Seminar IX :Identification 05

Seminar IX :Identification 05
第九研讨班 :认同

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

15.11.61 I 2
Seminar 1: Wednesday 15 November 1961

That it should be Aristotle who takes the trouble to reveal that Socrates is mortal should all the same inspire some interest in us, which means offer an opening for
what we can call among ourselves an interpretation, in the sense that this term claims to go a little further than the function which is found precisely in the very title of one of the books of Aristotle’s Logic.

应该是亚里斯多德,他很费心地显示,苏格拉底是有限生命的人,这仍然启发我们的一些興趣。那意味着,提供一个机会给予我们自己能够称为的解释。这个术语的意义宣称比确实是在亚里斯多德的逻辑的其中一本书的标题,所找到的功用,更加深入。

Because if obviously it is qua human animal that he whom Athens names Socrates is assured of death, it is all (16) the same well and truly in so far as he is named Socrates that he escapes from it, and this obviously not alone because his renown still endures for as long as there lives the fabulous transference operation operated by Plato, but again more specifically because it is only as having succeeded in
constituting himself, beginning from his social identity, as this atopical being which characterises him, that the person called Socrates, the one so named in Athens – and that is why he could not go into exile – was able to sustain himself in the desire of
his own death even to the extent of making of his life an acting out of it.

因为假如很明显地,人作为动物的本身,这位被雅典人称为苏格拉底,被控诉死刑,这仍然是实实在在,因为他被称为苏格拉底,他因此逃避死亡。这种不朽是显而易见的,不仅因为他的名声依旧存活下来,只要柏拉图运作的这个令人喜悦的移情关系存在,而且更加明确地,因为他的名声仅是作为构成他的内涵,从他在社会获的认同开始,作为这个表现他的特色的这位敏锐的人。这个人被称为苏格拉底,这位在雅典如此被称呼的人—那就是为什么他不能够去放逐。他以他自己的死亡的欲望维持他自己,甚至到达用来解释他的生命,用来扮演他的生命。

There is also to be added this final touch of settling up for Asclepios1 famous cock of which there would be question if the recommendation had to be made of not doing any harm to the chestnut-seller at the corner.

There is therefore here, in Aristotle, something which we can interpret as some sort of attempt precisely to exorcise a transference which he believed to be an obstacle to the development of knowledge. It was moreover an error on his part since its failure is obvious. It would have been surely necessary to go a bit further than Plato in the denaturing of desire for things to have ended up otherwise.

因此,在亚里斯多德,某件东西,我们能够解释,作为某种的企图,确实是要驱除一种移情。他相信这种移情是一种阻碍对于知识的发展。而且,这是他自己本身的一种错误,因为这个企图的失败是显而易见的。我们本来确实会有需要比柏拉图更加深入,来除掉这种死亡欲望的本质,为了让事情会有不同的结束方式。

Modern science is born in a hyper-Platonism and not at all in the Aristotelian
return to, in short, of the function of knowledge according to the status of the concept. It required, in fact, something which we can call the second death of the Gods, namely their ghostly re-emergence at the time of the Renaissance, for the word to show
us its real truth, the one which dissipates, not the illusions, but the obscurities of meaning from which modern science emerged. (17)

现的科学诞生于超越柏拉图主义,而根本不是诞生于这个亚里斯多德的回转,总之,知识功用的回转,依照它所要求的观念的地位。事实上,这是我们能够称为众神的第二次死亡的事情。换句话说,在文艺复兴时代,众神魅影一般地重新再出现,为了让话语跟我们显示它的真实的真理,这个扩散的真实的真理。现代科学的出现,不是从这些幻觉,而是产品卖给意义的这些模糊暧昧。

Therefore – as we have said – this sentence of: “I think” has the interest of showing us – it is the least that we can deduce from it – the voluntary dimension of judgement. We have no need to say that much about it: the two lines that we distinguish as enunciating and enunciation are sufficient to allow us to affirm that it is in the measure that these two lines are mixed up and confused that we find ourselves before paradox which culminates in this impasse of the “I am lying” on which I made you pause for an instant; and the proof that this is really what is in question, is the fact that I can at the same time lie and say in the same voice that I am lying; if I distinguish these voices it is quite admissable. If I say: he says I am lying, that is easily admitted, there is no objection to it, any more than if I said: he is lying, but I can even say I say I am lying.

因此,如我们所说的,「我思」这个句子拥有这种興趣跟我们显示,这是至少我们能够从那里推理出来:判断具有自动自发的维度。我们没有需要对它大费口舌。我们区别的这两行,作为表述及表述的内容,就足够让我们肯定说,随着这两行被混合及混淆,我们发现我们自己处于「我正在说谎」的这个僵局的巅峰的悖论。我让你们对于这个僵局的再三沉思一下。这确实就受到质疑的东西的证明。事实上,我能够同时地说谎,又能以同样的声音说,我正在说谎。假如我区别这两个声音,它就完全可以受到承认。假如我说:他说我正在说谎,那很容易受到承认,我们对它并没有什么反对,如同假如我说,他正在说谎,但是我甚至能够说:我说我正在说谎。

There is all the same something here which ought to retain us, it is that if I say “I know that I am lying”, this has again something quite convincing which ought to retain our attention as analysts since, precisely as analysts, we know that what is original, living and gripping in our intervention is the fact that we can say that we are there to speak, to displace ourselves in the exactly opposite but strictly correlative dimension which
is to say: “but no, you do not know that you are telling the truth”, which immediately goes much further. What is more: “you only tell it so well in the measure that you think you are lying and when you do not want to lie it is to protect yourself from that truth”.

在此仍然有某件东西,应该会吸引我们注意。那就是,假如我说「我知道我正在说谎」,这再一次具有某件令人信服的东西,应该吸引我们作为分析家的注意。因为确实是作为分析家,我们知道,原创性的东西,精神分析的介入所坚持信守的是这个事实:我们能够说,我们在那里言说,是为了以确实完全相反但是又相关维度的东西,来取代我们自己。那就是说:「但是不,你们并不知道,你们正在说出真理」。这句话马上还可再深入探讨。而且:「你们仅是随着你们正在说谎,你们将真理说得更清楚。当你们不想要说谎时,那是为了保护你们自己,免于受到那个真理。」

(18) It seems that one cannot reach this truth except through these glimmers, the truth is a girl in this – you recall our terms – that like any other girl it can be nothing but a stray, well, it is the same for the “I think”. It appears indeed that if it has such an easy run among those who spell it out or who re-broadcast its message, namely the professors, that can only be by not dwelling too much on it.

似乎,我们无法到达这个真理,除了通过这些朦胧微光。真理在这里是位女孩—请你们回忆一下我们的术语—就像任何其他女孩,它仅是一种迷失的真理。对于「我思」而言,这仍然一样。的确,似乎假如真理拥有如此容易的运作,在那些说出真理的人当中,或是广播真理的讯息的人,也就是教授们当中,只有当他们不要过分详述真理的时候,真理才存在。

If we have for the “I think” the same exigencies as for the “I am lying”, either indeed this means: “I think that I am thinking”, which is then absolutely to speak of nothing other than the “I think” of opinion or imagination, the “I think” in the way you say it when you say “I think she loves me” which means that trouble is on the way.

假如我们拥有相同的迫切性,对于这个「我思」,如同我们对于这个「我正在说谎」,任何一个确实都是意味着:「我认为我正在思考」,这确实提到的,不是别的,实在就是属于意见或是想象的「我思」。按照你说出它的这个方式的这个「我思」,当你们说:「我认为她爱我」,这句话的意思是,麻烦正在途中。

Following Descartes, even in the text of the Meditations, one is surprised at the number of incidences in which this “I think” is nothing other than this properly imaginary dimension on which no so-called radical proof can be founded.

跟随着笛卡尔,甚至在沉思录的文本,我们对于诸多的意外事情,感到大吃一惊。在那些意外事情里,这个「我思」实实在在就是这个适当的想象的维度。我们所谓的积极的证据,没有一样能够以它作为基础。

Or indeed then this means: “I am a thinking being” – which is, of course, to upset in advance the whole process for what is aiming precisely at making emerge from the “I think” an unprejudiced status, not infatuated as it were by my own existence. If I begin by saying: “I am a being”, that means: I am of course a being essential to being, there is no need to throw out anything else, one can preserve one’s thinking for one’s personal use.

或是的确,这意味着:「我是一个会思想的生命」—当然,这是要预先颠覆整个的过程,对于我们确实的目标是要让一个没有偏见的地位,从这个「我思」里面出现。这个没有偏见的地位,并没有受到所谓我自己的经验所迷惑。假如我开始说:「我是一个生命实存」,那意味着:我当然是一个对生命实存具重要地位的生命实存,没有必要抛弃掉任何其他东西。我们能够保存我们的思想,留给我们个人使用。

This having been highlighted, we find ourselves encountering something which is important: we find ourselves encountering this level, this third term that we raised in connection with the I am lying, namely that one could say: “I know that I am lying”, and
this is something which should retain you.

这一点被强调之后,我们发现我们自己遭遇某件非常重要的东西。我们发现我们自己遭遇这个层次,我们提出的这个第三术语,关于这个「我正在说谎」。换句话说,我们能够说:「我知道我正在说谎。」这是某件应该吸引你们注意的东西。

In effect, this indeed is the support of everything that a certain phenomenology has developed concerning the subject, and here I putting forward a formula which is one on which we will be led to begin again on the next occasions, which is the following: what we are dealing with, and how this is given us since we are psychoanalysts, is to radically subvert, to render impossible this most radical prejudice, and therefore it is the prejudice which is the true support of this whole development of philosophy, which one can say is the limit beyond which our experience has gone, the limit beyond which there commences the possibility of the unconscious.

实际上,这确实是关于主体,某种的现象学所发展的每一件事情的支持。在此,我提出一个公式,在下一次的场合,我们将会被引的从这个公式开始。这个公式如下:我们正在处理的东西,这个东西如何给予我们,因为我们是精神分析家,那就是要强烈地颠覆,要让这个最强烈的偏见成为不可能。因此,就是这个偏见,成为哲学的整体发展的真实的支持。我们能够说,我们精神分析经验已经超越这个限制。无意识的可能性就是从超越那个限制开始。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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