Concept 14d

Concept 14d

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉冈

The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis

Partial Object and its Circuit


J . -A. Miller: The question concerns the relation between the drive and the real, and the differences between the object of the drive, that of phantasj and that of desire.


LACAN: The object of the drive is to be situated at the level of what I have metaphorically called a headless subjectification, a subjectification without subject, a bone, a structure, an outline, which represents one side of the topology. The other side is that which is responsible for the fact that a subject, through his relations with the signifier, is a subject-with-holes (sujet troué).


These holes came from somewhere. In his first constructions, his first networks of signifying crossroads to become stabilized, Freud was reaching towards something that, in the subject, is intended to maintain to the greatest possible degree what I have called homeostasis.


This does not simply mean the crossing of a certain threshold of excitement, but also a distribution of ways. Freud even uses metaphors that assign a diameter to these ways, which permit the maintenance, the ever equal dispersal, of a certain investment.


Somewhere Freud says quite categorically that it is the pressure of what, in sexuality, has to be repressed in order to maintain the pleasure principle—namely, the libido—that has
made possible the progress of the mental apparatus itself, as such and, for example, the establishment in the mental apparatus of that possibility of investment that we call Aufmerksamkeit, the possibility of attention. The determination of the functioning of the Real-Ich, which both satisfies the pleasure principle and, at the same time, is invested without defence by the upsurge of sexuality—this is what is responsible for its structure.


At this level, we are not even forced to take into account any subjectification of the subject. The subject is an apparatus.


This apparatus is something lacunary, and it is in the lacuna that the subject establishes the function of a certain object, qua lost object. It is the status of the objet a in so far as it is present in the drive.


In the phantasy, the subject is frequently unperceived, but he is always there, whether in the dream or in any of the more or less developed forms of day-dreaming. The subject situates
himself as determined by the phantasy.


The phantasy is the support of desire; it is not the object that is the support of desire. The subject sustains himself as desiring in relation to an ever more complex ensemble. This
is apparent enough in the form of the scenario it assumes, in which the subject, more or less recognizable, is somewhere, split, divided, generally double, in his relation to the object, which usually does not show its true face either.


Next time, I shall come back to what I have called the structure of perversion. Strictly speaking, it is an inverted effect of the phantasy. It is the subject who determines himself as object, in
his encounter with the division of subjectivity.


I will show you—I must stop here today because of the time, I am very sorry to say—that the subject assuming this role of the object is precisely what sustains the reality of the situation of what is called the sado-masochistic drive, and which is only a single point, in the masochistic situation itself. It is in so far as the subject makes himself the object of another will that the sado-masochistic drive not only closes up, but constitutes itself.


It is only in a second stage, as Freud shows us in this text, that the sadistic desire is possible in relation to a phantasy. The sadistic desire exists in a crowd of configurations, and also in
the neuroses, but it is not yet sadism in the strict sense.


I will ask you to look at my article Kant avec Sade, where you will see that the sadist himself occupies the place of the object, but without knowing it, to the benefit of another, for whose jouissance he exercises his action as sadistic pervert.


You see, then, several possibilities here for the funnction of the objet a, which is never found in the position of being the aim of desire. It is either pre-subjective, or the foundation of an
identification of the subject, or the foundation of an identification disavowed by the subject. In this sense, sadism is merely the disavowal of masochism. This formula will make it possible to illuminate many things concerning the true nature of sadism.


But the object of desire, in the usual sense, is either a phantasy that is in reality the support of desire, or a lure. On this subject of the lure, which poses at the same time all the previous questions that you put forward just now concerning the relation of the subject to the real, the analysis that Freud gives of love enables us to make some progress.


The need Freud feels to refer to the relation of the Ich to the real in order to introduce the dialectic of love—whereas, strictly speaking, the neutral real is the desexualized real—is
not introduced at the level of the drive. It is there that is to be found what, for us, will prove most valuable concerning how we should conceive of the function of love—namely, its fundamentally narcissistic structure.


There can be absolutely no doubt that there is a real. That the subject has a constructive relation with this real only within the narrow confines of the pleasure principle, of the pleasure principle unforced by the drive, this is—as we shall see next time—the point of emergence of the love object. The whole question is to discover how this love object may come to fulfill a role analogous with the object of desire—upon what equivocations
does the possibility for the love object of becoming an object of desire rest?


Have I thrown some light on your question?


J.-A. MILLER: Some light and some shadow.

米勒: 某些明白,某些模糊。
13 May 1964


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