雄伯通俗化拉康 142b

雄伯通俗化拉康 142b
Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉冈

The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis
精神分析学四个基本概念

Partial Object and its Circuit
部份的客体及其流通
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Freud now introduces us to the drive by one of the most traditional ways, using at every moment the resources of the language, and not hesitating to base himself on something that belongs only to certain linguistic systems., the three voices, active, passive and reflexive. But this is merely an envelope. We must see that this signifying reversion is something other, something other than what it dresses in. What is fundamental at the level of each drive is the movement outwards and back in which it is structured.

弗洛伊德现在以传统的方式,为我们介绍驱力。他不时使用语言的资源,毫不迟疑地,他将基础建立于只属于某些语言系统的东西上,如主动、被动、反身及物、三个语态。但这只是外表包装。我们必须看出,能指的翻转是某件其它不同于它所包装的东西。驱力层次最基本的东西,是它由自己的结构,向外冲撞,而又回来的动作。

雄伯注:
弗洛伊德对于驱力,用三种语态来解释。网络有较明确的解释;
Lacan maintains Freud’s distinction between drive (Trieb) and instinct (Instinkt). Drives differ from biological needs because they can never be satisfied and do not aim at an object but rather circle perpetually around it. The true source of jouissance is the repetition of the movement of this closed circuit. Lacan posits the drives as both cultural and symbolic constructs—to him, “the drive is not a given, something archaic, primordial.” He incorporates the four elements of the drives as defined by Freud (the pressure, the end, the object and the source) to his theory of the drive’s circuit: the drive originates in the erogenous zone, circles round the object, and returns to the erogenous zone. The three grammatical voices structure this circuit:
拉康主张,弗洛伊德区别驱力与本能的差异。驱力不同于生物上的需要,因为它们永远无法被满足,并且目标并不是朝向客体,代替的,驱力永远地环绕客体旋转。欢爽的真实的来源,就是这个封闭迴圈的动作的重复。拉康提出这个驱力,作为既是文化,又是符号的建构—对于拉康,「驱力并不是一个理所当然的假定,某件过时,原始的东西。」他将弗洛伊德定义的驱力的四个元素( 压力、目标、客体及来源),合并到他的驱力迴圈的的理论:驱力起源于性的敏感地带,环绕客体旋转,然后再回到性的敏感地带。有三个文法的语态,作为这个迴圈的结构。
1. the active voice (to see) 主动语态( 看见)
2. the reflexive voice (to see oneself) 反身语态 (看见自己)
3. the passive voice (to be seen) 被动语态 (让自己被看见)
The active and reflexive voices are autoerotic—they lack a subject. It is only when the drive completes its circuit with the passive voice that a new subject appears. Despite being the “passive” voice, the drive is essentially active: “to make oneself be seen” rather than “to be seen.” The circuit of the drive is the only way for the subject to transgress the pleasure principle.

主动及反身语态都是自动性欲—它们欠缺一个主体。仅有当驱力以被动语态完成它的迴圈,新的主体才会出现。仅管驱力成为「被动语态」,它基本上还是主动语态:「让自己被看见」,而不是「被看见」。驱力的迴圈是最好的方法,让主体逾越快乐原则。

Lacan identifies four partial drives: the oral drive (the erogenous zones are the lips, the partial object the breast), the anal drive (the anus and the feces), the scopic drive (the eyes and the gaze) and the invocatory drive (the ears and the voice). The first two relate to demand and the last two to desire. If the drives are closely related to desire, they are the partial aspects in which desire is realized—desire is one and undivided, whereas the drives are its partial manifestations
拉康辨认出四个部分驱力:口腔驱力(性感地带是嘴唇,部分客体是乳房),肛门驱力( 肛门及粪便),视觉驱力(眼睛及凝视),以及召唤驱力( 耳朵及声音)。前面两样跟要求有关,后两者跟欲望有关。假如这些驱力跟欲望息息相关,它们是欲望被满足时的两个部分。—欲望是一个整体,而且无法分裂;而驱力则是部分的展现。
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It is remarkable that Freud can designate these two poles simply by using something that is the verb. Beschauen und beschaut werden, to see and to be seen, qualen and gequalt werden, to torment and to be tormented. This is because, from the outset, Freud takes it as understood that no part of this distance
covered can be separated from its outwards-and-back movement, from its fundamental reversion, from the circular character of the path of the drive.

耐人寻味的是,佛洛伊德仅仅使用动词的主被动,如看见与被看见,折磨与被折磨,来指明这两个极端。这是因为从一开始,佛洛伊德认为他所研究发现的东西,大家都已经心知肚明,不外乎是:向外冲撞而又回来的动作,驱力的根本的翻转,以及驱力的途径具有循环的特性。

Similarly, it is remarkable that, in order to illustrate the dimension of this Verkehrung, he should choose Schaulust, the pleasure of seeing, and what he cannot designate other than by the combination of two terms in sado-masochism. When he speaks of these two drives, and especially of masochism, he is careful to observe that there are not two stages in these drives, but three. One must distinguish the return into the circuit of the drive of that which appears—but also does not appear—in a third stage. Namely, the appearance of em neues Subjekt, to be understood as follows—not in the sense that there is already one, namely the subject of the drive, but in that what is new is the appearance of a subject. This subject, which is properly the other, appears in so far as the drive has been able to show its
circular course. It is only with its appearance at the level of the other that what there is of the function of the drive may be realized.

同样耐人寻味的是,为了解释这个来回的疏离,他竟然选择窥视的快乐一词,以及不得不使用虐待狂与受虐狂两个术语来说明。当他提到这两个驱力,特别是受虐狂,他仔细地观察到,这两个驱力并不是两个阶段,而是三个阶段。我们必须区别驱力的循环回来时,若有若失的东西隐隐若现,那就是第三阶段。换言之,这个第三阶段的出现,可以被理解如下:不是驱力的主体事先存在,新奇的妙事是,主体现在才出现。这个主体,不妨说是大他者的主体,出现在驱力能够展现它循环的过程时。只有随着这个大他者的出现,驱力的功用才可能被实现。

雄伯曰:
驱力既然具有主动与被动的特性,用虐待狂与受虐狂来说明,倒也清楚。问题是怎么变成三个阶段呢?拉康强调,并不是原先就有一个主体,(如果原先就有,主体就会很清楚。)而是由于驱力的主动向外观看,到令自己被看,再回头观看自己,才蓦然发现,作为大他者的主体就在自己的欲望那里。就像大乘佛教谓人人有佛性,可是大家往往不自觉,只有经由自己向外寻求,被寻求,然后回归自己欲望本身时,才蓦然发现自己就是佛,自己就有大悲心。

It is to this that I would now like to draw your attention. You see here, on the blackboard, a circuit formed by the curve of this rising and redescending arrow that crosses, Drang as it is in its origin, the surface constituted by what I defined last time as the rim, which is regarded in the theory as the source, the Quelle, that is to say, the so-called erogenous zone in the drive. The tension is always loop-shaped and cannot be separated from its return to the erogenous zone.

我现在要提醒你们注意的就是这个。你们在此看到,在黑板上,有一条上升及重新下降的箭头的曲线,形成一道循环。这条起源于欲望的曲线,越过我上次定义为边缘所组成的表面。这个边缘在精神分析理论,被认为是来源所在。换言之,就是所谓驱力的性感地带。这个敏感的地带是个回旋的形状,无法跟它的的回转地带区隔开来。

雄伯:
这个驱力的迴旋形状图,书本上有。可是我画不出来,也无法贴上影象档,不晓的Fullmetal 能不能帮忙找一下贴上来。否则光靠文字叙述,大家看得懂否?

Here we can clear up the mystery of the zielgelzemmt, of that form that the drive may assume, in attaining its satisfaction without attaining its aim—in so far as it would be defined by a biological function, by the realization of reproductive coupling. For the partial drive does not lie there. What is it?

在此,我们能够弄清楚,驱力所形成的状态的神秘,就在于不必到达目标,就得到它的满足,因为它被定义为一种生物的功能,实现繁殖交配的功用。可是,部份的驱力并不是在那里。那部份的驱力是什么?

雄伯曰:
驱力所形成的状态,是一种神秘,而且不必到达目标,就得到它的满足,但是这是繁殖交配功用的生物的本能。跟性作为部分驱力的功用不一样。

Let us still suspend the answer, but let us concentrate on this term but, and on the two meanings it may present. In order to differentiate them, I have chosen to notate them here in a language in which they are particularly expressive, English. When you entrust someone with a mission, the aim is not what
he brings back, but the itinerary he must take. The aim is the way taken. The French word but may be translated by another word in English, goal. In archery, the goal is not the but either, it is not the bird you shoot, it is having scored a hit and thereby attained your but.

让我们暂时不回答这个问题。我们先专注于这个术语,专注于它可能呈现的两个意义。为了要区别它们,我选择用特别能使它们表现生动的语言,我用英文来描绘它们的回转。当你们信任某个人可以从事某个任务,他所带回的,不是这个任务的目标,而是他所从事的途径。「目标」就是所从事的途径。法文的「但是」在英文可以用另一个字翻译为「目的」。在拉弓射箭时,目的也不是这个「但是」。目的不是你要射中的鸟,而是你已经达成目的,因此你获得你的「但是」。

雄伯:
「当你们信任某个人可以从事某个任务,他所带回的,不是这个任务的目标,而是他所从事的途径。「目标」就是所从事的途径。」这句话有点费解,仔细想一想,我们的生活中有没有这种情景?有了,我记得以前看过一个影片,几位聪明绝顶的人才,筹划盗取机关重重的银行地下金库。盗取出来后,运上轮船,铸成轮船的锚,放入海中,躲过警探追查。逃离途中,黄金却因为暴风雨而掉落大海,等于是功亏一篑。电影的重点不在强调黄金的目标获得与否,而在于强调盗取过分的智慧算计,及行动的天衣无缝,所带给观众的紧张刺激。

If the drive may be satisfied without attaining what, from the point of view of a biological totalization of function, would be the satisfaction of its end of reproduction, it is because it is a partial drive, and its aim is simply this return into circuit. This theory is present in Freud. He tells us somewhere that
the ideal model for auto-eroticism would be a single mouth kissing itself—a brilliant, even dazzling metaphor, in this respect so typical of everything he writes, and which requires only to be completed by a question. In the drive, is not this mouth what might be called a mouth in the form of an arrow?—a
mouth sewn up, in which, in analysis, we see indicating as clearly as possible, in certain silences, the pure agency of the oral drive, closing upon its own satisfaction.

假如驱力的得到满足,不必从生物的整体的功用而言,经由它的繁殖交配的目的来得到,那是因为部份的驱力的存在,而它的目的仅仅就是回转到它的循环。这个理论,佛洛伊德已经提出。他在某个地方曾告诉我们:性冲动的自动机能,理想的模式将是一张嘴巴的自吻。这个比喻生猛鲜活,形容佛洛伊德的著作等身,再贴切不过。还有待回答的只剩一个问题。在驱力的循环,嘴巴难道不就是箭头形状的那个开口处的嘴巴?那个被缝合的嘴巴?在精神分析经验,我们很清楚看到,在某些沉默的时刻,口腔的驱力欲语还休,一经满足就封闭。

雄伯曰:
「性冲动的自动机能,理想的模式将是一张嘴巴的自吻。」这个比喻确实是生猛鲜活。拉康用来形容弗洛伊德的丰功伟业,我们亦心有戚戚焉,也真想用来聊慰自己平凡的一生。不过,拉康提醒我们:在某些沉默的时刻,口腔的驱力欲语还休,一经满足就封闭。

In any case, what makes us distinguish this satisfaction from the mere auto-eroticism of the erogenous zone is the object that we confuse all too often with that upon which the drive closes —this object, which is in fact simply the presence of a hollow, a void, which can be occupied, Freud tells us, by any object, and whose agency we know only in the form of the lost object, the petit a. The objet petit a is not the origin of the oral drive. It is not introduced as the original food, it is introduced from the fact that no food will ever satisfy the oral drive, except by circumventing the eternally lacking object.

无论如何,区别这个满足,跟性感地带的性冲动的自动机能的满足,有何不同的地方,就是我们时常将驱力的封闭,混淆成为它的客体。事实上,这个客体仅仅是一个空洞的存在,一个无法被任何客体占据的空无,佛洛伊德如此告诉我们,我们只是知道,这个客体的代理是失落的客体,小客体。这个小客体不是口腔驱力的起源。它不是被介绍作为原初的食物。它之所以被介绍,是因为食物永远满足不了口腔的驱力,食物只是权充对于这个永远失落的客体的代理。

雄伯:
拉康提醒我们:食物永远满足不了口腔的驱力,食物只是权充对于这个永远失落的客体的代理。那怎么办呢?我的一些迷恋于食物小客体的朋友,经常这样问?全市的精致餐厅,都已经被他们光顾遍了。

The question now confronting us is this—where is this circuit plugged in and, to begin with, is it spiral in form, that is to say, is the circuit of the oral drive continued by the anal drive, which would then be the following stage? Is it a case of dialectical progress being produced out of opposition? Even for
people who are used to us, it is already to carry the question rather far, in the name of some kind of mystery of development, to regard the thing as already acquired, inscribed in the organism.

我们现在面临的问题是:这个循环的衔接点在哪理?循环起初是回旋形状吗?换言之,口腔驱力的循环,会以下一阶段的肛门驱力继续吗?这是个阴阳两性所产生的辩证历程吗?你若是将这个问题,当着是你已经在自身的有机体生命获得验证,获得解答,你未免过于自信。即使你对于精神分析经验甚为熟稔,你要知道,天机奥秘,知之不祥。

雄伯曰:
四种驱力彼此之间或许会关联,但是欲望的驱力问题,不可能仅在「自身的有机体生命获得验证,获得解答」。而是要从实在界的无意识的源头去寻找。

This conception seems to be sustained by the fact that as far as the emergence of sexuality in a so-called completed form is concerned, we are certainly dealing with an organic process. But there is no reason to extend this fact to the relation between the other partial drives. There is no relation of production between one of the partial drives and the next.

这个观念似乎由下面这个事实得到左证:就性总要达到高潮才会爽快而言,我们确实是在处理有机体的生命过程。但是,我们仍然没有理由,将这个事实,扩大到其它部份驱力之间的关系。某一部份驱力产生的结果,未必跟下一个部份驱力产生的结果,有任何关系。

The passage from the oral drive to the anal drive can be produced not by a process of maturation, but by the intervention of something that does not belong to the field of the drive—by the intervention, the overthrow, of the demand of the Other. If we introduce the other drives with which the series may be formed, and the number of which is fairly short, it is quite clear that you would find it very difficult indeed to situate in relation to the drives that I have just named, in a historical succession, the Schaulust, or scopic drive, or even what I will later distinguish as the invocatory drive (la pulsion invocante),
and to establish between them the slightest relation of deduction or genesis.

从口腔驱力到肛门驱力的历程,不一定要经过长大成年的过程,而是要经过驱力以外的某件东西的介入,换言之,经过大它者所要求的介入跟翻转。即使我介绍过其它数目不多的驱力,例如,我刚刚提到的视觉驱力 或我后来又揭露的召唤驱力,因为它们跟这一系列的形成有关,显而易见,你们将会发现,要从它们衍生的过程,找到彼此关系的位置,或在彼此之间,建立演变或起源的丝毫关系,确实都不是一件很容易的事情。

雄伯曰
拉康强调:从口腔驱力到肛门驱力的历程,不一定要经过长大成年的过程,而是要经过驱力以外的某件东西的介入,换言之,经过大它者所要求的介入跟翻转。实在界的无意识是介入驱力的主要因素,也是我们念兹在兹的东西。

There is no natural metamorphosis of the oral drive into the anal drive. Whatever appearances may emerge to the contrary from the play of the symbol constituted, in other contexts, by the supposed anal object, namely, the faeces, in relation to the phallus in its negative effect, we can in no sense— experience shows us — consider that there is a continuity between the anal phase and the phallic phase, that there is a relation of natural metamorphosis.

从口腔驱力到肛门躯力的蜕变,并不是很自然的过程。就组成的符号的运作而言,出现的表象符号,在其它的情境,可能会是完全相反的表象符号。例如,口腔驱力的食物,蜕变成为所谓肛门驱力的客体,换言之,粪便,或阳具驱力的附作用,尿尿。精神分析经验告诉我们,我们完全没有办法认为,肛门的部份驱力,跟阳具的部份驱力,有任何的连续性,或彼此的蜕变有任何关系。

We must consider the drive under the heading of the kon- stante Kcraft that sustains it as a stationary tension. Let us take a look at the metaphors that Freud gives us to express these outlets. Take Schub, for example, which he immediately translates by the image that it bears in his mind, that of a spindle of
lava, a material emission from the deflagration of energy that has occurred there in various successive stages, which complete, one after another, that form of return journey. Do we not see in the Freudian metaphor the embodiment of this fundamental structure—something that emerges from a rim, which redoubles its enclosed structure, following a course that returns, and of which nothing else ensures the consistency except the object, as something that must be circumvented.

我们考虑驱力,不妨先给它一个大标题:「蓄势待发」,意思是,驱力被维持作为一种蠢蠢欲动的紧张力量。让我们先看一下,佛洛伊德为了表达这些发泄,所给予的比喻。以精液为例,他立即以脑海浮现的岩浆的爆发的意象,将它翻译成为一种能源的逬发,所产生出来的物资。这个物质以各种连续的阶段发生在那里,然后陆续地,绕一圈回转到原来的地方。从佛洛伊德的这个比喻,我们难道不是看到驱力这个基本结构的具体形象?从边缘出现的某件东西,以封闭的形状重迭增加,遵循回转的途径前进。除了这个客体作为某件必须被包围的东西,没有其它一样东西可以保证它的持续性,。

雄伯曰:
欲望驱力的一个特征是边缘,封闭,与回转:从边缘出现的某件东西,以封闭的形状重迭增加,遵循回转的途径前进。 客体并不是它的目标,而是被环绕的东西。

This articulation leads us to make of the manifestation of the drive the mode of a headless subject, for everything is articulated in it in terms of tension, and has no relation to the subject other than one of topological community. I have been able to articulate the unconscious for you as being situated in
the gaps that the distribution of the signifying investments sets up in the subject, and which figure in the algorithm in the form of a losange [], which I place at the centre of any relation of the unconscious between reality and the subject. Well! It is in so far as something in the apparatus of the body is structured in the same way, it is because of the topological unity of the gaps in play, that the drive assumes its role in the functioning of the unconscious.

佛洛伊德的表述引导我们将驱力的展现,解释为无头主体的乱闯,因为驱力的每一样东西,都是用紧张力量的术语来表述,而且这些东西,必需是主体处于拓扑图形的社会之内,才会发生关联。我之所以能够表述无意识,因为它的位置,就在意符的投注散布在主体身上形成的裂口,形状像是邮戳的四角方块。我将这个裂口,放置在无意识处于现实界与主体之间的关系中心。驱力扮演它在无意识的功用的角色,如同身体装置的某件零件的功用,因为这个裂口的运作,在社会环境里有其脉络可循。

雄伯曰
拉康将欲望驱力解释为一种向往冲撞,然后回转。他运用「无头主体」headless subject的意象。这个欲望驱力的无头主体acephalic subject 跟主体没有关系,除了作为拓扑图形的社会一份子。因为驱力仅牵涉到主体的某一面或某一边。将「欲望驱力的主体」当著是实际的一个主体,并不是很恰当。拉康说,在这个层次,我们并不需要去考虑到主体的主体化。我们正在考虑的是一个非主体化的主体。它的特征主要是欠缺,某件东西失落,头不见了。拉康在此提到这个主体为一个欠缺的工具。这个东西形成一个空洞,或是让东西出现作为欠缺。「工具」这个术语意味着主体的这一边,欲望驱力的这一边,最好被构想成为客体。主体在此失落自己,成为仅是一个小客体。

「」这个邮戳般的四角方块,是拉康用来作驱力的辩证法,无意识处于感觉的主体与被妥协的现实界之间的关系。左边尖端代表被划杠的主体,通过欲望驱力,从逆时钟方向,到底下尖端的无意识,到右边尖端的小客体,再逆时钟方向,到上方尖端的无意识,再回转到被划杠的主体。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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