Concept 14d

Concept 14d

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉冈

The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis
精神分析学四个基本概念

Partial Object and its Circuit
部份客体及其流通

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
问与答

J . -A. Miller: The question concerns the relation between the drive and the real, and the differences between the object of the drive, that of phantasj and that of desire.

米勒:这个问题牵涉到驱力与实在界的关系。以及驱力的客体与幻见的客体,与欲望的客体之间的差异。

LACAN: The object of the drive is to be situated at the level of what I have metaphorically called a headless subjectification, a subjectification without subject, a bone, a structure, an outline, which represents one side of the topology. The other side is that which is responsible for the fact that a subject, through his relations with the signifier, is a subject-with-holes (sujet troué).

拉康:驱力的客体应该被定位在我曾经用比喻所谓的「无头的主体化」,一个没有主体、骨头、结构及轮廓的主体化。它代表了拓扑图形的一面。另一面要负责这个事实:主体通过跟能指的关系,是一个空洞的主体。

These holes came from somewhere. In his first constructions, his first networks of signifying crossroads to become stabilized, Freud was reaching towards something that, in the subject, is intended to maintain to the greatest possible degree what I have called homeostasis.

这些空洞来自某个地方。弗洛伊德在他的最初的建构,他最初的能指化的十字路的网络,为了要成为稳定下来,他朝向获取某个东西,在主体身上,被用来尽可能维持我所谓的「体内平衡」。

This does not simply mean the crossing of a certain threshold of excitement, but also a distribution of ways. Freud even uses metaphors that assign a diameter to these ways, which permit the maintenance, the ever equal dispersal, of a certain investment.

这不仅意味着某些興奋门槛的跨越,而且是一种途径的分布。弗洛伊德甚至使用各种比喻,给这些途径画出一条直径。这些比喻容许维持某些的投注,永远的相等的扩散。

Somewhere Freud says quite categorically that it is the pressure of what, in sexuality, has to be repressed in order to maintain the pleasure principle—namely, the libido—that has
made possible the progress of the mental apparatus itself, as such and, for example, the establishment in the mental apparatus of that possibility of investment that we call Aufmerksamkeit, the possibility of attention. The determination of the functioning of the Real-Ich, which both satisfies the pleasure principle and, at the same time, is invested without defence by the upsurge of sexuality—this is what is responsible for its structure.

弗洛伊德在某个地方相当明白地说:在性方面,为了维持快乐原则,所必需被压抑的东西,换句话说,力比多,曾经让精神的工具本体自身的进展成为可能。譬如,我们所谓专注的可能的投注的可能性,这个精神工具的建立。这个真实自我的功用的决心,既满足快乐原则,同时,又毫无防卫地被性的泉涌投注—这就是它的结构会形成这样的原因。

At this level, we are not even forced to take into account any subjectification of the subject. The subject is an apparatus.

在这个层次,我们甚至被迫考虑到主体的任何主体化。这个主体是工具。

This apparatus is something lacunary, and it is in the lacuna that the subject establishes the function of a certain object, qua lost object. It is the status of the objet a in so far as it is present in the drive.

这个工具是某件缺口的东西。就在这个缺口,主体建立某种客体的功用,作为失落的客体。它出现在驱力里,作为小客体的地位。

In the phantasy, the subject is frequently unperceived, but he is always there, whether in the dream or in any of the more or less developed forms of day-dreaming. The subject situates
himself as determined by the phantasy.

在幻见里,主体时常没有被感觉到,但是他总是在那里,无论在梦里,或在任何白日梦成形的形态里。主体定位他自己,作为由幻见决定。

The phantasy is the support of desire; it is not the object that is the support of desire. The subject sustains himself as desiring in relation to an ever more complex ensemble. This
is apparent enough in the form of the scenario it assumes, in which the subject, more or less recognizable, is somewhere, split, divided, generally double, in his relation to the object, which usually does not show its true face either.

幻见是欲望的支持。欲望的支持并不是这个客体。主体支持自己,作为更复杂的聚合的关系的欲望。以它所扮演的剧本的形式,在足够算是工具了。在这个剧本里,主体模糊不清地在某个地方分裂,分离,变成双重,对应于它跟这个客体的关系。这个客体通常也不知道它的真正的脸孔。

Next time, I shall come back to what I have called the structure of perversion. Strictly speaking, it is an inverted effect of the phantasy. It is the subject who determines himself as object, in
his encounter with the division of subjectivity.

下一次,我将回头谈我所谓的倒错的结构。严格来说,这是幻见到颠倒的影响。主体决定他自己,作为客体,在他跟主体性的区隔的遭遇。

I will show you—I must stop here today because of the time, I am very sorry to say—that the subject assuming this role of the object is precisely what sustains the reality of the situation of what is called the sado-masochistic drive, and which is only a single point, in the masochistic situation itself. It is in so far as the subject makes himself the object of another will that the sado-masochistic drive not only closes up, but constitutes itself.

我将跟你们显示—今天因为时间关系,我必须停在这里。我很抱歉地说—扮演这个客体角色的主体,维持所谓的虐待及受虐待驱力的情况的现实界。在受虐狂的情境里,这仅是一个单一点。当主体让他自己成为另外一个意志的客体,虐待狂及受虐狂不仅封闭,而且形成它自己。

It is only in a second stage, as Freud shows us in this text, that the sadistic desire is possible in relation to a phantasy. The sadistic desire exists in a crowd of configurations, and also in
the neuroses, but it is not yet sadism in the strict sense.

只有在第二个阶段,如弗洛伊德在这个文本里跟我们显示,虐待狂的欲望跟幻见的关系,才有可能。虐待狂的欲望存在于一群的聚合里,而且也在神经症里,但是严格来说,这还不算是虐待狂。

I will ask you to look at my article Kant avec Sade, where you will see that the sadist himself occupies the place of the object, but without knowing it, to the benefit of another, for whose jouissance he exercises his action as sadistic pervert.

我将会要求你们观看我的文章「康德对萨德」。你们将会看出,虐待狂患者本人佔据这个客体的位置,但是自己并不知道。结果对于另外一个主体有利益,因为他运用他的行动,作为虐待狂的倒错者,就是为了这个主体的欢爽。

You see, then, several possibilities here for the funnction of the objet a, which is never found in the position of being the aim of desire. It is either pre-subjective, or the foundation of an
identification of the subject, or the foundation of an identification disavowed by the subject. In this sense, sadism is merely the disavowal of masochism. This formula will make it possible to illuminate many things concerning the true nature of sadism.

在此,你们因此看出好几个可能性,作为这个小客体的功用。这个小客体永远无法在成为欲望的目标的这个位置被找到。它要就是处于前主体性,要不然就是作为主体的认同的基础,要不然就是不被主体承认的认同的基础。以这个意义来说,虐待狂仅仅是受虐狂的不被承认。这个公式让我们可能启明许多事情,关于虐待狂的特性。

But the object of desire, in the usual sense, is either a phantasy that is in reality the support of desire, or a lure. On this subject of the lure, which poses at the same time all the previous questions that you put forward just now concerning the relation of the subject to the real, the analysis that Freud gives of love enables us to make some progress.

但是欲望的客体,就通常意义来说,要就是在现实界支持欲望的幻见,要不就是一个陷阱。对于这个陷阱的这个主体,它同时提出所有你们刚才提出的先前的问题,关于主体与实在界的关系。弗洛伊德给予爱的这个分析,使我们能够获得一些进展。

The need Freud feels to refer to the relation of the Ich to the real in order to introduce the dialectic of love—whereas, strictly speaking, the neutral real is the desexualized real—is
not introduced at the level of the drive. It is there that is to be found what, for us, will prove most valuable concerning how we should conceive of the function of love—namely, its fundamentally narcissistic structure.

弗洛伊德感觉有这个需要提到这个「我」跟实在界的关系,为了介绍爱的辩证法—另一方面,严格来说,中立的实在界是除掉性化的实在界—它并没有在驱力的层次被介绍。就在那里,我们能够找到最有价值的东西,关于我们应该如何构想爱的功用—换句话说,爱具有它基本上的自恋的结构。

There can be absolutely no doubt that there is a real. That the subject has a constructive relation with this real only within the narrow confines of the pleasure principle, of the pleasure principle unforced by the drive, this is—as we shall see next time—the point of emergence of the love object. The whole question is to discover how this love object may come to fulfill a role analogous with the object of desire—upon what equivocations
does the possibility for the love object of becoming an object of desire rest?

有一个实在界,这是绝对无可置疑的。只有在快乐原则的这个狭窄的范围里,主体跟这个实在界,有一个建设性的关系。快乐原则由这个驱力自然形成—我们下一次将会看出—这就是爱的客体的出现点。整个的问题是要发现,这个爱的客体如何可能扮演一个类似欲望的客体的角色—爱的客体成为欲望的客体的可能性,要依靠怎样的暧昧?

Have I thrown some light on your question?

我已经让你的问题获得明白回答不?

J.-A. MILLER: Some light and some shadow.

米勒: 某些明白,某些模糊。
13 May 1964

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s


%d bloggers like this: