雄伯通俗化拉康 14a

雄伯通俗化拉康 14a

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉冈

The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis (chapter 14a)
精神分析学四个基本概念

THE PARTIAL DRIVE AND ITS CIRCUIT
部分驱力及其迴圈

雄伯曰
在齐泽克的「神经质主体」The Ticklish Subject, 读到引述拉康「精神分析学四个基本概念」对于「部分驱力及其迴圈」的描述。

「拉康对驱力所持的意见是相当清楚的,如我们先前所见:驱力涉及了一种自我反身性的转折,而不是有主动模式,到被动模式的简单翻转。比如说,在视觉驱力中,「看到全部」的欲望,并不是简单地翻转为一种希望被大他者看见的倾向,而是一种更加暧昧之道,即「使自己被看见」

When I read in the Psychoanalytic Quarterly an article like the one by Mr Edward Glover, entitled Freudian or Neo-Freudian, directed entirely against the constructions of Mr Alexander, I sense a sordid smell of stuffiness, at the sight of a construction like that of Mr Alexander being counter-attacked in the name of obsolete criteria. Good Heavens, I did not hesitate to attack it myself in the most categorical way fourteen years ago, at the 1950 Congress of Psychiatry, but, it is the construction of a man of great talent and when I see at what level this construction is discussed, I can pay myself the complement that through all the misadventures that my discourse encounters, here and certainly elsewhere, one can say that this discourse provides an obstacle to the experience of analysis being served up to you in a completely cretinous way.

当我在精神分析学季刊看到一篇文章,作者是格洛波先生,标题是「新佛洛伊德学派」。内容完全指向反对亚力山大先生的学说。我看像亚力山大先生这样的学说,遭遇到过时的批判标准的抨击,我觉察到复辟者的故步自封。上天有眼,我自己在十四年前,在1959年的精神分析会议上,我自己也是毫不犹豫地抨击。不过,我后来目睹他的学说所讨论的层次,发现其学说才华横溢,我开始表示敬意。我自己的论述,也曾经在此地及别地,遭遇过许多阻扰及反对。我们可以说,这个论述对于精神分析学的阻碍,在于窄化应用的范围。

At this point, I will resume my discourse on the drive. I was led to approach it after positing that the transference is what manifests in experience the enacting of the reality of the unconscious, in so far as that reality is sexuality. I find that I must pause here and ask myself what this very affirmation involves. If we are sure that sexuality is present in action in the transference, it is in so far as at certain moments it is manifested in the open in the form of love. That is what it is about. Does love represent the summit, the culminating point, the indisputable factor, that makes sexuality present for us in the here and now
of the transference?

此时,我将再开始我对于驱力的论述。当我提出,在精神分析经验,移情显示无意识的真实界的扮演。因为那个真实界是性,我不得不谈到驱力。我发现,我必须在此暂停一下,问问自己,这个肯定牵涉到些什么?假如我们确定性存在于移情的行动,那是因为某个时刻,爱情的表现方式是性的缠绵。就是这么一回事。问题是,在移情的当下或当时,让性出现的无可争辩的因素,爱就是代表那个最高点,或那个性的高潮吗?

雄伯曰
「移情显示无意识的真实界,在精神分析经验时的扮演。」因为那个真实界是性,分析者跟分析家之间必然会有性的欲望产生。若是那个无意识的真实界是爱,那分析者与分析家之间,必然会有爱的欲望的移情产生。问题是,性必然会以爱作为高潮吗?或是爱以性作为高潮?

Freud’s text, not, certainly, any specific text, but the central import of those writings that deal with the drives and their vicissitudes, rejects such a view in the clearest possible way. It was this text that I began to approach last time, when I was trying to make you feel in what a problematic form, bristling
with questions, the introduction of the drive presents. I hope that many of you will have been able to refer to this text in the meantime, whether you are able to read it in German, which seems to me eminently desirable, or whether, as second best, you will be able to read it, always more or less improperly translated, in the two other languages of culture, English or French—I certainly give the worst marks to the French translation, but I will not waste time pointing out the veritable
falsifications with which it swarms.

佛洛伊德的本文,确实地,不限于任何明确的本文,在有关处理驱力及其变迁的那些著作的中心思想,都斩钉截铁地排斥这样的观点。上一次,我开始要谈论到的就是这个本文。我设法让你们了解到,介绍驱力会呈现怎样的困难重重的问题。我希望,你们许多人已经读过这篇文章。最好是德文版,我认是最直截了当。其次是其它两种语言,法文版或英文版,虽然翻译得不尽人意。对于法文版的翻译,我的批评最不佳。不过,我将不浪费时间挑剔它的错误连篇。

Even on a first reading, you would have been able to see that this article falls entirely into two parts—first, the deconstruction of the drive; secondly, the examination of das Lieben, the act of love. We shall now approach this second point.

即使乍看一遍,你都能够看出,这篇文章全部分成两个部份:第一、驱力的解构;第二、爱的行为的省察。我们现在从这二点谈起。

I
Freud says quite specifically that love can in no way be regarded as the representative of what he puts in question in the terms die ganze Sexualstrebung, that, is to say, the tendency, the forms, the convergence of the striving of the sexual, in so far as it culminates in an apprehensible whole, that would sum up its essence and function.

佛洛伊德相当明确地说,爱丝毫不能被认为是代表die ganze Sexualstrebung,换言之,他质疑的性的追求的倾向、形式、跟汇聚,因为爱的高潮要从整体来理解,这才能概括爱的本质与功能。

ICommt aber auf damit nicht zulier, that’s not at all how it happens, he cries, when answering this far-reaching suggestion. We analysts have rendered it by all sorts of misleading formulae. The whole point of the article is to show us that with regard to the biological finality of sexuality, namely, reproduction, the drives, as they present themselves in the process of psychical reality, are partial drives.

「完全不是那么一回事!」他声嘶力竭地说,当他回答这个影响深远的问题。我们精神分析师诠释的公式,很多都是误导。这篇文章的整个重点是要告诉我们,关于性作为生物的最终目标,换言之,性的繁殖或性的驱力,只是部份的驱力,因为它们是出现在心理真实界的过程。

In their structure, in the tension they establish, the drives are linked to an economic factor. This economic factor depends on the conditions in which the function of the pleasure principle is exercised at a level that I will take up again, at the right time, in the term Real-Ich. Let me say at once that we can conceptualize the Real-Ich as the central nervous system in so far as it functions, not as a system of relations, but as a system intended to ensure a certain homeostasis of the internal tensions.

在性冲动的结构,在性冲动造成的紧张,驱力与经济的因素有关。这个经济的因素,依靠快乐原理的功能所运作的状况而定,我曾在适当时刻,以「真实的自我」这个术语名之。容我立即说,这个真实的自我,我们能够构想为中央的神经系统,因为它的功能不是作为器官彼此关联的系统,而是一个用来保持内部紧张得到体内平衡的系统。

雄伯曰:
「在性冲动的结构,在性冲动造成的紧张,驱力与经济的因素有关。」这个economic 当然不是一般的经济学,而是有效率地使用资源,快乐原则的运用。而且还跟「真实的自我」有关。这个「真实自我」的定义是「它的功能不是作为器官彼此关联的系统,而是一个用来保持内部紧张,以获得体内平衡的系统。」如此推论,性的冲动驱力,跟体内的平衡的系统就息息相关啦。

It is because of the reality of the homeostatic system that sexuality comes into play only in the form of partial drives. The drive is precisely that montage by which sexuality participates in the psychical life, in a way that must conform to the gap-like structure that is the structure of the unconscious.

因为在这个体内平衡的真实界,性只是以部份驱力的形式运作。驱力确实就是那个蒙太奇画面:性介入主体的精神生活,其形式必须是,跟无意识像是个缺口的结构相一致。

雄伯曰
无意识的结构的特征是「像缺口的结构」,生理上的性參与到心理的精神生命的方式,也就是參与的到爱的演出,一方面被比喻为性作为部分驱力的蒙太奇画面的演出,另一方面,又是类似无意识的结构的缺口的结构。

Let us place ourselves at the two extremes of the analytic experience. The primal repressed is a signifier, and we can always regard what is built on this as constituting the symptom qua a scaffolding of signifiers. Repressed and symptom are homogeneous, and reducible to the functions of signifiers. Although their structure is built up step by step like any edifice, it is nevertheless, in the end, inscribable in synchronic terms.

让我们将自己放置在精神分析经验的两个极端。一是、主体的最初的能指,就是已经是被压抑。我们总是将建造在这个能指之上的东西,当着是病征的内容,当着是各种能指的鹰架。被压抑跟病征是同质性结构型的,最终能还原成为能指的功用。他们的结构像是建筑物一样逐层建造,可是,到最后,这个结构还是可以当下同时性完成。

雄伯曰
这个极端指明:原初被压抑的能指,跟病征是同质性结构。这个能指的病征结构,一方面是历史性,另一方面,又是同时性。人作为能指的病征,一方面具有原初压抑到成长累积下来的病征,另一方面,又随时因为无意识的重复出现,而会有同时性的显现。

At the other extreme, there is interpretation. Interpretation concerns the factor of a special temporal structure that I have tried to define in the term metonymy. As it draws to its end, interpretation is directed towards desire, with which, in a certain sense, it is identical. Desire, in fact, is interpretation itself. In between, there is sexuality. If sexuality, in the form of the partial drives, had not manifested itself as dominating the whole economy of this interval, our experience would be reduced to a mantic, to which the neutral term psychical energy would then have been appropriate, but in which it would miss what constitutes in it the presence, the Dasein, of sexuality.

另一个极端是,我们有解释的空间。解释牵涉到特别时间结构的因素,我曾经用转喻这个术语,定义它的内容。当解释完毕后,它被导向欲望。在某个意义上,解释是跟欲望一模一样。事实上,欲望就是解释本身。性爱就存在它们两者之间。假如性爱没有以部份驱力的方式显现自己,作为支配这个内部紧张的整个经济力量,我们精神分析经验将会沦为江湖术士的算命。我们不如用精神能源这个中性的术语,还贴切些。问题是,算命东拉西扯,就是没有明言,性欲望的存在蠢蠢欲动。

雄伯曰:
对于人作为能指的病征,会有如何「解释」的问题。而从梦里的无意识,要「解释」成为意识可以理解的内容,要用「换喻」的方法。又是朝向「欲望」。性便以部分驱力的形态,存在于「欲望」与「解释」之间,但是并没有具备支配全局的能力。而是分析家,作为解释者,成为一种预言家mantic。可是并无法置身事外地中立,因为欲望的解释本身,会形成性的实存的内涵。

The legibility of sex in the interpretation of the unconscious mechanisms is always retroactive. It would merely be of the nature of interpretation if, each moment of the history, we could be certain only that the partial drives intervened effectively in time and place. And not, as one tended to believe at the beginning of the analytic experience, in an erratic form. That infantile sexuality is not a wandering block of ice snatched from the great ice-bank of adult sexuality, intervening as an attraction over an immature subject—this was proved at once in analysis and with what, later, might seem a surprising significance.

在解释无意识机械构造时,性的明显存在,总是会有逆转作用。假如在过程的每一个时刻,我们确定的只是,性作为部份客体,随时随地介入,都会有效用,那会变成,每次提到性,就可以解释无意识,而不再是,无意识是扑朔迷离的问题,如精神分析经验初创时,我们所相信的。例如,
婴儿的性,并不是从成人的性的大冰库,捉取出来的几块零散冰块,被用来解释对于不成熟的主体的吸引。这在精神分析经验,马上就可以证实的,婴儿的性有它令人惊奇的意义。

雄伯:
「性的明显存在,总是会有逆转作用」,也就是性是实在界的无意识,在身体上被原初压抑的部分客体,若从时间的逆转作用来看,婴儿的性的重要性,未必稍逊于成年的性。

In Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality, Freud was able to posit sexuality as essentially polymorphous aberrant. The spell of a supposed infantile innocence was broken. Because it was
imposed so early, I would almost say too early, this sexuality made us pass too quickly over an examination of what it essentially represents. That is to say that, with regard to the agency of sexuality, all subjects are equal, from the child to the adult —that they deal only with that part of sexuality that passes into the networks of the constitution of the subject, into the networks of the signifier—that sexuality is realized only through the operation of the drives in so far as they are partial drives, partial
with regard to the biological finality of sexuality.

在「有关性的理论的三篇论文」,佛洛伊德假设,性具有多样形式的变态。他破除我们一般认为婴儿是纯真无邪的偏见。他很早就下这样的定论,我几乎要说,是过早下定论,结果使我们忽略去审察,婴儿的性所代表的重要意义。换句话说,关于性的代理,所有的人都一样,从小孩到成年。他们都仅是在他们形成主体的能指的网络,处理他们遭遇到部份的性。只有透过驱力的运作,性才会当着是部份驱力被实现。就生物的整体而言,性的驱力只是部份。

The integration of sexuality into the dialectic of desire passes through the bringing into play of what, in the body, deserves to be designated by the term apparatus—if you understand by this that with which the body, with regard to sexuality, may fit itself up (s’appareiller) as opposed to that with which bodies may be paired off (s’apparier).

性被合并到欲望的辩证法,是透过在我们的身体,仪器这个术语所应该指明的内容的运作。
假如你了解这个术语的意思是,性是各自的身体,像仪器般,互相跟对方的身体适应,相对于两个身体的互相交媾。

雄伯曰
性跟欲望的辩证法息息相关。因此性的交媾时,若仅是两个身体的性器官的磨擦与互动,没有牵动到欲望的辩证法,那必然是性的交媾的失败,因为爱的高潮没有随之出现。

If all is confusion in the discussion of the sexual drives it is because one does not see that the drive represents no doubt, but merely represents, and partially at that, the curve of fulfillment of sexuality in the living being. Is it surprising that its final term should be death, when the presence of sex in the living being is bound up with death?

有关性的驱力的讨论会如此混乱,是因为我们没有看出,无可置疑地,性代表,仅是代表,而且仅是部份代表,人作为生物主体,性的满足的部份曲线。若我说,性的最后术语是死亡,性在生物界跟死亡息息相关,你会大吃一惊吗?

雄伯曰:
性不仅跟爱息息相关,还跟死亡息息相关。如同日本电影「失乐园」,性爱到最高潮,竟是寻求死亡作为了结。

Today I have copied out on the blackboard a fragment of Heracitus, which I found in the monumental work in which Diels has gathered together for us the scattered remains of the pre-Socratic period. To the bow (Bids), he writes, and this emerges for us as one of his lessons in wisdom which, before all
the circuit of scientific elaboration, went straight to the target, to the bow is given the name of life and its work is death.

今天,我在黑板上抄写几句赫拉西达思的片断。这是从帝尔思为我们编辑的那本伟大巨着,前苏格拉底时代,保存下来的断简残篇,我挑选出来的片断。在科学研究昌明之前,他这句智慧的教导启人深省。他写到,「拉弓射箭,要直接到达目标,它的目标是生命,但是结果却是死亡。」

雄伯曰
赫拉西达思的片断,值的让人深思:
to the bow is given the name of life and its work is death.
「拉弓射箭,要直接到达目标,它的目标是生命,但是结果却是死亡。」
性作为部分驱力,原先是要获得爱的高潮的满足,以回归实在界的无意识,结果却是死亡。对于符号界the symbolic而言,实在界的无意识,意味着「生命」?还是「死亡」?人作为欠缺的能指,该何去何从?

What the drive integrates at the outset in its very existence is a dialectic of the bow, I would even say of archery. In this way we can situate its place in the psychical economy.

从一开始,驱力存在的整体,就是这个拉弓射箭的辩证法。我不妨称之为弓箭术的辩证法。以这种方式,我们能够将驱力的位置,定位在心理活动的位置。

雄伯曰:
如果照这个公式,性的部分驱力是要获得爱的满足,结果所获得却是爱的失落。通过性来获得爱,这是很多的男女的期盼,看来大部分人都必然落空,不是没有道理. 性绝非单纯身体或生理的活动,而且牵涉到心理及心灵的问题。譬如,手淫不仅是欠缺性伴侣时的一种方便,而是对于自我心灵的认同,远胜过对于性的对象的期盼的认同。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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