Death 02

Death 02
拉康第二研讨班
The Ego in Freud’s Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis 1954-1955
弗洛伊德理论的自我与精神分析技术

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

XVIII
Desire, life and death
This famous object relation, which we are gargling with these days. has a
tendency to be employed as a model. a pattern of the adaptation of the subject to its normal objects.

这个著们的客体关系,我们这些日子正在表达,具有一种倾向被使用,作为主体适应正常客体的一种模式,一种样板。

However. this term. in so far as it can be of use in the experience of analysis. can only acquire a meaning from ideas concerning the evolution of the libido. the pregenital stage. the genital stage. Can one say that the structure. the maturity. the fully-fledged realisation of the object depends on the libido?•.At the genital stage. the libido is thought to bring a new object. another structuration. another sort of existence for the object into the world.
bringing its fullness. its maturity to completion. And this has nothing to do with
traditional aspects of the theory of man’ s relations to the world – the opposition
of being to appearance.

可是,因为这个术语对于精神分析经验有些同途,它仅能从有关力比多,到前性器官阶段,到性器官阶的的进化的观念,获得一种意义。我们能够说,这个客体的结构,成熟,及充分地实现,是依靠力比多吗?在性器官的阶段,力比多被认为会带来一个新的客体,另外一种结构,另外一种存在,让这个客体进入世界,带来它的充实,它的成熟的完成。这跟传统的人与世界的关系的理论,丝毫没有关系—也就是存在与表象的对立关系。

Within the classical. theoretical perspective. between subject and object
there is coaptation. co-naissancez – a play on words retaining all its force. for the theory of knowledge lies at the heart of any discussion of the relation of man to the world. The subject has to place himself in adequation with the thing. in a relation of-being to being – the relation of a subjective being. but one that is
truly real. Or a being aware of being to a being one knows to be.

在古典的理论的观点,在主体与客体之间,有一种互相适应,互相了解—这是保留所有它的力量的文字遊戏。因为知识的理论在于人与世界的关系的任何讨论的核心。主体必须放置他自己在跟事物的充分适应,在生命实存与生命实存的关系。一个主观性的生命实存的关系。但又是实在真实的关系。或是一个知道生命实存的生命,对于一个我们知道具有实存的生命。

The domain of the Freudian experience is established within a very different
register of relations. Desire is a relation of being to lack. This lack is the lack of
being properly speaking. It isn’t the lack of this or that. but lack of being
whereby the being exists.

弗洛伊德精神分析经验的领域被建立在一个非常不同的关系的铭记里。欲望是生命实存对欠缺的关系。适当来说,这个欠缺是生命实存的欠缺。它并不是这个或那个的欠缺,而是生命存在所在地生命实存的欠缺。

This lack is beyond anything which can represent it. It is only ever
represented as a reflection on a veil. The libido. but now no longer as used
theoretically as a quantitative quantity. is the name of what animates the deepseated conflict at the heart of human action.

这个欠缺超越任何能够代表它的东西。这个欠缺从来仅能作为一个遮蔽的一种反思,而被代表。力比多就是这个名称,它激发人的行动的核心的根深蒂固的冲突,虽然现在它在理论上被使用作为一种可量化的数量。

We necessarily believe that. at the centre. things are really there. solid.
established, waiting to be recognised. and that the conflict is marginal. But
what does the Freudian experience teach us? If not that what happens in the domain of so-called consciousness. that is on the level of the recognition of objects. is equally misleading in relation to what the being is looking for?

我们必须要相信,在核心,东西确实在那里,具体而稳固,等待受人承认,并且冲突是在边缘。但是弗洛伊德的精神分析经验教导我们什么?难道不就是:在所谓的意识的领域所发生的事情,在客体受到承认的层次,跟这个生命实存正在寻找的东西的关系,同样是一种误导?

In so far as the libido creates the different stages of the object, the objects are never it- except from the moment when that would be entirely it, thanks to a genital maturation of the libido, the experience of which in analysis retains a character which is, there is no denying it, Ineffable ,since as soon as one wants to spell it out, one ends up in all sorts of contradictions, including the impasse of narcissism.

虽然力比多创造了这个客体的不同阶段,这些客体从来就不是力比多。除了从完全是力比多的那个时刻开始,由于力比多的性器官的成熟。在精神分析,这个力比多的经验保留一种特性。无可否认的,这个特性是难以表达的,因为当我们想要说明它,我们结果陷入各种的矛盾,包括自恋的这个僵局。

Desire. a function central to all human experience. is the desire for nothing
nameable. And at the same time this desire lies at the origin of every variety of
animation. If being were only what it is. there wouldn’t even be room to talk
about it.

欲望是对于人类经验很重要的一种功用,对于无以名状的东西的欲望。同时,这种欲望在于各种动物性的变化的起源。假如生命实存仅是它本来的样子,我们连讨论它的空间都没有。

Being comes into existence as an exact function of this lack. Being
attains a sense of self in relation to being as a function of this lack. In the experience of desire. In the pursuit of this beyond, which is nothing, it harks
back to the feeling of a being with self-consciousness, which is nothing but its
own reflection in the world of things. For it is the companion of beings there before it, who do not in fact know themselves.

生命实存存在作为这种欠缺的确实的功用。生命实存获得一种自我的感觉,相关于生命实存作为这个欠缺的功用,在欲望的经验里。在这种对于这种超越的追求,也就是对于空无的追求,它回溯到一种生命实存具有自我意识的感觉。这种自我意识仅是它自己在事物的世界里的反思。因为在这个自我意识之前的相聚的生命主体,他们事实上并不认识他们自己。

The self-conscious being, transparent to itself, which classical theory places
at the centre of human experience, appears, from this perspective, as a manner of locating, in the world of objects, this being of desire who cannot perceive itself as such, except in its lack. If this lack of being, it perceived that it is lacking being, and that the being is there, in all the things which do not know
themselves to be. And it imagines itself, for its part, as one more object, for it sees no other difference. It says – I’m the one who knows that I am.

这个自我意识的主体,对于自己是透明的。古典的理论将它摆放在人类经验的核心。从这个观点,这个自我意识的主体,出现作为一种在客体的世界里,定位欲望的生命实存。它感觉到,它欠缺生命实存。这个生命实存在那里,在不知的他们自己的所有主体当中。它想像它自己,就它自己而言,作为仅仅是多了一个客体。因为它并没有看到什么别的不同。它说:我就是知道我是谁的这个人。

Unfortunately, If it does perhaps know that it is, it knows nothing at all about what it is. That is what is lacking in every being.

不幸地,或许他即使确实知道它是存在,可是对它存在的本质,它却根本就不了解。这就是每一位主体欠缺的地方。

In short, there is a confusion between the capacity to erect a fundamental
distress whereby being arises as presence from a background of absence, and
what we commonly call the capacity for consciousness, for becoming aware,
which is only a neutral and abstract, and even abstracted, form of the totality of
the possible mirages.

总之,有一种混淆处于这个能力跟我们所谓的意识到能力之间。前者的能力竖立起一种基本的困境,在这个困境那里,生命实存产生,作为从欠缺的背景里出现的存在。后者是意识的能力,知道的能力。这种能力仅是一种中立而且抽象,甚至是整体的可能的幻觉的精炼形态。

Relations between human beings are really established before one gets to the
domain of consciousness. It is desire which achieves the primitive structuration
of the human world, desire as unconscious. In this respect, we must appraise
Freud’s advance.

人类之间的关系,确实在我们到达意识的领域之前就被建立。欲望获得人类世界的原始的结构,欲望作为无意识。在这一方面,我们必须赞赏弗洛伊德的作为开先锋。

Copernican revolution, when it comes down to it, is, as you can see, a crass
metaphor. It goes without saying that Copernicus produced a revolution, but in
the world of determined and determinable things.

哥白尼的革命,如你们所看到,总结来说,就是一种粗略的比喻。哥白尼产生一种革命是自不待言。但是这种革命发生在被命定及可命定的世界。

Freud’s advance constitutes, I would say, a revolution in an opposite direction, because before Copernicus, the world owed its structure precisely to the fact that so much of man was already in it. And to tell the truth, we’ve never really decanted it completely, although we’ve done enough.

我将会说,弗洛伊德的开先锋朝著相反的方向,创造一种革命。因为在哥白尼之前,这个世界将它的结构确实归属于这个事实:人的大部分都已经是在这个世界里。坦白说,我们从来没有真正完全走出这个世界,虽然我们足够努力。

Freud’s advance isn’t to be explained by the basic and precarious experience
of the fact of having to care for someone, it really is the correlate of a revolution
carried through over the entire domain constituted by man’s thinking concerning himself and his experience; over the entire domain of philosophy since after all we must give it its name.

弗洛伊德的开先锋,不应该根据这种基本而不稳定的事实的经验来解释。这种事实必须要讨好每个人。这个事实实际上跟一种革命有关系。这种革命被贯彻在人类思想所组成的整个领域,关于他自己跟他的经验。也被贯彻在哲学的整个领域,因为毕竟我们必须给予它哲学的名称。

This revolution brings man back into the world as creator. But the latter risks
being entirely dispossessed of his creation by the simple trick, always put on one side in classical theory, which consists in saying – God is no deceiver.

这种革命将人类带回到这个世界,作为创造者。但是这个创造者冒的危险是:他会被他的创造物剥夺。因为在古典的理论里,这种简单的诡计总是被放置在一边。这个古典的理论在于说:上帝并不是欺骗者。

That is so essential that, when it came to it, Einstein got stuck at the same
point as Descartes. The Lord, he used to say, is certainly a crafty fellow, but he
isn’t dishonest. It was essential to his organisation of the world that God not be
a deceiver. But this, precisely, is what we don’t know.

这个古典的理论上如此重要,当提到它时,爱因斯坦跟笛卡尔一样动弹不得。他过去时常说,上帝确实是一位很灵巧的人,但是他并不是不诚实。这对他建构这个世界是非常重要的:上帝不应该是一个欺骗者。但这确实是我们并不知道的事情。

The decisive element of the Freudian experience could be summed up as follows – don’t forget that consciousness isn’t universal. Modern experience
awoke from a long fascination with the property of consciousness)” and
considers man’s experience within its own structure, which is the structure of
desire. That is the only starting-point for explaining the fact that there are men.

弗洛伊德的精神分析经验的关键因素,可以总结如下:不要忘记意识并非是普遍性的。现代的精神分析经验从长期对意识的特性的著迷觉醒过来,并且从它自己的结构里面,也就是欲望的结构,来考虑人的经验。这是仅有的开始点,用来解释这个事实:人存在世界上。

Not men as a herd, but men who speak, with this speech through which
something is introduced into the world which weighs as heavily as the whole of the real.

人存在世界上,不是作为一群动物,而是作为会具有言说能力而言说的人。通过这种言说,某件东西被介绍到这个世界。这个世界跟整个真实界份量一样地重要。

There is a fundamental ambiguity in the use we make of the word ‘desire’.
Sometimes we objectify it – and we have to do so, if only to talk about it. On the
contrary, sometimes we locate it as the primitive term in relation to any
objectification.”

当我们使用到「欲望」这个字词时,有一个基本的模糊暧昧。有时,我们让它客观化。我们必须如此做,假如我们想要谈论它。相反地,有时,我们定位它作为原始的术语,跟任何的客体化相关。

In fact, sexual desire in our experience has nothing objectified about it. It is
neither an abstraction, nor a purified x, as the notion of force in physics has
become.

事实上,在精神分析经验里,性的欲望并没有丝毫被客体化。它既不是一个抽象的东西,也不是一个被纯净化的未知物,如同物理学的力量的观念那样。

Doubtless we make use of it, and it’s very handy, for describing a
certain biologieal cycle, or more precisely a certain number of cycles which are
more or less tied up with biological systems.

无可置疑地,我们使用欲望这个字词,它很方便,作为描述某种生物的循环,或更确实地说,某种数量的循环是跟生物的系统息息相关。

But what we have to deal with is a subject which}s here, who truly is desiring, and the desire in question is prior to any kind of conceptualisation – every conceptualisation stems from it.

但是我们必须处理的是,一个主体在这里,他确实是在欲望。而这个受到置疑的欲望,早先存在于任何的观念化之前,每一个观念化都是起源于欲望。

The proof that analysis does indeed lead to our approaching things this way is that the largest part of what the subject takes to be a certainty after due reflection is for us only the superficial, rationalised, subsequently justified ordering of what his desire foments, which gives his world and his action its essential curvature.

精神分析确实以这种方式引导我们接近事情。证据是:主体经过适当的沉思之后,认为是千真万确的绝大部分,对于我们而言,仅是他的欲望蕴酿的东西的这个肤浅的理性化,随后再自圆其说。这种情况让他的世界及他的行动,产生它根本上扭曲观照。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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