Death instinct 01

Death 01
拉康第二研讨班
The Ego in Freud’s Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis 1954-1955
弗洛伊德理论的自我与精神分析技术

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

XVIII
Desire, life and death
TH E L I B IDO
力比多
DESIRE. S E X U A L DESIRE. I N S T I N C T
欲望,性的欲望,本能
R E S I S T A N C E O F T H E A N ALYST
分析家的抗拒
THE B EYOND O F O E D I P U S
伊底普斯的超越
L I F E D R E A M S O N L Y OF DYING
生命仅是梦想死亡

Today we are going to make some headway with the question of the relations
between the Freudian notion of the death instinct and what I have called
significant insistence.

今天我们将要朝着弗洛伊德对于死亡本能的观念,及我曾经称为的重要的坚持之间的关系这个问题,勇往直前。

The questi9ns you asked me last time don’t seem to me to have been
misguided – they all bore on very sensitive issues. The remainder of our path
will take us to some answers to a number of them. and I will try not to forget to
point that out, to you as we go along.

你们上一次询问我的问题,我觉得并没有被误导—这些问题跟非常敏感的问题有关。我们剩余的途径将会引导我们来提供它们的一些回答。我将会尝试不要忘记跟你们指出那一点,随着我们前进。

We have reached a radical crossroads in the Freudian position. At this point,
one can almost say anything. But this anything isn’t just anything, in the sense
that whatever one may say, it will always be rigorous to those who know how
to listen.

我们已经到达弗洛伊德的立场的一个重要的十字路口。在这一点,我们几乎什么都能够说。但是这个任何东西,并不仅是任何东西。它的意义是,无论我们说什么,对于知道如何倾听的人,总是非常严峻。

Indeed the point we’re getting to is none other than desire and whatever can
be said about it on the basis of our experience – an anthropology? a cosmology? There’s no Lord for it.

的确,我们将要到达的这一点,实实在在就是欲望。无论根据我们精神分析如何解释欲望—那是一种人类学?一种宇宙论? 在这个宇宙论,上帝并不存在。

Even though this is the central point Freud is asking us to understand in the
phenomenon of mental illness, it is something which in itself is so subversive
that all one cares about is to distance oneself from it.

即使这是弗洛伊德在精神疾病的现象学,要求我们了解的中心要点,这个东西的本身是如此的具有颠覆性,以致于我们所关心的一切,就是把我们自己跟它拉开距离。

1
In order to talk about desire. one notion in particular came to the fore, the
libido. Is what this notion implies adequate to the level on which your action
takes place, namely that of speech?

为了谈论欲望,一个特别的观念来到这个核心,那就是力比多。这个观念所暗示的足够到你的行动发生的层次吗?换句话说,言说的层次?

Libido allows one to speak of desire in terms which involve a relative
objectification. It is, if you wish, a unit of quantitative measurement. A quantity
which you don’t know how to measure, whose nature you don’t know, but
which you always assume to be there. This quantitative notion allows you to
Unify the variation in qualitative effects, and gives some coherence to the
manner in which they succeed one another.

力比多容我们谈论欲望,使用一个相对的客观化的术语。你们不妨将它看作是一种数量测量的单位。你们不知道如何去测量的数量,它的特性,你们并不知道,但是你们总是假定它在那里。这个数量的观念容许诺们统一品质效果的这个变数,并且给予某种的一致性,给它们互相接续的方式。

Let us be clear as to what is meant by qualitative effects. There are states,
changes of state. To explain the order in which they occur and their
transformations, you more or less implicitly have recourse to the notion of a
threshold, and by the same token to that of a level and of invariability.

让我们把品质的效果是什么意思搞清楚。为了解释这个秩序, 品质的效果发生及它们的转变,你们相当含蓄地诉诸于一个门槛的观念。同样地,也诉诸于层次及变数的观念。

You assume an undifferentiated quantitative unit susceptible of entering into
relations of equivalence. If it can’t be discharged, can’t expand as normal. can’t
spread out, overflows occur from which other states ensue. Hence one would
talk of transformations, regressions, fixations, sublimations of the libido, a
single term which is conceived of quantitatively.

你们假设一个没有差异的容易受到影响的数量单位,当它进入相等的关系。假如力比多无法被发泄,它就无法扩大成为正常,它无法扩散,泛滥就会发生。其他的状态就因此随之而来。因此,我们会谈论到力比多的转移,倒退,固执,与昇华。这是一个从数量来构想到的一个术语。

The notion of libido emerged only gradually out of the Freudian experience,
and it didn’t have this extended use at the beginning. But as soon as it makes its appearance, that is in the Three Essays, it already has the function of unifying the different structures of the phases of sexuality.

力比多的观念从弗洛伊德的精神分析经验,仅是慢慢地出现。刚开始时,它并没有这种延伸的用法。但是当它出现时,那是在弗洛伊德的「性学三论文」。它已经具有统一性的各个部分的不同结构的功用。

Do note that, although this work dates from 1 905, the part which concerns the libido dates from 1915, that is to say the period, more or less, when the theory of phases was becoming extremely complicated, with the introduction of narcissistic investments.

请注意一下,虽然这本著作写于1905年,跟力比多有关的部分则在1915年才开始。换句话说,这是随着自恋的投注的介绍,各个部分的理论渐渐变得极端的复杂的日期。

So the notion of libido is a form of unification for the domain of psychoanalytical effects. I would now like to draw your attention to the fact
that its use falls within the traditional scope of any and every theory, tending to
end up with a world, the terminus ad quem of classical physics, or a unitary
domain, the ideal of Einsteinian physics.

所以力比多的观念是一种统一的形式,对于精神分析的影响的领域。我现在想要提醒你们注意这个事实:力比多这个术语的使用是在每个理论的传统观念里,倾向于随着一个世界的来临而结束,古典物理或的终结者,这是爱因斯坦的物理学的理想,一个统一的领域。

We aren’t in a position to align our poor little domain with the universal domain of physics, but the libido partakes of the same ideal. ,

我们并不是处于这个立场:可以将我们小小的领域 跟物理的普遍性的领域等同一致。但是力比多参与这个相同的理想。

It’s not for nothing that this unitary domain is called theoretical–it is the ideal and unique subject of a theoria, an intuition, indeed contemplation, the exhaustive knowledge of which we assume would allow us to give an account of its entire past no less than its entire future.

这并非毫无意义,这个统一的领域被称为是理论的领域。这是一种理论的理想而且是独特的主体,一种直觉,确实是沉思,无所不包的知识,我们假设这种知识会容许我们描述它的整个的过去,以及它的整个的未来。

It is clear that none of this affords any place to what would be the realisation of anything new, a Wirken, an action. properly speaking.

显而易见地,这种知识没有一样供应任何的空间,给任何新的东西的实现,适当地说,给予一种行动的空间。

Nothing could be further removed from the Freudian experience.

弗洛伊德的精神分析经验绝非是这个样子。

The Freudian experience starts from an exactly contrary notion of the
theoretical perspective. It starts by postulating a world of desire. It postulates it
prior to any kind of experience, prior to any considerations concerning the
world of appearances and the world of essences.

弗洛伊德的精神分析经验,从这种理论的观点恰恰相反的观念开始。它开始提出一个欲望的世界。它假设欲望是早先于任何其他种类的经验,早先于任何考虑,关于表象的世界与本质的世界。

Desire is instituted within the Freudian world in which our experience unfolds. it constitutes it. and at no point in time, not even in the most insignificant of our manoeuvres in this experience of ours, can it be erased.

在弗洛伊德的世界里,欲望被形成。我们的精神分析经验就在这个世界里展开。欲望组成这个世界。欲望无法被抹除,无论在历史的任何时刻,即使在我们精神分析最微不足道的时刻。

The Freudian world isn’t a world of things, it isn’t a world of being, it is a
world of desire as such.

弗洛伊德的世界并不是一个事物的世界。它并不是一个生抽象存的世界。它是欲望本身的世界。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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