Carl Jung 卡尔 荣格

Carl Jung 卡尔 荣格
Two Essays on Analytical Psychology
分析心理学的两篇论文
雄伯订正翻译

I
精神分析(PSYCHOANALYSIS)

If he wants to help his patient, the doctor and above all the “ specialist for nervous diseases” must have psychological knowledge;
for nervous disorders and all that is embraced by the terms “ nervousness,” hysteria, etc., are of psychic origin and therefore logically require psychic treatment.

A. 因為神經疾患(nervous disorders)及所有包含在「神經緊張(nervousness)」底下的名詞如「歇斯底里」(hysteria),都是根源於心理(psychic),邏輯上來說它們都需要心理治療,因此醫師及神經疾病(nervous diseases)的專家必須擁有心理學知識才能幫助病人。
B. 假如他想要帮助他的病人,医生,尤其是「精神疾病的专家」,必须要具备有心理学的的知识。因为精神疾病,以及被包括在诸如歇斯底里症等「神经症」这个术语的精神疾病,都起源于心理因素。因此,顺理成章,它们都需要心理治疗。

Cold water, light, fresh air, electricity, and so forth have at best a transitory effect and sometimes none at all.

A. 冷水、光、新鮮空氣、電等頂多只是短暫存在的物理現象,有時候甚至完全消失。
B. 冷水,光,新鲜空气,电击等疗法,充其量有短暂的疗效,有时根本没有疗效。

The patient is sick in mind, in the highest and most complex of the mind’s functions, and these can hardly be said to belong any more to the province of medicine. Here the doctor must also be a psychologist, which means that he must have knowledge of the human psyche.

A. 專司最高位也最複雜的心理功能很難界定屬於哪個領域的醫學,因此病人心理一旦生病,治療病人的醫師也得同時是一個擁有人類心理知識的心理師。
B. 病人的心理出了毛病,是心灵最高及最复杂的功用出了毛病。这些功用很难再说是归属于医学的领域。在此,医生必须也是一位心理学家。这意味着, 他必须拥有关于人类心理的知识。

In the past, that is to say up to fifty years ago, the doctor’s psychological training was still very bad. His psychiatric text¬books were wholly confined to clinical descriptions and the sys¬tematization of mental diseases, and the psychology taught in the universities was either philosophy or the so-called “experimen¬tal psychology” inaugurated by Wundt.1

A. 在過去至少五十年之前,醫師的心理專業訓練可說乏善可陳。精神教科書僅限於臨床描述及心理疾患的系統化,在大學教授的心理學是「哲學」,不然就是馮特(Wundt) 所創所謂的「實驗心理學」。
B. 在过去,也就是直到五十多年前,醫師的心理專業訓練仍然乏善可陳。精神病学的教科书,完全局限于临床描述及精神疾病的系统化。在大学所教导心理学,要就是哲学,要不就是由温得特所开创的所谓的「实验心理学」。

The first moves to¬wards a psychotherapy of the neuroses came from the Charcot school, at the Salpetriere in Paris; Pierre Janet2 began his epoch-making researches into the psychology of neurotic states, and Bernheim3 in Nancy took up with great success Liebeault’s4 old and forgotten idea of treating the neuroses by suggestion.

A. 由位於巴黎Salpetriere的查可(Charcot)學派針對神經質(neuroses)個案首創心理治療;皮爾簡納(Pierre Janet) 則對在神經質狀態(neurotic)之心理學開創具劃時代意義的研究,而在盧森堡(Nancy)的伯恩罕(Bernheim) 則繼承利布萊特(Liebeault) 以「暗示」來治療精神官能症個案──一個古老且早已遺忘的方式。
B. 針對神經症首創的心理治療,来自位於巴黎Salpetriere的查可(Charcot)學派;皮爾簡納(Pierre Janet) 則是开始他具有劃时代意义的研究,對于神經症病状的心理学,而在盧森堡(Nancy)的伯恩罕(Bernheim) 則是非常成功地繼承利布萊特(Liebeault) 以「暗示」來治療精神官能症個案──一個古老且被遺忘的方式。

Sigmund Freud translated Bernheim’s book and also derived valuable inspiration from it. At that time there was still no psy¬chology of the neuroses and psychoses.

A. 西格蒙德弗洛伊德(Sigmund Freud)翻譯伯恩罕的書也從中獲得極具價值的啟發,當時仍沒有精神官能症及精神病(psychoses)相關的心理學。
B. 西格蒙德,弗洛伊德(Sigmund Freud)翻譯伯恩罕的書,也從中獲得極具價值的啟發。在當時,仍然沒有精神官能症及精神病(psychoses)相關的心理學。

To Freud belongs the undying merit of having laid the foundations of a psychology of the neuroses. His teachings sprang from his experience in the practical treatment of the neuroses, that is, from the application of a method which he called psychoanalysis.

A. 弗洛伊德的不朽價值乃在於為精神官能症心理學奠定了基礎。他的教學源自於他實際治療精神官能症個案的經驗,也就是一種他稱之為「精神分析」的應用方式。
B. 归功于弗洛伊德的不朽贡献,乃在於為精神官能症心理學奠定了基礎。他的教學源自於他實際治療精神官能症個案的經驗,也就是,源自於一種他稱之為「精神分析」的應用疗法。

Before we enter upon a closer presentation of our subject, something must be said about its relation to science as known hitherto. Here we encounter a curious spectacle which proves yet again the truth of Anatole France’s remark: “Les savants ne sont pas curieux.”

A. 在我們進一步介紹我們的主題之前,我們要先說明迄今我們所知道它與科學之間的關係,我們在這遇到了一個有趣的事實──足以證明法朗士(Anatole France)所說的真話:「科學家們並不好奇(Les savants nesont pas curieux)」。
B. 在我們進一步介紹我們的主題之前,我們要先說明迄今我們所知道它與科學之間的關係。我們在此遭遇到一個耐人寻味的景象──再一次證明法朗士(Anatole France)的评论千真万确:「科學家們並不好奇(Les savants nesont pas curieux)」。

The first work of any magnitude5 in this field awakened only the faintest echo, in spite of the fact that it intro¬duced an entirely new conception of the neuroses. A few writers spoke of it appreciatively and then, on the next page, proceeded to explain their hysterical cases in the same old way.

A. 基本上在這個領域所作的最領先的研究 幾乎無法喚醒任何的迴響,儘管弗洛伊德介紹了精神官能症全新的觀念,有些作家在談到精神官能症時雖然非常的重視它,但是書本翻過來的隔一頁他們卻仍用舊有的思維來介紹他們歇斯底里的個案。
B. 在這個領域,早期具有任何份量的研究 仅博得些微的迴響,儘管事实上,它们介紹了精神官能症全新的觀念。有些作家談到精神官能症,雖然非常赞赏有加,但是書本翻過來的隔一頁,他們卻仍用舊有的思維來介紹他們歇斯底里的個案。

They be¬haved very much like a man who, having eulogized the idea or fact that the earth was a sphere, calmly continues to represent it as flat. Freud’s next publications remained absolutely unno-ticed, although they put forward observations which were of in¬calculable importance for psychiatry.

A. 他們表現就好像主張地球是一個球體,卻持續將地球以平面的方式呈現。儘管弗洛伊德的觀察已為精神醫學帶來無以計數的重要性,但他的幾本著作仍乏人注意。
B. 他們的表現,就好像一个人赞扬地球是一個球體的观念或事实,卻泰然自若地继续將地球作为平面在应用。儘管弗洛伊德提出的觀察,对于精神醫學,具有無以計數的重要性,但他的随后幾本著作完全乏人注意。

When, in the year 1900, Freud wrote the first real psychology of dreams6 (a proper Sty¬gian darkness had hitherto reigned over this field), people be¬gan to laugh, and when he actually started to throw light on the psychology of sexuality in 1905,7 laughter turned to insult. And this storm of learned indignation was not behindhand in giving Freudian psychology an unwanted publicity, a notoriety that extended far beyond the confines of scientific interest.

A. 1900年的時代弗洛伊德曾寫了第一本真正有關夢的心理學 (其陰森黑暗的本質迄今仍統治著這個領域),人們於是開始訕笑,但當佛洛伊德真正開始在1905年 進一步闡釋性的心理學,人們從訕笑轉成侮辱。
B. 在1900年,弗洛伊德寫了第一本真正有關夢的心理學 ,(内容的陰森黑暗,迄今仍統治著這個領域)。人們於是開始訕笑,但是在1905年,當佛洛伊德真正開始 闡明有关性爱心理學,人們從訕笑轉成侮辱。

And this storm of learned indignation was not behindhand in giving Freudian psychology an unwanted publicity, a notoriety that extended far beyond the confines of scientific interest.

A. 而這場憤怒的風暴並沒有帶給弗洛伊德的心理學任何知名度,事實上它帶來的惡名昭彰遠超越人們對科學範疇的興趣。
B. 而随这场对于异端邪说感到愤怒的风暴以惧来的,是佛洛伊德的心理学博得料想不到的名声,恶名昭彰的名声,延伸到科学内行领域以外的人都晓得。

Accordingly we must look more closely into this new psychology. Already in Charcot’s time it was known that the neurotic symptom is “ psychogenic,”i.e., originates in the psyche.

A. 因此我們必須對新心理學看得更仔細。在查可的年代,精神官能症確實是源於心理所生(psychogenic)。
B. 因此,对于这种新心理学,我们必须更加仔细地审视。在恰可精神病学的时代,众所周知,精神官能症是「心因性」,也就是说, 它起源于心理。

It was also known, thanks mainly to the work of the Nancy school, that all hysterical symptoms can be produced through suggestion. Equally, something was known, thanks to the researches of Janet, about the psychological mechanisms that produce such hysterical phenomena as anaesthesia, paresia,paralysis, and amnesia.

A. 由於盧森堡學派的研究,我們亦知所有歇斯底里的症狀可以透過暗示而被創造出來。同樣地由簡納的研究,我們知道像歇斯底里現象的心理機轉也可以透過麻醉、輕癱、麻痺及失憶製造出來。
B. 我们也知道,由于南西暗示学派的研究,所有的歇斯底里病征都能够透过暗示产生出来。同样地, 由于简纳特的研究,我们略有所知,对于产生歇斯底里现象的心理的机制,诸如感觉麻木,轻微瘫痪,麻痹,及失忆。
C.
Produce 的主词是the psychological mechanisms
Produce的受词是such hysterical phenomena as anaesthesia, paresia,paralysis, and amnesia.

But it was not known how an hysterical symptom originates in the psyche; the psychic causal connections were completely unknown. In the early eighties Dr. Breuer, an old Viennese prac¬titioner, made a discovery which became the real starting-point for the new psychology.

A. 但我們不知道的是歇斯底里的症狀如何源自於心理(psyche);它與心理之間的因果關係是全然未知的。在80年代的早期維也納的一個內科醫師布魯爾(Breuer),有了一項發現而這是新心理學的真正起點。
B. 但我們不知道的是,歇斯底里的症狀如何源自於心理;我们完全不知道心理的因果關係。在80年代的早期,維也納的一個內科醫師布魯爾(Breuer),有了一項發現,這才是新心理學的真正起點。

He had a young, very intelligent woman patient suffering from hysteria, who manifested the following symptoms among others: she had a spastic (rigid) paralysis “of the right arm, and occasional fits of absentmindedness or twi¬light states; she had also lost the power of speech inasmuch as she could no longer command her mother tongue but could only express herself in English (systematic aphasia).

A. 當時他有一位年輕、聰慧的女性病患罹患了歇斯底里症,其表現症狀如下:右手臂僵直性麻痺,意識有時處於心不在焉或進入朦朧狀態(twilight states),在語言上也失去說話的能力,無法使用母語,充其量只能用英語表達(系統性失語,systematic aphasia)。
B. 當時他有一位年輕、聰慧的女性病患罹患了歇斯底里症。这位病患显现以下的症狀:右手臂僵直性麻痺,意識有時處於心不在焉或進入朦朧狀態(twilight states),在語言上也失去說話的能力,無法使用母語,充其量只能用英語表達(系統性失語,systematic aphasia)

They tried at that time to account for these disorders with anatomical theories, although the cortical centre for the arm function
was little disturbed here as with a normal person. The psymptomatolity of hysteria is full of anatomical impossibilities.

A. 儘管當時病患控制手臂功能的大腦皮質中心與常人無異,醫師仍試著以解剖學的理論來解釋這些症狀。但歇斯底里在症狀學上用「解剖學」來看是完全無法解釋的。
B. 当时他们尝试用解剖学理论来解释疾病,虽然大脑皮质核心对于手臂的功用,在此几乎没有受到干扰,如同正常人无异。歇斯底里症的病征,从解剖学理论解释,处处窒碍难行。

One lady, who had completely lost her hearing because of hysterical affection, often used to sing.
A. 另一位女士因為歇斯底里情緒而完全失去她的聽力。
B. 有一位女士过去时常唱歌,但是因为歇斯底里的情绪而完全丧失听力。

Once, when she was singing ,her doctor seated himself unobserved at the piano and softly accompanied her.

A. 一次這位女士正在唱歌,醫師則坐在鋼琴旁以柔和的琴聲陪著她;
B. 有一次,当她正在唱歌,她的医生没引起注意地坐在钢琴旁边,柔和地为她伴奏。

In passing from one stanza to the next he made a sudden change of key, whereupon the patient, without noticing it, went on singing in the changed key. Thus she hears-and does not hear.

A. 在樂章的某一小節到下一小節間,醫師改變了曲調(key),而病人竟然沒有意識到而繼續以已改變的曲調哼唱著。因此她能夠聽──只是她不聽。
B. 在樂章的某一小節到下一小節間,醫師改變了音调。病人虽然沒有注意,却配合改變的音调继续唱著。因此她事实上是听进去─只是她装著没听到。

The various forms of systematic blindness offer similar phe¬nomena: a man suffering from total hysterical blindness recov¬ered his power of sight in the course of treatment, but it was only partial at first and remained so for a long time. He could see everything with the exception of people’s heads. He saw all the people round him without heads. Thus he sees-and does not see

A. 不同形式的系統性盲目(systematic blindness)症狀有相同的現象:有一位罹患「歇斯底里全盲」的男士在治療過程中恢復視力,但在治療一開始只恢復部份視力且像這樣持續一段很長的時間。基本上除了人的「頭」之外他能看到所有的東西。也就是說,他看到周遭的人們全都是沒有頭。他可以看──只是他不看。
B. 各种形式的系統性盲目(systematic blindness)症狀,提供相同的現象:有一位罹患「歇斯底里症状的全盲」的男士,在治療過程中恢復視力,但是起初只恢復部份視力,而且像這樣持續一段很長的時間。他什么都能看见,就是看不见人的头。他看见他四周所有的人,但是没看到头。因此,他具有看见的能力,但是装著没看见。

From a large number of like experiences it had been con¬cluded that only the conscious mind of the patient does not see and hear, but that the sense function is otherwise in working or¬der. This state of affairs directly contradicts the nature of an organic disorder, which always affects the actual function as well.

A. 從大量類似的經驗我們可以做出結論,病人的意識心(conscious mind)看不見也聽不到,但感官功能其實是正常的。這種狀況與所知的器質性疾患(organic disorders)不同,因器質性疾患一定也同時會影響實際的感官功能。
B. 從许多類似的經驗,我們可以做出結論。 仅是病人的意識心(conscious mind)看不見,也聽不到,但感官功能在其它方面是正常的。這種狀況與器質性疾患(organic disorders)的性质,截然互相牴触,因为器質性疾病总是也會影響實際的感官功能。
Otherwise 其它方面

After this digression, let us come back to the Breuer case. There were no organic causes for the disorder, so it had to be regarded as hysterical, i.e., psychogenic. Breuer had observed that if, during her twilight states (whether spontaneous or arti¬ficially induced), he got the patient to tell him ,of the reminis¬cences and fantasies that thronged in upon her, her condition was eased for several hours afterwards.

A. 在剛才的說明後,我們回到布魯爾的個案。因為找不到器質性原因,所以她的症狀被視為歇斯底里,也就是心理所產生的症狀。布魯爾觀察到當病人意識處於朦朧狀態(不論是自然產生或假裝的),他叫病人向醫師說出擠滿在病患腦中的回憶與幻想,然後幾小時後病患的狀況就緩解了。
B. 在离题說明後,让我們回到布魯爾的個案。因為这个疾病并没有器質性原因,它必须被視為歇斯底里症,也就是心理所產生的症狀。布魯爾觀察到,當病人意識處於朦朧狀態时,(不論是自发,或是人为诱导),假如他叫病人向醫師說出擠滿在病患腦中的回憶與幻想,经过幾小時後,病患的狀況就会緩解。

He made systematic use of this discovery for further treatment. The patient devised the name “talking cure” for it or, jokingly, “chimney-sweeping.”

A. 布魯爾將這項發現系統性的應用於治療當中,他的病患為這項治療設計了一個名字叫「說話治療」(talking cure),或又戲謔地稱為「掃煙囪」(chimney-sweeping)。
B. 布魯爾將這項發現,系統性地應用於更进一步的治療,这位病患為這項治療构想一個名字,叫「說話治療」(talking cure),或又戲謔地稱為「掃煙囪」(chimney-sweeping)。

The patient had become ill when nursing her father in his fatal illness. Naturally her fantasies were chiefly concerned with these disturbing days.

A. 這位病患在照顧罹患致命疾病的父親時,自己又再度生病了。很自然地,她說出來的幻想主要與這段讓她困擾日子有關。
B. 這位病患在照顧罹患致命疾病的父親時,自己的症状再度发作。很自然地,她的幻想主要與這段讓她困擾日子有關。

Reminiscences of this period came to the surface during her twilight states with photographic fidelity; so vivid were they, down to the last detail, that we can hardly as¬sume the waking memory to have been capable of such plastic and exact reproduction.

A. 在她意識處於朦朧狀態時,這段時期的回憶正如照片般寫實地浮上檯面,如此的栩栩如生且鉅細靡遺;相反地,若在她清醒時的記憶,我們很難相信她也能如此精確的去刻畫而重現過去的回憶。

B. 在她意識處於朦朧狀態時,這段時期的回憶正如照片般寫實地浮上檯面。它们是如此的栩栩如生,且鉅細靡遺。若在她清醒時的記憶,我們很難相信,它们也能如此灵活而精确地复制。

(The name “hypermnesia” has been given to this intensification of the powers of memory which not infrequently occurs in restricted states of consciousness.) Re¬markable things now came to light. One of the many stories told ran somewhat as follows:

A. (「過度記憶(hypermnesia)」這個名詞專指記憶力的增強,這在病人意識處於侷限狀態中不算罕見。)在許多故事中,處於這種狀態下顯著的事物會被揭露出來,其中之一有點像是下面所述:
B. (「過度記憶(hypermnesia)」這個名詞,專指記憶力的增強,這在病人意識處於侷限狀態时,经常发生。) 引人注意到事实现在真相大白。其中有一个被述说的故事,有點像是下面所述:

One night, watching by the sick man, who had a high fever, she was tense with anxiety because a surgeon was expected from Vienna to perform an operation.

A. 有一個晚上,有位病患,安娜,她被一個發高燒的男子所守衛著。一位來自維也納的醫師即將為她動手術,所以她非常的緊張、焦慮。
B. 有一个晚上,安娜坐在这个发高烧的病人旁边守护, 她充满焦虑,因为有一位从维也纳来的外科医生预期要病人动手术。
C.
Watching 是主动,被动语态是being watched
by 是旁边,不是被动的「所」
要被动手术是男病人,而非安娜

Her mother had left the room for a while, and Anna, the patient, sat by the sick-bed with her right arm hanging over the back of the chair. She fell into a sort of waking dream in which she saw a black snake coming, appar¬ently out of the wall, towards the sick man as though to bite him.

A. 她母親離開房間一會,而這位病患,她把自己的右手臂掛在椅背後,坐在病床旁。她似乎陷入某種白日夢中,她看到一隻黑色的蛇,很顯然是從牆壁穿了過來,朝向生病的男子,彷彿像是要咬他一般。
B. 她母親離開房間一會,而安娜這位病患,坐在病床旁,她把自己的右手臂垂悬在椅背後。她似乎陷入某種白日夢。在梦中,她看到一隻黑色的蛇,很顯然是從牆壁穿了過來,朝向生病的男子,彷彿像是要咬他一般。

(It is quite likely that there really were snakes in the meadow at the back of the house, which had already given the girl a fright and which now provided the material for the hal¬lucination.)

A. (很可能屋子後方的草坪真的有蛇曾經嚇過這位女士,而成為幻覺的素材)
B. (很有可能,在屋子後方的草坪,真的有蛇曾經嚇過這位女士,现在这些蛇成為幻覺的素材)

She wanted to drive the creature away, but felt paralysed; her right arm, hanging over the back of the chair, had “gone to sleep”: it had become anaesthetic and paretic, and, as she looked at it, the fingers changed into little serpents with death’s-heads. Probably she made efforts to drive away the snake with her paralysed right hand, so that the anaesthesia and paralysis became associated with the snake hallucination.

A. 她希望把蛇趕走,卻覺得麻痺,她掛在椅背的右手似乎睡著了:它已經被麻醉而輕癱,且當她看著它時,手指頭變成多隻有個死神頭的小蛇。或許她盡力用麻痺的右手去驅趕這些蛇,因此麻醉和麻痺狀態開始與蛇幻覺產生連結。
B. 她想要把蛇趕走,卻覺得麻痺,她垂悬在椅背的右手,似乎「已经沉沉入睡」:它已經被麻醉而輕癱,而且當她看著它時,手指頭變成多隻具有死神之頭的小蛇。或許她盡力用麻痺的右手去驅趕這些蛇,因此麻醉和麻痺狀態開始與蛇的幻覺產生联想。

When the snake had disappeared, she was so frightened that she wanted to pray; but all speech failed her, she could not utter a word until finally she remembered an English nursery rhyme, and then she was able to go on thinking and praying in English.

A. 當蛇消失時,她仍止不住害怕因此想要禱告,卻發現什麼話也說不出,甚至連一個字也講不出口,到最後她終於記得英國籍看護的語韻,於是她能夠繼續思考並用英語來祈禱。
B. 当蛇消失时,她如此地害怕,以致于她想要祷告。但是她丧失说话能力,她一句话也说不出来,直到最后她想起一首英语的摇篮曲。然后她才能够继续用英文来思考及祷告。
Nursery rhyme 摇篮曲

Such was the scene in which the paralysis and the speech disturbance originated, and with the narration of this scene, the disturbance itself was removed. In this manner, the case is said to have been finally cured.

A. 像這樣麻痺及言語困難的畫面透過醫師的解讀後,症狀就被移除了。這個個案最終是治癒的。
B. 麻痹及语言失常起因的场景,就是这样。经过对于这个场景的说明之后, 失常症状就被解除。 以这种方式, 这个病例据说最终是被治愈。

I must content myself with this one example. In the book I have mentioned by Breuer and Freud there is a wealth of similar examples. It can readily be understood that scenes of this kind make a powerful impression, and people are therefore inclined to impute causal significance to them in the genesis of the symp¬8tom. [Cf. Breuer and Freud, pp. 38f.]

A. 我同意以這個個案當作一個範例。在本書中我曾提到布魯爾及弗洛伊德有許多類似的個案,我們可以理解像這樣的畫面會給人強烈的印象,且人們常將症狀的產生賦予因果關係。
B. 我满意以這個個案當作一個範例。在本書中我曾提到,布魯爾及弗洛伊德有許多類似的個案。我們很容易理解,像這樣的场景會产生強烈的印象,而且在病症的起源学,人們经常將这些场景賦予因果關係的意义。

The view of hysteria then current, which derived from the English theory of the “nervous shock” energetically championed by Charcot, was well qualified to explain Breuer’s discovery. Hence there arose the so-called trauma theory, which says that the hysterical symptom, and, in so far as the symptoms constitute the illness, hysteria in general, derive from psychic injuries or traumata whose imprint persists unconsciously for years.

A. 從查可大力倡導的英國「神經震撼(nervous shock)」理論衍生的歇斯底里觀點足以解釋布魯爾的發現。由此產生所謂的創傷理論,也就是說歇斯底里的症狀整體來說是來自於心理傷害或多年前烙印在潛意識中的創傷。
B. 從查可大力倡導的英國「神經震撼(nervous shock)」理論,衍生的对于歇斯底里症的目前盛行的觀點,有充分资格用来解釋布魯爾的發現。由此產生所謂的創傷理論主张說:歇斯底里的症狀,就构成疾病的病征而言,一般的歇斯底里症,是來自於心理傷害,或多年前的创伤的烙印,潛意識地持续存在。

Freud, now collaborating with Breuer, was able to furnish abundant confirmation of this discovery. It turned out that none of the hundreds of hysterical symptoms arose by chance-they were al¬ways caused by psychic occurrences.

A. 弗洛伊德和布魯爾提供許多案例而更肯定了這項發現。原來數以百計的歇斯底里症狀沒有一個是偶然發生的──它們總是肇因於心理事件。
B. 弗洛伊德现在跟布魯爾合作,对于這項發現,他能够供应充分的验证。结果证明,數以百計的歇斯底里症狀,沒有一件是偶然發生的──它們總是肇因於心理事件。

So far the new conception opened up an extensive field for empirical work. But Freud’s inquiring mind could not remain long on this superficial level, for already deeper and more difficult problems were beginning to emerge.

A. 截至目前為止,新的想法為這種以經驗為根據的工作打開了更廣泛的視野。但弗洛伊德的好奇心無法停留在此一層級,因為現在出現了更深層且更困難的問題。
B. 截至目前為止,这个新的想法為实验性的研究,展開了廣泛的視野。但弗洛伊德喜欢穷究到底的心灵無法停留在这个肤浅的層級,因為更深層且更困難的問題渐渐开始出现。

It is obvious enough that moments of extreme anx¬iety such as Breuer’s patient experienced may leave an abiding impression. But how did she come to experience them at all, since they already clearly bear a morbid stamp? Could the strain of nursing bring this about? I

A. 很顯然地像布魯爾的病人經歷的症狀是極度焦慮的狀態,既然這些症狀已經為病人貼上一個有病的標籤,那麼到底她是怎麼體驗這些感覺?難道是護士照護過度導致這些症狀產生?
B. 显而易见地,极端焦虑的时刻,诸如布魯爾的病人經歷的,可能会留下永久的印象。但是,既然这些时刻已经清楚地具有病态的标志,她是如何渐渐经验到這些时刻?難道是作为護士照護压力導致发生?

If so, there ought to be many more occurrences of the kind, for there are unfortunately very many exhausting cases to nurse, and the nervous health of the nurse is not always of the best. To this problem medicine gives an excel¬lent answer: “The x in the calculation is predisposition.” One is just “predisposed” that way.

A. 果真如此的話,更多像這樣的例子應該層出不窮,因為這些個案讓護士的心力極度耗竭,護士因而緊繃的神經並非總能維持最佳的健康狀態。
B. 果真如此的話,更多像這樣的例子應該層出不窮,因為不幸地,讓護士心力極度耗竭的案例很多,護士的緊繃的神經,並非總能維持最佳的健康狀態。

To this problem medicine gives an excel¬lent answer: “The x in the calculation is predisposition.” One is just “predisposed” that way. But for Freud the problem was: what constitutes the predisposition?

A. 對這個問題,在醫學上有個非常好的答案就是「算式中未知的x值-『體質』(predisposition)」。一個人之所以會如此,只不過因為她有這種「體質」。但弗洛伊德的問題是:什麼組成了這種「體質」。
B. 對這個問題,醫學给予一个非常好的答案:「算式中未知的x值,那就是「先天體質』(predisposition)」。一個人之所以會如此行为,仅是因為她具有這種「體質」。但对于弗洛伊德,这个問題是:什麼組成了這種「先天體質」?

This question leads logi¬cally to an examination of the previous history of the psychic trauma. It is a matter of common observation that exciting scenes have quite different effects on the various persons in¬volved, or that things which are indifferent or even agreeable to one person arouse the greatest horror in others-witness frogs, snakes, mice, cats, etc.

A. 邏輯上這個問題必須去檢視病患之前的心理創傷史。相同的刺激場景,對不同的人常見有不同的效應。同樣一件事情對有些人可能毫不在乎,或者相當認同就是應該這樣;但在另一群人身上卻會造成極大的驚恐──例如看見青蛙、蛇、老鼠或貓等。
B. 邏輯上這個問題导致必須去檢視病患先前的心理創傷史。普遍观察到的是:相同的刺激場景,對牵涉的不同的人,常見有不同的影响。同樣一件事情,對有些人可能毫不在乎,或者甚至还觉得处之泰然;但在另一群人身上卻會造成極大的驚恐─例如看見青蛙、蛇、老鼠或貓等。

There are cases of women who will assist at bloody operations without turning a hair, while they tremble all over with fear and loathing at the touch of a cat.

A. 有些女性在充滿血腥的手術中可以擔任助理而面不改色,但要她們摸一隻貓她們卻會害怕到發抖。
B. 有些女性在充滿血腥的手術中,可以擔任助理而面不改色,但要她們摸一隻貓,她們卻會害怕及憎恶到全身發抖。

I remember a young woman who suffered from acute hysteria following a sudden fright.9 She had been to an evening party and was on her way home about midnight in the company of several acquaint¬ances, when a cab came up behind them at full trot. The others got out of the way, but she, as though spellbound with terror, kept to the middle of the road and ran along in front of the horses.

A. 我還記得有位罹患急性歇斯底里症的年輕女士發生突然的驚恐狀態 。在午夜時她參加完一場晚會後與數名朋友一同在回家的路上,有一輛馬車在她們後方全力加速疾駛。其他朋友們趕緊跳到路旁,但她彷彿被下了驚恐咒一般仍站在路的中央且竟然在馬兒的前方奔跑。
B. 我還記得有位罹患急性歇斯底里症的年輕女士,發生突然的驚恐狀態 。在午夜時,她參加完一場晚會後,與數名朋友一同在回家的路上。有一輛馬車从她們後方疾駛而来。其他朋友們趕緊跳到路旁,但她彷彿被下了驚恐咒一般,仍站在路的中央,而且竟然在馬兒的前方奔跑。

The cab man cracked his whip and swore; it was no good, she ran down the whole length of the road, which led across a bridge. There her strength deserted her, and to avoid being trampled on by the horses she would in her desperation have leapt into the river had not the passers-by prevented her.

A. 馬夫一邊揮鞭一邊咒罵著,她仍繼續沿著路往前跑了好長一段,穿過了一座橋後,她才精疲力竭停下。若非行人阻止她,為了防止被疾駛而來的馬兒踩過,她會在絕望下立刻跳進河中。
B. 馬夫一邊揮鞭,一邊咒罵著,可是没有用途,她仍繼續沿著路,往前跑了好長一段,穿過了一座橋。在那里,她才精疲力竭停下。若非行人阻止她,為了防止被疾駛而來的馬兒踩過,她本来會在絕望下跳進河里。

Now, this same lady had happened to be in St. Petersburg on the bloody twenty-second of January [1905J, in the very street which was cleared by the volleys of the soldiers.

A. 現在假設在「血腥的一月廿二日」這天,同樣這位女士剛好在聖彼得堡,街道被一群正拿著槍掃射的士兵們佔據,
B. 現在,在1905年「血腥的一月廿二日」這天,同樣的這位女士,剛好在聖彼得堡,一群正拿著槍士兵們正在街上扫射。

All round her people were falling to the ground dead or wounded; she, however, quite calm and clear-headed, espied a gate leading into a yard through which she made her escape into another street.

A. 这位女士身旁的人們受傷或死亡而倒在地上,不過她卻很冷靜且手腳俐落的穿越過草坪而逃到另一條街。
B. 在这位女士周围,人們死亡或是受伤地倒在地上。不過,她卻很冷靜,而且头脑清楚地窥探通往一个庭院的大门,通过那里,她逃避到另一條街。

These dreadful moments caused her no further agitation. She felt perfectly well afterwards–indeed, rather better than usual.

A. 像這樣令人害怕的場景她卻反而毫不激動。之後她覺得整個人非常的好──真的,比平常更好。
B. 這些令人害怕的时刻,并没有引起她惊慌失措。事後,她覺得整個人若无其事──真的,比平常还有安详。

This failure to react to an apparent shock can frequently be observed. Hence it necessarily follows that the intensity of a trauma has very little pathogenic significance in itself, but it must have a special significance for the patient.

A. 像這樣明顯的刺激卻無法做出反應還頗為常見。因此創傷強度的本身並非致病源,反而是創傷的本身對病患是否有特殊的意義。

B. 面对明顯的震撼,卻仍然处变不惊的例子,還时常被观察到。因此,我们必然会推论到;創傷強度的本身並没有多大的病因的重要性,而是对于病患,它会具有特殊的重要性。

That is to say, it is not the shock as such that has a pathogenic effect under all cir¬cumstances, but, in order to have an effect, it must impinge on a special psychic disposition, which may, in certain circumstances, consist in the patient’s unconsciously attributing a specific sig¬nificance to the shock.

A. 也就是說,並非在所有的情況下驚嚇會導致生病,而是必須病患本身也有獨特的「心理體質」(psychic disposition),在特定的情境下,驚嚇對病患的潛意識產生了某種效應。

B. 也就是說,並不是震撼的本身,在任何的情況下,都会产生病因的影响,而是,为了要产生影响,它必須影响到一个特别的心理体质。在某些的情境下,这个特别的心理体质,主要在于病人潜意识地归属一个明确的意义给这个振撼。

Here we have a possible key to the “pre¬disposition.” We have therefore to ask ourselves: what are the particular circumstances of the scene with the cab? The patient’s fear began with the sound of the trotting horses; for an instant it seemed to her that this portended some terrible doom-her death, or something as dreadful; the next moment she lost all sense of what she was doing.

A. 我們這裡再度提到關鍵字「體質」。我們必須自問:馬車這一幕場景,是什麼特別的情境嗎?是病人害怕聽到疾駛的馬聲,因為在那剎那對她來說彷彿預告著可怕的毀滅──她的死亡,或某種可怖的東西,導致下一刻她完全不知道她在做些什麼嗎?
B. 对于「先天體質」,我们拥有一个可能的答案。我們因此必須询問自己:馬車這一幕場景,是什麼特別的情境嗎?病人害怕开始于聽到疾駛的馬蹄聲,有一阵子,對她來說,彷彿預告著可怕的毀滅──她的死亡,或某種可怖的東西。下一时刻,她就完全不知道她在做些什麼。

The real shock evidently came from the horses. The patient’s predisposition to react in so unaccountable a way to this unre¬markable incident might therefore consist in the fact that horses have some special significance for her.

A. 驚嚇是來自於馬兒這點是證據確鑿的。病人的體質對這不起眼的事件有無法解釋的反應,可能代表馬兒對她具有某種特別意義。

B. 显而易见,真正的驚嚇是來自於馬兒。病人的體質對這不起眼的事件反应,令人匪夷所思,可能在于这个事实:馬兒對她具有某種特別意義。

We might conjecture, for instance, that she once had a dangerous accident with horses. This was actually found to be the case. As a child of about seven she was out for a drive with her coachman, when suddenly the horses took fright and at a wild gallop made for the precipitous bank of a deep river-gorge. The coachman jumped down and shouted to her to do likewise, but she was in such deadly fear that she could hardly make up her mind. Nevertheless she

A. 比方說,我們可能猜想她以前與馬兒一起發生了危險的意外事故。確實也是真的,這位病人當她是真的,這位病人當她還處於七歲的童年時,她與馬夫一同駕駛馬車外出,馬匹因為驚嚇而在陡峭的峽谷中開始馳騁,馬夫因而跳車並命令她照著跳,但她太過害怕導致她幾乎無法思考。就在載著行李的馬車即將跌入深谷之前,千鈞一髮之際她跳車了。
B. 比方說,我們可能猜想,她以前與馬兒一起發生了危險的意外事故。这確實也被发现是真实的。當這位病人是七歲的小孩時,她與馬夫一同駕駛馬車外出。突然地,馬儿因為受到驚嚇,朝向深渊河谷的陡峭崖岸狂奔。馬夫因而跳車,並喊叫她照著跳。但她惊慌失措,幾乎無法拿定主意。就在馬及马車即將跌入深谷之前,她千鈞一髮地跳車。

That such an event would leave a very deep impression scarcely needs proof. Yet it does not ex¬plain why at a later date such an insensate reaction should fol¬low the perfectly harmless hint of a similar situation. So far we know only that the later symptom had a prelude in childhood, but the pathological aspect of it still remains in the dark.

A. 這樣的事件留下極深的印象應該是無庸置疑,但仍無法解釋為何日後一個類似情境卻無害的場景也會有如此過當的反應。截至目前為止我們只知道在童年時期的序曲揭開了日後的症狀,但我們仍不清楚為何它會致病。
B. 這樣的事件留下極深的印象應該是無庸置疑,但仍無法解釋,為何日後一個類似情境卻無害的場景也會有如此冷静的反應。截至目前為止,我們只知道在童年時期是了日後症狀的序曲,但我們仍不清楚為何它會致病。

In order to penetrate this mystery, further knowledge is needed. For it had become clear with increasing experience that in all the cases analysed so far, there existed, apart from the traumatic experiences, another, special class of disturbances which lie in the province of love.

A. 為了找出神秘的答案,我們需要更多知識。透過分析更多個案我們逐漸清楚,除了創傷之外,有些障礙的產生卻是源自於愛。我們得先承認「愛」是一個充滿彈性的概念,它的「彈性」可以從天堂延伸至地獄,且本身結合了善與惡、高與低。
B. 為了找出神秘的答案,我們需要更多知識。随着越来越多的精神分析经验,更加明朗的是,在迄今被分析的所有个案里,除了創傷经验之外,存在着另外一种精神失常的模式。它们是处于爱的领域。

Admittedly “love” is an elastic concept that stretches from heaven to hell and combines in itself good and evil, high and low. With this discovery

A. 我們得先承認「愛」是一個充滿彈性的概念,它的「彈性」可以從天堂延 至地獄,且本身結合了善與惡、高與低。

B. 我們得先承認「愛」是一個充滿彈性的概念,它的「彈性」可以從天堂延伸至地獄,且本身結合了善與惡、崇高與卑下。

Freud’s views underwent a considerable change. If, more or less under the spell of Breuer’s trauma theory, he had formerly sought the cause of neurosis in traumatic experiences, now the centre of gravity of the problem shifted to an entirely different point.

A. 因為這項發現,弗洛伊德觀念產生巨大的改變。先前或多或少受到布魯爾創傷理論的影響,他認為精神官能症是源自於創傷經驗,現在問題的核心則轉移到全然不同的觀點。
B. 因為這項發現,弗洛伊德觀念產生巨大的改變。即使他先前或多或少受到布魯爾創傷理論的影響,他曾经从创伤经验里,寻求精神官能症的原因。現在問題的核心則轉移到全然不同的觀點。

This is best illustrated by our case: we can understand well enough why horses should play a special part in the life of the patient, but we do not under¬stand the later reaction, so exaggerated and uncalled for.

A. 這位個案可做最好的範例解說:我們能夠瞭解為何馬兒在病人的生命中扮演特別的角色,但我們實在無法瞭解之後病人的反應為何如此的誇張且多此一舉。
B. 我们的個案可做最好的範例解說:我們能夠清楚地瞭解,為何馬兒在病人的生命中竟然扮演特別的角色。但是我們無法瞭解,後来病人的反應為何如此的誇張,且多此一舉。

The pathological peculiarity of this story lies in the fact that she is frightened of quite harmless horses. Remembering the discovery that besides the traumatic experience there. is often a disturb¬ance in the province of love, we might inquire whether perhaps there is something peculiar in this connection.

A. 這則故事的獨特之處是病患的病態:她對相當無害的馬兒卻如此的驚恐。還記得我們說過發現創傷經驗的同時,也總是伴隨著與「愛」相關的障礙,因此我們可能想問是否這兩者間有著獨特的連結。
B. 這則故事的病态獨特之處,是在于这个事实:對相當無害的馬兒,她卻如此的驚恐。還記得这个發現:除了創傷經驗,總是有处于「愛」领域的精神失常。因此我們可能想要询問的是:這个关联,是否有某件奇特的东西?

The lady knows a young man to whom she thinks of becom¬ing engaged; she loves him and hopes to be happy with him. At first nothing more is discoverable. But it would never do to be deterred from investigation by the negative results of the pre¬liminary questioning.

A. 這位女士認識一位她即將訂婚的年輕男子;她很愛他,同時也希望能快樂的與他一起生活。我們的初步探索並沒有結果,或許遺漏了一些蛛絲馬跡,不過我們仍緊追不捨的繼續進行調查。
B. 這位女士認識一位她即將訂婚的年輕男子;她很愛他,也希望能與他共筑快乐的生活。起初,我們並沒有更多的发现。不過,因为初步的探索的结果是负面,就迟疑不从事研究,那是行不通的。

There are indirect ways of reaching the goal when the direct way fails. We therefore return to that sin-gular moment when the lady ran headlong in front of the horses. We inquire about her companions and what sort of fes¬tive occasion it was in which she had just taken part.

A. 若使用直接的方式失敗,那麼使用間接的方式同樣也能達到目標。回到那位女士跑在馬車前面的那天,我們詢問有關她的同伴,以及當天她是參加什麼樣的晚會。
B. 若直接的方式行不通,那麼还有間接的方式来達到目標。我们因此回到那奇特的时刻,当这位女士盲动地跑在馬車前面。我們詢問有關她的同伴,以及她刚才參加的庆宴是什麼樣的场合。

It had been a farewell party for her best friend, who was going abroad to a health resort on account of her nerves.

A. 那是一個為她朋友舉辦的歡送晚會,這位朋友因為神經緊張的問題即將出國療養。
B. 那是一個為她的好朋友舉辦的歡送晚會,這位朋友因為神经紧张的問題,即將出國到健康療養中心。

This friend is married and, we are told, happily; she is also the mother of a child. We may take leave to doubt the statement that she is happy; for, were she really so, she would presumably have no reason to be “nervous” and in need of a cure.

A. 這位朋友已婚,且我們被告知,這位朋友很快樂;同時也是一個小孩的人母。我們或許可以懷疑她是否真的快樂,因為果真如此那她實在沒有理由「緊張」到需要治療。
B. 這位朋友已经结婚,而且我們被告知,她的婚姻很幸福。她也是一個小孩的母亲。我們可以容许懷疑,她过得很幸福这个陈述。因為果真如此,那她實在沒有理由「緊張」到需要治療。

Shifting my angle of approach, I learned that after her friends had rescued her they brought the patient back to the house of her host–her best friend’s husband –as this was the nearest shelter at that late hour of night. There she was hospitably received in her exhausted state.

A. 改變了我探索的角度後,我發現到病人在晚會後,被她的朋友們帶到男主人的家中──也就是她最好朋友的丈夫家裡,因為那天深夜時間已晚,而這是離她最近的庇護所。精疲力竭的她在那兒休息。
B. 改變了我探索的角度後,我發現到,她的朋友拯救她后,他们带病人回到她的男主人的家中—也就她的好朋友的丈夫的家中—因为这是三更半夜,
離她最近的庇護所。身心俱疲地,她在那儿受到热诚地接待。

At this point the patient broke off her narrative, became embarrassed, fidg¬eted, and tried to change the subject. Evidently some disa¬greeable reminiscence had suddenly bobbed up.

A. 就在那時病患陳述到一半突然中斷,變得尷尬、坐立不安起來,且試著轉移話題。顯然某種病患不想要的回憶突然浮現。
B. 就在那時,病患陳述到一半突然中斷,變得尷尬、坐立不安起來,且試著轉移話題。显而易见地,某種令人不愉快的回憶突然浮現。

After the most obstinate resistance had been overcome, it appeared that yet another very remarkable incident had occurred that night: the amiable host had made her a fiery declaration of love, thus pre¬cipitating a situation which, in the absence of the lady of the house, might well be considered both difficult and distressing.

A. 經過我們非常努力克服頑強的阻抗後,顯然當晚還發生了一件重要的事:和藹可親的男主人竟對她示愛,於是,在缺少女主人在家的情況下,觸發了一種令人既困擾又挫折的情境。
B. 克服她的頑強的阻抗後,我们发现,顯然當晚還發生了另外一件重要的事:和藹可親的男主人竟對她强烈表示愛慕之情。由于家中女主人不在现场,那个突发的情境,很有理由被认为是令人既困擾又痛苦。

Ostensibly this declaration of love came to her like a bolt from the blue, but these things usually have their history. It was now the task of the next few weeks to dig out bit by bit a long love story, until at last a complete picture emerged which I attempt to outline somewhat as follows:

A. 表面上對病患的示愛似乎是意外發生,但這些事情會發生通常也有它的來龍去脈。在接下來的數週中我們的工作重點在於將這漫長的愛情故事一點一滴的挖掘出來,直到完整的故事情境浮現,我試著將它敘述如下:
B. 表面上,爱慕之情的告白,对于她而言,像是晴天霹雳,,但這些事情會發生通常也有它们的來龍去脈。在接下來的數週中,我們的工作重點,在於將這漫長的愛情故事,一點一滴的挖掘出來,直到完整的故事情境浮現,我試著大约敘述如下:

As a child the patient had been a regular tomboy, caring only for wild boys’ games, scorning her own sex, and avoiding all feminine ways and occupations.

A. 病患童年時是個像男生的女孩子,只玩男孩子的遊戲,咒罵著自己的性別,而避免所有女性化的舉止或工作。

B. 病患童年時,经常表现的举止像男生,只玩狂野男孩的遊戲,咒罵著自己的性別,而避免所有女性化的舉止或工作。

After puberty, when the erotic problem might have come too close, she began to shun all soci¬ety, hated and despised everything that even remotely reminded her of the biological destiny of woman, and lived in a world of fantasies which had nothing in common with rude reality.

A. 青春期後,當性問題開始浮現,她封閉了人際接觸,憎恨及鄙視每件象徵她在生物學上是女性的一切事物,而住在缺乏現實的幻想世界中。

B. 青春期过後,当性爱的問題可能已经逼近,她开始逃避各种社交活动,憎恨及鄙視每件,即使稍微会让她想起,她在生物學上注定是女性的一切事物。她生活在幻想世界里,在那里,没有一样东西跟赤裸的现实界相同。

Thus, until about her twenty-fourth year, she evaded all those little adventures, hopes, and expectations which ordinarily move a girl’s heart at this age. Then she got to know two men who were destined to break through the thorny hedge that had grown up around her. Mr. A was her best friend’s husband, and Mr. B was his bachelor friend.

A. 她迴避著許多那個年紀的小女生應該會嚮往的小冒險、盼望和期待,直到她廿四歲那年她認識了兩名男人,而這兩個男人命中注定要破除圍繞在她四周的重重荊棘。其中A先生就是她最好朋友的丈夫,而B先生則是A先生的大學朋友。
B. 她迴避著許多那個年紀的小女生應該會嚮往的小冒險、盼望和期待。直到她廿四歲那年,她开始認識了兩名男人,而這兩個男人命中注定要破除圍繞在她四周的重重荊棘。其中A先生就是她最好朋友的丈夫,而B先生則是A先生目前是鳏夫身份的朋友。

She liked them both. Nevertheless it soon began to look as though she liked Mr. B a vast deal better. An intimacy quickly sprang up between them and before long there was talk of a possible engagement.

A. 她同時喜歡他們兩人,儘管很快地看起來她似乎喜歡B先生多一些,也因此他們很快就發展出親密關係甚至還論及婚嫁。

B. 她同時喜歡他們兩人。可是,很快地,情况看起來,她似乎更加喜歡B先生。他們两人之间的亲密关系,很快就發展起来。不久,就有他们可能要订婚的讯息传闻。。

Through her relations with Mr. B and through her friend she often came into contact with Mr. A, whose presence sometimes disturbed her in the most un¬accountable way and made her nervous.

A. 因病人與B先生與好朋友的關係之故,因此她仍常與A先生聯繫,但A先生的出現有時會使病人感覺到困擾,且也使得她神經緊張。

B. 因病人與B先生與好朋友的關係之故,因此她仍常與A先生聯繫,但A先生的出現,匪夷所思地,有時會使病人感覺到困擾,且也使得她神經緊張。

About this time the pa¬tient went to a large party. Her friends were also there. She be¬came lost in thought and was dreamily playing with her ring when it suddenly slipped off her finger and rolled under the table.

A. 大約在有一次病人參加大型宴會時,她的朋友們也在場,她的思緒開始混亂而把玩著手指中的戒指,卻突然間從手指中滑落掉到桌下滾動著。
B. 大約在病人參加大型宴會的这一次,她的朋友們也在場,她的思緒開始混亂,而沉醉梦幻般地把玩著手指中的戒指,卻突然間戒指從手指中滑落,掉到桌下滾動著。

Both gentlemen looked for it and Mr. B succeeded in find¬ing it. He placed the ring on her finger with an arch smile and said, “You know what that means!” Overcome by a strange and irresistible feeling, she tore the ring from her finger and flung it through the open window.

A. 兩位紳士同時看到了這一幕而B先生成功地找到了戒指。他微笑著將戒指放到她的手指上,說:「妳知道這是什麼意思!」她實在無法克服這種奇怪且無法抗拒的感覺,於是她從指頭上脫下了戒指,並用力的將戒指丟到窗外。

B. 兩位紳士同時寻找这个戒指,而B先生成功地找到了戒指。他满脸微笑地將戒指放到她的手指上,說:「妳知道這是什麼意思!」她實在無法克服這種奇怪且無法抗拒的感覺,於是她從指頭上脫下了戒指,並用力的將戒指丟到打开的窗外。

A painful moment ensued, as may be imagined, and soon she left the party in deep dejection. Not long after this, so-called chance brought it about that she should spend her summer holidays at a health resort where Mr. and Mrs. A were also staying. Mrs. A then began to grow visibly nervous, and frequently stayed indoors because she felt out of sorts.

A. 於是痛苦的時刻接踵而來,正如我們可以想像的,她非常沮喪地離開了這場宴會。這件事發生不久之後,機緣將她帶往一處度假勝地,而A先生及A太太也剛好在那兒。A太太於是變得緊張起來,她時常待在室內只因為她情緒不好。
B. 於是痛苦的時刻接踵而來,正如我們可以想像的,不久,她非常沮喪地離開了這場宴會。這件事發生不久之後,因为機緣巧合,她前往一处度假勝地时,A先生及A太太也剛好在那兒。A太太於是變得緊張起來,她時常待在室內,因為她感到情緒低潮。

The patient was thus in a position to go out for walks alone with Mr. A. On one occasion they went boating. So boisterous was she in her merriment that she suddenly fell overboard. She could not swim, and it was only with great difficulty that Mr. A pulled her half-unconscious into the boat. And then it was that he kissed her.

A. 病人因而有機會和A先生一同散步。有一次他們出去划船,但因玩得太開心,病人在喧鬧下意外落水。她不會游泳,而A先生盡了全力才將半昏迷的她拉回到船上,就在那時,他親吻了她。
B. 病人因而有機會和A先生单独一同散步。有个场合,他們出去划船。但因玩得太过開心,病人在忘形下意外落水。她不會游泳,而A先生费盡了全力,才將半昏迷的她拉回到船上。就在那个時候,他親吻了她。

With this romantic episode the bonds were tied fast. But the patient would not allow the depths of this passion to come to consciousness, evidently because she had long habituated herself to pass over such things or, better, to run away from them.
A. 因為這浪漫的插曲使得兩個人的連結很快就產生,但病人無法容許這種熱情繼續深入到意識面。顯而易見的,長期以來她已經習慣忽略,又或者說逃避類似這種事情。

B. 因為這浪漫的插曲,兩個人的心灵契合很快就產生,但病人無法容許這種激情浮出到意識面。顯而易見地,長期以來,她已經習慣于不敢正视,说的贴切些,就是习惯于逃避類似這種事情。

To excuse herself in her own eyes she pursued her engagement to Mr. B all the more energetically, telling herself every day that it was Mr. B whom she loved.

A. 為了替自己找到藉口她開始追求並熱切地答應B先生的求婚,每天說服自己她愛的是B先生。
B. 為了让自己眼中的背叛能够自圆其说,她寻求並且更加熱切地答應B先生的求婚,每天說服自己,她愛的是B先生。

Naturally this curious little game had not escaped the keen glances of wifely jealousy. Mrs. A, her friend, had guessed the secret and fretted accordingly, so that her nerves only got worse.

A. 自然這種小把戲無法逃出妻子嫉妒的眼神,A太太,也就是病人的朋友,已經猜到這個秘密而自然會感到焦躁不安,也因此她的神經緊張益發惡化,

B. 当然,這種奇怪的小把戲并没有躲避过作为妻子嫉妒的敏锐眼光。A太太,也就是病人的朋友,已經猜到這個秘密,因此感到焦躁不安,也因此她的神經緊張益發惡化。

Hence it became necessary for Mrs. A to go abroad for a cure. At the farewell party the evil spirit stepped up to our patient and whispered in her ear, “Tonight he is alone. Something must happen to you so that you can go to his house.” And so indeed it happened: through her own strange behaviour she came back to his house, and thus she attained her desire.

A. 所以A太太才需要出國治療。在歡送會中邪靈走近病人身旁耳語:「今晚他一個人獨處。你一定會發生某件事情好讓妳到他家。」也的確真的發生了,透過病人的奇特行為,她回到他家,也達到病人的目的。

B. 因此,A太太出國治療变得迫切需要。在歡送會中,邪恶的精靈走近病人身旁耳語:「今晚他一個人獨處。你一定要發生某件事情,好讓妳能够到他家。」事情確真的發生了。 透過她自己的奇特行為,她回到他家,也因此满足她的欲望。

After this explanation everyone will probably be inclined to assume that only a devilish subtlety could devise such a chain of circumstances and set it to work.

A. 經過這樣的解釋或許每位讀者會猜想只有極度精巧的設計才能夠策劃這一連串的情境並且讓它生效。
B. 經過這樣的解釋,或許每位讀者會倾向于认为,只有極度精巧的設計才能夠策劃這一連串的情境,並且讓它运作。

There is no doubt about the subtlety, but its moral evaluation remains a doubtful matter, because I must emphasize that the motives leading to this dra¬matic denouement were in no sense conscious.

A. 對精巧而言確實是無庸置疑,但就道德層次的評價則仍有疑義,因為我必須強調導致這場戲劇化結局的動機本身並非處於感覺意識的層次。

B. 對精巧而言,它確實是無庸置疑,但就道德層次的評價,它則仍有可疑之处,因為我必須強調,導致這場戲劇化結局的動機,本身根本就不是處於意識的層次。
In no sense 「根本就不是」,跟「感觉」无关。

To the patient, the whole story seemed to happen of itself, without her being conscious of any motive. But the previous history makes it per¬fectly clear that everything was unconsciously directed to this end, while the conscious mind was struggling to bring about the engagement to Mr. B. The unconscious drive in the other direc¬tion was stronger.

A. 對病人來說,這場故事就像是自己發生的,她本身的意識層次並不具任何動機。但先前的故事完美地指出每件事情都是潛意識地導向最終結局,而意識之心仍舊掙扎著要嫁給B先生,只是潛意識的層次往反方向的驅力(drive)較強而已。

B. 對病人來說,整个故事就像是自动自发,她并不知道任何的動機。但是从先前的故事,我们非常清楚地看出,每件事情都是潛意識地導向最終結局,而在意識的决定,她仍舊努力要促成她跟B先生的定婚。只是往相反方向的潜意识的驅力較強。

So once more we return to our original question, namely, whence comes the pathological (i.e., peculiar or exaggerated) nature of the reaction to the trauma? On the basis of a conclu¬sion drawn from analogous experiences, we conjectured that in this case too there must be, in addition to the trauma, a disturb¬ance in the erotic sphere.

A. 所以我們再度回到我們本來的問題,也就是說對創傷的反應究竟出於什麼原因會導致病態(奇特或誇張)的現象?從這些雷同的經驗群中所獲得的結論當作基礎,我們推測,就這個個案除了創傷以外,一定是在情色層面也發生混亂所致。
B. 所以我們再度回到我們本來的問題,也就是說,對創傷的反應的病态的特性(奇特,或是誇張的病态特性),从何处发展而来?根据從這些雷同的經驗,所獲得的結論當作基礎,我們推測,就這個個案,除了創傷以外,一定是在情色層面也發生失常所致。

This conjecture has been entirely con¬firmed, and we have learnt that the trauma, the ostensible cause of the illness, is no more than an occasion for something previ¬ously not conscious to manifest itself, i.e., an important erotic conflict.

A. 這個猜測可以說已經被確認,而我們也學到除了創傷會造成疾病外,一個先前在意識界並未顯現的事物,比方說一個重要的情色衝突(erotic conflict)也會造成疾病。

B. 這個猜測已經被確認,而我們也学习到,創傷是疾病的表面原因,仅仅是一个场合,让先前没有意识到的某件东西,展现出来。譬如, 让一种重要的情色冲突展现出来。

Accordingly the trauma loses its exclusive significance, and is replaced by a much deeper and more comprehensive con¬ception which sees the pathogenic agent as an erotic conflict.

A. 自然地創傷失去了它獨一無二的重要性,而被更深層且易於理解的概念所取代:情色衝突才是致病因子。
B. 因此,創傷失去了它獨一無二的重要性。它被更深層且全面性的概念所取代:这个观念将病因的代理者,视为是情色衝突。
Comprehensive 全面性,而非「易於理解」

One often hears the question: why should the erotic conflict be the cause of the neurosis rather than any other conflict? To this we can only answer: no one asserts that it must be so, but in point of fact it frequently is so.

A. 每個人常聽到像這樣的問題:為何情色衝突應該是精神官能症的原因而不是其他的衝突呢?對這個問題我們只能回答:沒有人假設它一定是這樣,但事實上它卻時常如此。

B. 每個人常聽到像這樣的問題:為何情色衝突竟然是精神官能症的原因,而不是其他的衝突呢?對這個問題我們只能回答:沒有人假設它一定是這樣,但事實上它卻時常如此。

In spite of all indignant protes¬tations to the contrary, the fact remains that love, its problems and its conflicts, is of fundamental importance in human life and, as careful inquiry consistently shows, is of far greater sig¬nificance than the individual suspects.

A. 儘管所有憤怒的聲明表示結論剛好相反,但事實卻仍然與愛 有關的問題與衝突,在人類生活中扮演基本且重要的角色,且只要仔細探究便可一致地顯示出,它的重要性遠比任何人的猜想更巨大。

B. 儘管所有憤怒的异议表示剛好相反,但事實存在仍然是:與愛 有關的問題與衝突,在人類生活中,具有基本的重要性。而且只要仔細探究,我们便可前后一致地看出,爱的重要性遠比任何人的猜想更巨大。

The trauma theory has therefore been abandoned as anti¬quated; for with the discovery that not the trauma but a hidden erotic conflict is the root of the neurosis, the trauma loses its causal significance.ll

A. 創傷理論因此過時也被捨棄,因為隨著這個發現我們注意到並非創傷,而是隱藏的情色衝突是精神官能症的根源,創傷因此失去了它在因果關係上的重要性。

B. B. 創傷理論因此被认为是過時,而被捨棄。因為隨著這個發現:並非創傷,而是隱藏的情色衝突,才是精神官能症的根源。創傷因此失去了它在因果關係上的重要性。

我還記得有位罹患急性歇斯底里症的年輕女士發生突然的驚恐狀態 。在午夜時她參加完一場晚會後與數名朋友一同在回家的路上,有一輛馬車在她們後方全力加速疾駛。其他朋友們趕緊跳到路旁,但她彷彿被下了驚恐咒一般仍站在路的中央且竟然在馬兒的前方奔跑。

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