可是它超越了想象界的层次。我在达尔文的学说,看到格塔式行为主义思潮的种子。当达尔文以基因突变来取代各种品种改变,他发现到一种产生良好形式的自然天性。但是不单纯是机械式的形式的存在,引起一种问题。我觉得,格塔式行为主义是一种想要解答它的企图。

Of course. What you just said is one more step, which I don’t take, because I
don’t want to go beyond the level Merleau-Ponty keeps to. But in fact, in
following him, in taking the word form in its fullest possible acceptation, one
would be led back to a vitalism, to the mysteries of the creative force.

当然,你刚刚所说的,是比我採取的更进一步。因为我不想要超越梅洛庞帝遵守的层次。但是事实上,当我们在遵照他,当我们尽可能接纳地接受这个字词的形式,我们会被引导会到生命力思维,回到创造的力量的神秘。

The idea of living evolution. the notion that nature always produces superior
forms. more and more elaborated. more and more integrated. better and better
built organisms. the belief that progress of some sort is immanent in the
movement of life. all this is alien to him. and he explicitly repudiates it. Since
Freud is a subject little inclined to make his decisions from positions of principle.

生命的进化的这个观念,自然总是产生较优秀的品种的这个观念,越来越复杂,越来越被合并,成为越来越健全的有机体,这种信仰:某种的进步在生命的变动里是内在本质,这一切对于梅洛庞帝而言,是非常陌生,他明确地排斥这种观念。因为弗洛伊德是的主张,比较不会让他的主张脱离原则的立场。

I think that it is his experience of man which gUides him. It is a medical
experience. It allowed him to locate the register of a certain kind of suffering and illness. of fundamental conflict. in man.

我认为这是人的经验在引导他。这是一个医学的经验。它容许他找出某种的痛苦及疾病,某种人身上的基本的冲突。

To explain the world with a natural tendency to create superior forms is quite
the opposite of the essential conflict such as he sees it played out in the human being. But this conflict goes beyond the human being.

使用自然的倾向来解释这个世界,为了创造更优秀的品种,跟他所看到的人类身上展现的这种基本的冲突,刚好相反。但是这种冲突远超过人类。

It’s as if Freud were hurled into Beyond the Pleasure Principle. which is an incontestably metaphysical category. He steps outside of the limits of the domain of the human in the organic sense of the word. Is it a conception of the world? No. it is a category of thought. to which every experience of the concrete subject cannot but refer itself.

好像弗洛伊德被投掷进入「超越快乐原则」,这是一个无可争议的形上学目录。他走出人类的领域的限制之外,就人类这个字词的生物意义来说。这难道是世界的观念吗?不,这是思想的范畴,活生生的主体的每个经验,不得不提到这种思想的范畴。

M . HYPPO L I T E: I’m not at all challenging the crisis described by Freud. But he opposes the libido to the death instinct. and he defines it as the tendency of the organism to come together with other organisms. as if that constituted progress. integration.

海坡来特:我丝毫并不是在挑战弗洛伊德所描述的危机。但是他将生命的力比多跟死亡本能相提并论。他定义它,作为有机体跟其它的有机体汇集的倾向,好像那就形成了进步及融合。

So. ‘independently of this undeniable conflict of which you speak and which doesn ‘t make him an optimist from the human point of view. we nevertheless find in him a conception of the libido. what is more ill defined. which asserts clearly the broader and broader integration of organisms. Freud says it quite succinctly in the text itself.

所以,独立于这个你提到的无可否认的冲突之外,从人性的观点来说,这并没有让他成为一位乐观主义者。我们仍然在他身上找到生命的力比多的观念,更加糟糕的一种定义,它清楚地主张有机体应该越来越广泛地融合。弗洛伊德在文本的本身,简明地说到它。
,
I understand that. But note that the tendency to union – Eros tends to unite – is
only ever apprehended in its relation to the contrary tendency. which leads to
division.–to rupture. to a redispersion. most especially of inanimate matter.
These two tendencies are strictly inseparable. No notion is less unitary than
that. Let us go over it step by step.

我了解那个道理。但是请注意,融合的倾向—性爱倾向于融合—仅是从它跟相反的倾向的关系,才能够被理解。这会导致分裂—导致断裂,导致重新再散开,特别是对于无生命的物质。这两个倾向是紧密不可分开的。没有一个观念会比那个观念更不具有统一性。让我们按部就班地检视它。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

弗洛伊德的精神分析技术

December 25, 2011

Freud’s Paper on Techniques 1953-1954

第一研讨班:弗洛伊德论精神分析技术

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

131
Ego-ideal and ideal ego
第一章:自我理想与理想自我

Damming up, even. In passing, Freud quotes four verses of Heinrich Heine’s from the Schopfungslieder, usually found in collection with the Lieder. It is a very strange little group of seven poems, whose irony and humour reveal many things which touch on the psychology of Bildung. Freud asks himself the question why does man get out of narcissism. Why is man dissatisfied? At this truly crucial moment in his scientific argument, Freud quotes Heine’s verses to us. God is speaking, and says, Illness is no doubt the final cause of the whole urge to create. By creating, I could recover. By creating, I became healthy.5

甚至全部阻拦。偶然,弗洛伊德引述海瑞奇、海因的四行诗,通常在「雅歌」的诗集里可找到。这是很奇特的七首诗的诗集。内容的反讽与幽默显示许多事情,触及到「素养」的心理学。弗洛伊德询问他自己这个问题: 为什么人们要摆脱自恋?人为什么不满足?在他的科学的争论的这个重要的时刻,弗洛伊德跟我们引述海因的四行诗。上帝在言说,并且说,无可置疑的,疾病是创造的整个渴望的最后原因。凭借创造,我能够恢复。凭借创造,我变得健康。

雄伯说:
大哉此诗!上帝在言说,并且说,无可置疑的,疾病是创造的整个渴望的最后原因。凭借创造,我能够恢复。凭借创造,我变得健康!

DR LECLAIRE: That is to say that this internal work, in which real objects and imaginary objects are equivalent…

雷克莱尔医生: 换句话说,这个内在的运作,在那里,真实的客体跟想象的客体是相等的。

Freud doesn’t say that they are equivalent. He says that at the point we have reached in the formation of the external world, it is a matter of indifference whether one considers them as real or imaginary. The difference only makes its appearance later, when the damming up has had its effects.

弗洛伊德并没有说,它们是相等。他说,在这个时刻,我们已经到达外在世界的形成,是否我们考虑它们作为真实或想象,并无关紧要。差别的仅是后来要出现,当完全阻拦产生它的效果。

DR LECLAIRE: SO I come to the second sub-chapter of the second part, in which Freud tells us that another important point in the study of narcissism is to be found in the analysis of the difference in modalities of the love life of man and woman. He thereby comes to the distinction between two types of choice which one may translate by anaclitic and narcissistic, and he studies their genesis. He is led to putting it as follows – A human being has originally two sexual objects – himself and the women who takes care of him.6 We might start from there.

雷克莱尔医生:所以,我谈到第二部分的第二个次章节。在这里,弗洛伊德告诉我们,研究自恋的另一个要点,能够被找到,在男人与女人的恋爱生活的辅助的差异的分析。他因此获得这个区别, 处于两种选择之间。我们可翻译为对人的依赖性与自恋。他研究它们的起源。他不得不表达如下: 人原先拥有两个性的客体—他自己以及照顾他的女人。「我们可以从这里开始。」

Himself, that’s to say his image. It’s absolutely clear.

他自己,换句说,他的形象。这是一清二楚的。

DR LECLAIRE: He goes into greater detail prior to the genesis, to the form, even, of this choice. He notes that the initial auto-erotic sexual satisfactions serve a function in the preservation of the self. Then, he notes that the sexual drives are at first employed in the satisfaction of the ego-drives, only becoming autonomous later. Thus the child at first loves the object which satisfies the ego-drives, that is to say the person who takes care of him. Finally, he is led to define the narcissistic type of object choice, clearly seen, above all, he says, in those whose libidinal development has been disturbed.

雷克莱尔医生:他继续详谈起源之前的细节,在这个形体之前,甚至这个选择之前。他注意到,这个最初的自动情色的性的满足,充当一种保存自我的功用。因此,他注意到,性的驱力(冲动)起初被运用来满足自我驱力(冲动),仅有在后来才变成是自动性质。因此,小孩起初爱满足自我驱力(冲动)的这个客体。换句话说,照顾他的人。最后,他被引导定义自恋种类的客体的选择,尤其重要的是,他说,在力比多的发展曾经受到干扰的那些人身上,很清楚地被看出来。

That is to say in neurotics.

也就是说,在神经症患者身上。

DR LECLAIRE: These two basic types correspond -as he had mentioned earlier – to the two basic types, masculine and feminine.

雷克莱尔:依照弗洛伊德早先提到,这两个基本的种类,对应于这两个基本种类:男性与女性。

The two types – narcissistic and Anlehnung.

这两种:自恋与依赖。

弗洛伊德的精神分析技术

December 25, 2011

Freud’s Paper on Techniques 1953-1954

第一研讨班:弗洛伊德论精神分析技术

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

130
Ego-ideal and ideal ego
第一章:自我理想与理想自我

FREUD LINE BY LINE
逐行阅读弗洛伊德
THE LURES OF SEXUALITY
性的诱惑
THB SYMBOLIC RELATION DEFINES THE POSITION OF
THE SUBJECT IN THE IMAGINARY
象征符号关系定位
想象界的主体

Leclaire, who has worked for us on the difficult text, ‘On narcissism: an introduction’, is going to continue today to share his reflections and questions with us. Take up the second section again and try to quote a lot.

雷克莱尔曾经替我们研究这篇困难文本,「论自恋:入门介绍」。他今天将继续跟我们分享他的心得及问题。请你们再一次温习第二部分,然后尝试大量引用。
1
DR LECLAIHE: It’s an impossible text to summarise. One would have to quote almost the whole of It. The first part postulates the fundamental distinction in the libido, with those arguments to which you have paid some attention concerning the germ-plasm.

雷克莱尔:这是一篇困难做总结的文本。因为我们必须引用引用几乎所有的文本。第一部分假设力比多的基本的区别,关于精子的细胞质具有的那些争议,你们曾经略微注意过。

In the second part, Freud tells us that it is unquestionably the study of the dementia praecoxes, which he calls the group of paraphrenias, which continues to provide the surest access to a study of the psychology of the ego. But that is not what he will go on to consider. He mentions several other paths which might lead to reflections concerning the psychology of the ego.

在第二部分,弗洛伊德告诉我们,无可置疑地,这个有关精神疾病的症状。他称它为「幻想性分裂症」的群体。这种分裂症的群体继续供应我们研究自我心理学的确定途径。但是那并不是他继续要考虑的。他提到好几个其它可能导致反思的途径,关于自我心理学。

He starts off with the influence of organic illness on the distribution of libido, which may be considered an excellent introduction to psycho-somatic medicine. He makes a reference to a discussion that he had had with Ferenczi on this subject, and starts with the observation that, in the course of an illness, of a painful episode, the patient withdraws his libidinal linvestment in to his ego in order to free it once more when he is cured.

他从器官的疾病对于力比多的分佈的影响开始。这可能被认为是对于心理与生理的医学的一个优秀的导引。他提到他跟费任兹的一场讨论,关于这个主题。他开始时观察到:在疾病的期间,一件令人痛苦的轶事。病人从他的力比多的投注撤退进入他的自我,为了当他被治疗好时,为了解放力比多的投注。

He concludes that this is a banal consideration, but nevertheless one which merits examination. During the phase in which he withdraws his libidinal investment from objects, the libido and the ego ‘s interest are once again confused, once again share the same destiny, and become impossible to tell apart.

他的结语说:这是一种平凡的考虑,可是,这个考虑值得我们检视一下。在他从这些客体,撤退他的力比多的投注的这段期间,力比多与自我的興趣再一次被混淆,再一次分担相同的命运,然后变成不可能拆散。

Do you know Wilhelm Busch? He’s a humourist you should drink deep from. There’s an unforgettable creation of his called Balduin Bahlamm, the poet in shackles. His toothache puts a stop to all his idealist and platonising daydreams» as well as to the promptings of love. He forgets the prices on the stock exchange, taxes, the multiplication table, etc. All the habitual forms of being are suddenly found to be without interest, turned to nothing. And now, in the little hole, lives the molar. The symbolic world of the prices on the stock exchange and the multiplication table is entirely invested in pain.

你们知道威汉姆、布希吗?他是一位让你们深为心仪的幽默大师。他所谓的宝丢、巴拉姆,这位陷身囹圄的诗人,是一件令人难以忘怀的创造。他的牙疼阻挡了他一切的理想及柏拉图式的白日梦想,以及爱的各种激情。他忘记在证券交易的价格,税金及乘法表,等等。各种习惯性的生命实存,突然被发现興趣索然,了无意义。现在,在这个小的洞口,臼齿所在地洞口。证券交易的价格及乘法表的符号象征世界,完全被投注在痛苦当中。

DELECLAIRE: Freud then turns to another point, the state of sleep in which there is a similar narcissistic withdrawal of libidinal investments. He then returns to hypochondria, to its differences and points of similarity with organic illness. He thus arrives at the notion that the difference between the two, which is perhaps of no importance, is the existence of an organic lesion.

雷克莱尔:
弗洛伊德然后转向另外一点,睡眠的状况。在睡眠状态里,有一种类似的自恋力比多投注的的撤退。他然后转向忧郁妄想症,转向它跟器官的疾病的差异与近似点。他于是获得这个观念:在忧郁妄想症与器官疾病之间的这个差异,或许并不重要,它是器官局部病变的存在。

The study of hypochondria and organic illnesses allows him above all to make it clear that, in the hypochondriac, there are doubtless also organic changes of the order of vaso-motor difficulties, of circulatory difficulties, and he expounds on the similarity between the excitation of any bodily zone and sexual excitation.

尤其重要的是,忧郁妄想症与器官疾病的研究,让他能够清楚显示,在忧郁妄想症,无可置疑地,会有血管动力阻塞及血液循环困难层次的器官病变。他详细陈述,任何身体地带的興奋跟性的興奋之间,会有相同的部分。

He introduces the notion of erotogenicity,1 of erogenous zones which can, he says, replace the genitals and behave like them, that is to say, they can be the seat of activity and relaxation, Andjie tells us that there may be a variation in the libidinal investment of the ego in parallel with each variation of this type in the erotogenicity of an organ. And this raises the psycho-somatic problem again.

他介绍性感地带的观念。他说,性感地带能够取代性器官,并且像性器官一样地行为。换句话说,那是活动及轻松的位置。安究告诉我们,自我的力比多的投注,可能会有变数,对比与器官的性感地带的这种变数。这再一次引起心理与生理的问题。

In any case, following on from the study of erotogenicity, and the possibilities of erotogenization2 of any part of the body, he is led to suppose that hypochondria may be classified with the neuroses which depend on the libido of the ego, whereas the other actual neuroses depend on object-libido, is produced with real objects or with imaginary objects.

无论如何,从性感地带及身体的任何地带具有性感的可能,这样遵循下去,他被引导到假设: 忧郁妄想症可能被分类为依靠自我的力比多的神圣症,而其它的实际的神经症则是依靠客体当力比多。

1 had the impression that this passage, which, when the second part is considered as a whole, forms a kind of paragraph, is less important than the second paragraph of the second part, in which he defines the two types of object choice,

我拥有的印象是,这个过程,当第二部分被作为一个整体来考虑,它形成一种段落,不像第二部分的第二个区隔那么重要。在第二部分的第二段落,他定义两种的客体选择

Freud’s essential point is that it is almost of no importance whether a working over of the libido — you know how difficult it is to translate Verarbeitung and élaboration isn’t quite it3 –The distinction only appears later, when the libido becomes oriented towards unreal objects. This leads to a Stauung, to a damming of the libido, which brings us to the imaginary character of the ego, since it is its libido which is in question.

弗洛伊德的重要是,力比多是否重新回来,并无足轻重—你们知道要翻译「加工过程」这个词语并不容易,「精心建构」还无法完全贴切—这种区别仅是后来出现,当力比多被定向于朝向非真实的客体。它引导至一种「阻塞」,导致一种力必多的阻拦。这带领我们来到自我的想象的特性。因为自我的力比多受到质疑。

O.MANNONI: This German word must mean the construction of a dike. It appears to have a dynamic meaning, and at the same time means a teasing of the level, and consequently a greater and greater energy of libido, which is well rendered in English by damming.4

奥、曼诺尼:这个德文字的意思一定是「水坝的建立」。它似乎有一种活力的意义。同时它意味着,对于这种层次的揶揄。结果,会有越来越强烈的力比多精力能源。在英文,可翻译成为「水坝阻拦」。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com