情愛理論(THE EROS THEROY)

情愛理論(THE EROS THEROY)

In the light of this discovery, the question of the trauma was answered in a most unexpected manner; but in its place the in­vestigator was faced with the problem of the erotic conflict, which, as our example shows, contains a wealth of abnormal ele­ments and cannot at first sight be compared with an ordinary erotic conflict. What is peculiarly striking and almost incredible is that only the pretence should be conscious, while the patient’s real passion remained hidden from her. In this case certainly, it is beyond dispute that the real relationship was shrouded in darkness, while the pretended one dominated the field of con­sciousness.
A. 有鑒於這項發現,我們以一種意想不到的方式解答了創傷理論的疑惑。但現在研究者面臨一個新的問題,與常見的情色衝突相比較,我們個案情色衝突包含許多無法一眼就立刻被辨識出的異常元素(elements),令人驚訝且不可思議的是病人的熱情被隱藏在不屬於意識層次中,但看起來病人的偽裝原本應該要是屬於在意識層次的。無庸置疑的就這個案來說,她的真實愛情是籠罩在黑暗當中,只是偽裝的愛情關係主宰了她的意識層次。
B. 從這項發現來看,創傷的問題出乎意料之外地獲得解答。但是代替它的是,研究者面臨情色衝突的問題。依照我們的個案顯示,她情色衝突包含許多異常元素,乍然一看,無法跟一般的情色衝突比較。特別引人注意,而且幾乎匪夷所思的是,竟然僅有偽裝部分是意識層面,而病人真正的激情被隱藏,自己不知道。當然,在這個個案,真實的關係被包裹於黑暗當中, 而被偽裝的關係,控制著意識的領域。 這一點是無庸置疑的。
If we formulate these facts theoretically, we arrive at the following result: there are in a neurosis two tendencies standing in strict opposition to one another, one of which is un­conscious. This proposition is formulated in very general terms on purpose, because I want to stress that although the patho­genic conflict is a personal matter it is also a broadly human conflict manifesting itself in the individual, for disunity with oneself is the hall-mark of civilized man. The neurotic is only a special instance of the disunited man who ought to harmonize nature and culture within himself.

A. 若我們用理論來建構這些事實,我們會發現下列結果:在精神官能症當中有完全相反的兩種傾向,其中之一是潛意識的(unconscious)。我們故意用非常一般化的名詞來描述,因為我要強調的是,雖然造成精神官能症的衝突的來源與個人有關,但,廣義來說它也是人類的衝突表現在個人身上;因為人的不一致性其實是文明人的特徵,精神官能症只不過是一個特例,也就是一個應該要與生長環境與文化取得協調的人,發生不一致的情況罷了。

B. 若我們用理論來闡述這些事實,我們會獲得下列結果:在精神官能症當中,有兩種傾向處於嚴格的互相對立,其中之一是潛意識的傾向。我們故意用非常普遍的名稱來闡述這個議題,因為我要強調的是,雖然病因的衝突是個人的事情,但它也是廣泛的人類的衝突表現在個人身上。因為人自身的不協調其實是文明人的特徵。精神官能症只不過是一個特別明顯的例子,也就是,人應該在自身之內,讓天性與文化取得和諧,卻產生不協調。

The growth of culture consists, as we know, in a progressive subjugation of the animal in man. It is a process of domestica­tion which cannot be accomplished without rebellion on the part of the animal nature that thirsts for freedom. From time to time there passes as it were a wave of frenzy through the ranks of men too long constrained within the limitations of their culture.

A. 正如我們所知,文化成長包含了人類的獸性逐漸獲得壓抑,它牽涉到一種馴化的過程,也就是將追求自由的獸性加以壓抑。被束縛在文化太久各種階層的人們,經常會被一股狂熱浪潮所席捲,
B. 據我們所知,文化成長在於了人類身上的獸性逐漸獲得克制。它是一種馴化的過程,這個過程的完成,必然會引起動物天性層面的反抗,因為動物天性渴望自由。有時,在人類文化的限制之內,長久被約束的人的身份,會有一股所謂的狂熱浪潮通過。

Antiquity experienced it in the Dionysian orgies that surged over from the East and became an essential and characteristic ingredient of classical culture. The spirit of these orgies con­tributed not a little towards the development of the stoic ideal of asceticism in the innumerable sects and philosophical schools of the last century before Christ, which produced from the poly­theistic chaos of that epoch the twin ascetic religions of Mithra­ism and Christianity.

A. 在古時,有所謂自東方傳播過來的酒神狂歡祭典儀式而成為傳統文化的特色。這種儀式後來促成了斯多亞(stoic)的理想禁欲主義(asceticism)的形成及許多分化的學派及在基督之前一個世紀的哲學思想。 基督之前是處於一個混亂的多神時期,而後誕生了兩個極為相似也主張禁欲主義的宗教:拜日教(Mithraism)與基督教(Christianity) 。

B. 古時的人經驗到這種狂熱浪潮,在從東方洶湧過來的酒神狂歡祭典儀式,而這些祭典儀式就成為古典文化的基本的特有成份。這些狂歡祭典儀式的精神,在紀元前的最後一個世紀,強烈地促成斯多亞禁欲主義的理想,成為無數的流派與哲學的學派。這個世紀從那個時代的多神教混亂裡,產生兩個極為相似的禁欲主義的宗教:拜日教(Mithraism)與基督教(Christianity) 。

A second wave of Dionysian licentiousness swept over the West at the Renaissance. It is difficult to gauge the spirit of one’s own time; but in the succession of revolution­ary questions to which the last half century gave birth, there was the “sexual question,” and this has fathered a whole new species of literature. In this “movement” are rooted the beginnings of psychoanalysis, on whose theories it exerted a very one-sided in­fluence.

A. 在西方的文藝復興時代第二波狂歡放蕩的浪潮席捲而來。這個時代難以測量對個人的心靈影響,但它卻繼承上半個世紀所產生完全創新的「性問題」,而孕育了全新的文學作品。每個人都不可能完全不受當代潮流的影響,因此奠基於這樣的運動風潮,精神分析於焉誕生而對世人產生了片面的影響。

B. 文藝復興時代,第二波狂歡放蕩的浪潮席捲過西方世界。我們很難評估我們自己時代的精神,但是在上個世紀產生的革新的問題紛至遝來之際,會有「性的問題」。這個問題創立一整套新的文學流派。精神分析的開端就根源於這場「文學運動」,它從事片面的影響,對於精神分析學的理論。

After all, nobody can be completely independent of the currents of his age. Since then the “sexual question” has largely been thrust into the background by political and spiritual prob­lems. That, however, does nothing to alter the fundamental fact that man’s instinctual nature is always coming up against the checks imposed by civilization. The names alter, but the facts remain the same. We also know today that it is by no means the animal nature alone that is at odds with civilized constraints; very often it is new ideas which are thrusting upwards from the unconscious and are just as much out of harmony with the domi­nating culture as the instincts.

A. 自從那時起,性問題就從政治及靈性問題的背景中突顯出來,不過,性問題並不會改變一項基本的事實,也就是人類的本性總是與文明背道而馳,只是改個名稱但本質是沒有改變的。我們也知道在文明的框架下,獸性是不可能單獨存在(也很突兀)。然而許多潛意識所跑出來的新想法卻與主流文化相當和諧。
B. 畢竟,沒有人能完全獨立於他的時代潮流之外。自從那時,「性的問題」大部分被政治與精神的問題拿來充當背景。 可是, 那絲毫並沒有改變基本的事實: 人的本能天性總是跟文明賦加的約束抵觸衝突。名稱改變,但是這些事實始終是一樣。我們今天也知道,跟文明化的約束互相抵觸衝突的,絕非僅僅是動物性的天性而已。往往會有新的觀念從潛意識衝撞起來,他們與本能一樣,跟主流文化同樣是格格不入。

For instance, we could easily con­struct a political theory of neurosis, in so far as the man of today is chiefly excited by political passions to which the “sexual ques­tion” was only an insignificant prelude. It may turn out that politics are but the forerunner of a far deeper religious convul­sion. Without being aware of it, the neurotic participates in the dominant currents of his age and reflects them in his own con­flict.

A. 比方說,在今日人類政治當道的文化當中,我們可以輕鬆建構精神官能症的政治理論,其中性問題只不過是微不足道的序曲,結果可能發現政治不過是強烈宗教信仰的先驅。精神官能症的人參與當代的主流思潮其實只是反應出自身的內在衝突,但往往自己並未意識到這點。
B. 例如,我們能夠輕易地建構一種精神官能症的政治理論,因為今天的人們主要是受到政治激情所激動,「性的問題」僅是一個微不足道的序曲而已。結果證明,政治僅是更深層的宗教的發作的前導者。精神官能症患者不知道這一點,他參與他的時代的主流思潮,然後以他自己的衝突來反映它們。

Neurosis is intimately bound up with the problem of our time and really represents an unsuccessful attempt on the part of the individual to solve the general problem in his own person. Neurosis is self-division.

A. 精神官能症雖與我們時代的問題緊密結合在一起,卻也代表個人解決一般問題的失敗。精神官能症也會出現自我分岐,
B. 精神官能症跟我們時代的問題息息相關,他確實代表個人這一方面的一種徒勞的企圖,想要用他自己的方式,解決一般的問題。精神官能症患者是自我分裂的。

In most people the cause of the division is that the conscious mind wants to hang on to its moral ideal, while the unconscious strives after its–in the contemporary sense–unmoral ideal which the conscious mind tries to deny. Men of this type want to be more respectable than they really are.

A. 大多數人分歧的原因是意識心(conscious mind)想要堅持道德理念,但潛意識卻追求不道德(以互補的觀點來說)的想法,而這種想法正是意識心所強烈否認的。像這種類型的人希望他們名聲比他們實際更好。
B. 就大多數人的情況而言,自我分裂的原因是,意識的心靈想要堅持它的道德理想,但潛意識卻追求它的不道德理想( 以當代的意義來說是不道德)。而這種不道德理想正是意識心靈所設法拒絕接受的。諸如其類的人卻想要獲得比他們實際的人格更多的尊敬。

But the conflict can easily be the other way about: there are men who are to all appearances very disreputable and do not put the least restraint upon themselves. This is at bottom only a pose of wickedness, for in the background they have the immoral side in the case of the moral man. (Extremes should therefore be avoided as far as possible, because they always arouse suspicion of their opposite.)

A. 但這種衝突也可以是剛好相反:也有人不論就任何面向來看都是聲名狼籍且肆無忌憚的。實際上只是他們以邪惡的姿態呈現,但骨子裡他們在潛意識中也有道德觀存在,正如同一個講道德的人潛意識中也有不道德的想法一樣。(因此我們應儘量避免極端,乃因極端總會讓人懷疑到有相反的另一面。)
B. 但這種衝突也可以是反其道而行:有些人從外部看起來是聲名狼籍,而且肆無忌憚的。實際上只是他們以邪惡的姿態呈現,正如同一個講道德的人潛意識中也有不道德的想法一樣。(因此我們應儘量避免極端,乃因極端總會讓人懷疑到有相反的另一面。)

This general discussion was necessary in order to clarify the idea of an “erotic conflict.” Thence we can proceed to discuss firstly the technique of psychoanalysis and secondly the question of therapy.

A. 為了澄清「情色衝突」的想法,我們需要一般性的討論,從那裡我們可以繼續探討精神分析的技術,其次可以討論治療的問題。
B. 為了澄清「情色衝突」的想法,我們需要一般性的討論,從那裡我們可以繼續探討,首先是精神分析的技術,其次可以討論治療的問題。

Obviously the great question for this technique is: How are we to arrive by the shortest and best path at a knowledge of what is happening in the unconscious of the patient? The original method was hypnotism: either interrogation in a state of hyp­notic concentration or else the spontaneous production of fanta­sies by the patient while in this state. This method is still occa­sionally employed, but compared with the present technique it is primitive and often unsatisfactory.

A. 這個技術最大的問題很顯然是:我們如何用最快、最佳的快捷方式去瞭解病人潛意識所發生的事情?最初的方法是催眠(hypnotism):要不就是在催眠狀態下詰問病人,又或者是在催眠狀態下讓病人自發性的說出幻想內容。這樣的方式有時仍在使用,但相較於現在的技術它顯得原始且結果無法令人滿意。

B. 這個技術最大的問題很顯然是:我們如何用最快、最佳的快捷方式,去瞭解病人潛意識所發生的事情?最初的方法是催眠(hypnotism):要不就是在催眠狀態下詰問病人,要不就是在催眠狀態下,讓病人自發性的說出幻想內容。這樣的方式有時仍在使用,但相較於現在的技術,它顯得原始,而且無法令人滿意。

A second method was evolved by the Psychiatric Clinic, in Zurich, the so-called asso­ciation method.1 It demonstrates very accurately the presence of conflicts in the form of “complexes” of feeling-toned ideas, as they are called, which betray themselves through characteristic disturbances in the course of the experiment.2 But the most im­portant method of getting at the pathogenic conflicts is, as Freud was the first to show, through the analysis of dreams.

A. 由蘇黎世的一家精神科診所演進的第二種方式是所謂的聯想方式(association method)。 非常準確地將衝突以重情緒想法「情結」(”complexes” of feeling-toned ideas)的形式加以呈現;正如其名,它在試驗 的過程中,透過特徵性的混亂而被顯示出來。然而誠如佛洛德最早所顯示的,透過分析夢來瞭解致病衝突來源的方法,才是最重要的一種方式。
B. 第二種方式,由蘇黎世的一家精神科診所研發,是所謂的聯想方式(association method)。 它非常準確地展示衝突的存在,以感覺基調「情結」(”complexes” of feeling-toned ideas)。顧名思義,它在試驗 的過程中,透過特徵性的混亂而被顯示出來。然而,透過分析夢來瞭解致病衝突的來源,才是最重要的一種方式。佛洛德是最先這樣顯示的人。

Of the dream it can indeed be said that “the stone which the builders rejected, has become the head of the cor­ner.” It is only in modern times that the dream, this fleeting and insignificant-looking product of the psyche, has met with such profound contempt.就夢而言,我們確實可以這樣說:「匠人所棄的石頭,已作了房角的頭塊石頭。」夢,是心理所創造稍縱即逝且微不足道的產物,在近代遭受極大的輕蔑。

A. 就夢而言,我們確實可以這樣說:「匠人所棄的石頭,已經成為房屋的奠基石。」夢,是心理所創造稍縱即逝且微不足道的產物,只有在近代,它才遭受如此極大的輕蔑。

Formerly it was esteemed as a harbinger of fate, a portent and comforter, a messenger of the gods. Now we see it as the emissary of the unconscious, whose task it is to reveal the secrets that are hidden from the conscious mind, and this it does with astounding completeness.

A. 以前,夢被當作是命運、吉凶之兆或神明信使的預示而受人尊敬;但現代我們把夢視為潛意識的特使,將令人震驚地隱藏在意識心下的秘密一覽無遺地給揭發出來。

B. 以前,夢受人尊敬為命運、吉凶、或神明信使的預示者;但在現代,我們把夢視為潛意識的密使,將隱藏不讓意識心靈知道的秘密,一覽無遺地給揭發出來。

The “manifest” dream, i.e., the dream as we remember it, is in Freud’s view only a facade which gives us no idea of the interior of the house, but, on the contrary, carefully conceals it with the help of the “dream cen­sor.”

A. 若我們還記得,揭示的夢在佛洛德的觀念裡就像一個房子的外牆,似乎我們無從看到房子的內在,透過「夢的壓抑」(dream censor)病人的衝突被小心地隱藏在夢中。
B. 「顯性」的夢,諸如我們記得的夢,從佛洛德的觀點,僅是一個房子的外牆,沒有讓我們看到房子的內部。但是,相反地,它透過「夢的檢查」的幫助,仔細隱藏房屋的內部。

If, however, while observing certain technical rules, we in­duce the dreamer to talk about the details of his dream, it soon becomes evident that his associations tend in a particular direction and group themselves round particular topics.

A. 然而當我們觀察某些技術的規則時,如果我們引導作夢的人說出夢的細節,很快地就會發現它的連結是以一種特定的方向且圍繞在某些特定的主題。

B. 然而,我們觀察某些技術的規則時,如果我們引導作夢的人說出夢的細節,很快地就會顯現,他的聯想是朝著一種特定的方向,並且圍繞在某些特定的主題聚集。

These are of personal significance and yield a meaning which could never have been conjectured to lie behind the dream, but which, as careful comparison has shown, stands in an extremely delicate and meticulously exact relationship to the dream facade.

A. 這些主題對個人來說有獨特的重要性。隱藏在夢之後的意義原本是不可能被推測出來,但透過小心的比較會發現其實它以極度精巧及細膩的方式包裝在夢的外牆內。

B. 這些主題對個人來說,具有獨特的重要性,並且產生一種意義。這個意義原本是不可能被推測會是隱藏在夢的背後,但透過仔細的比較,我們會發現,它跟夢的外部,處於一種極度精巧及細膩精確的關係。

This particular complex of ideas wherein are united all the threads of the dream is the conflict we are looking for, or rather a variation of it conditioned by circumstances.

A. 我們將夢的所有主題串連在一起就會顯示出特定的情節想法,於是就可以找到我們尋求的衝突;這種衝突有時會受到環境制約而產生一些轉化。

B. 這些觀念的這個特別情結,就是我們正在尋找的衝突,換句話說,被環境制約的衝突的變化。在那裡,夢的各種線索被聯合起來。

According to Freud, the painful and incompatible elements in the conflict are in this way so covered up or obliterated that we may speak of a “wish­fulfilment.” However, it is only very seldom that dreams fulfil obvious wishes, as for instance in the so-called body-stimulus dreams, e.g., the sensation of hunger during sleep, when the de­sire for food is satisfied by dreaming about delicious meals.

A. 根據佛洛德的說法,衝突內痛苦、矛盾的元素會以夢的形式來掩飾或刪除致使我們可能會說「願望實現」了;雖然很少發生,但夢有時真的會實現我們的願望,正如同所謂身體刺激的夢,例如當我們在睡眠中感到饑餓,於是我們渴求食物,這種欲望在夢中會夢見可口的餐點而被滿足。

B. 根據佛洛德的說法,衝突的痛苦及矛盾的元素,會以這種形式,來掩飾或刪除我們可能會提到的「願望實現」;可是,夢實現明顯的願望,僅是非常罕見。譬如,在所謂身體受到刺激的夢,例如當我們在睡眠中感到饑餓,這種對於食物的欲望,會因為夢見可口的餐點而被滿足。

Likewise the pressing idea that one ought to get up, conflicting with the desire to go on sleeping, leads to the wish-fulfilling dream-idea that one has already got up, etc. In Freud’s view there are also unconscious wishes whose nature is incompatible with the ideas of the waking mind, painful wishes which one prefers not to admit, and these are precisely the wishes that Freud re­gards as the real architects of the dream.

A. 同樣迫切的想法當一個人認為應該起床了,卻與想要繼續睡覺的欲望衝突,於是就會夢見自己已經起床像這類實現願望的夢。佛洛德認為,有些潛意識的願望與清醒時的想法互相矛盾,它們通常是一些痛苦的願望,導致人們寧可不去承認,像這樣的願望正是佛洛德所認為的夢之創造者。

B. 同樣地,我們應該起床了的這個迫切的想法,跟想要繼續睡覺的欲望衝突,就會導致這個實現願望的夢的觀念:我們已經起床,等等。佛洛德認為,有些潛意識的願望,它們的特性與清醒時的想法互相矛盾,它們通常是一些令人痛苦的願望,人們寧可不去承認。像這樣的願望,正是佛洛德所認為的夢之真正建造者。

For instance, a daugh­ter loves her mother tenderly, but dreams to her great distress that her mother is dead. Freud argues that there exists in this daughter, unbeknown to herself, the exceedingly painful wish to see her mother removed from this world with all speed, be­cause she has secret resistances to her.

A. 例如,一位深愛母親的女兒,卻痛苦地夢見母親過世;佛洛德認為在這位女兒身上存在著連她自己都不為所知且極度痛楚的願望,就是希望她母親以最快的速度從世界上消失,因為其實女兒想要抵制著母親。

B. 例如,一位深愛母親的女兒,卻痛苦地夢見母親過世;佛洛德認為,在這位女兒身上,存在著連她自己都不知道,而且極度令人痛楚的願望。就是希望她母親以最快的速度從世界上消失,因為女兒秘密地在跟母親對抗。

Even in the most blame­less daughter such moods may occur, but they would be met with the most violent denial if one tried to saddle her with them. To all appearances the manifest dream contains no trace of wish-fulfilment, rather of apprehension or alarm, consequently the direct opposite of the supposed unconscious impulse.

A. 即使再怎麼清白無疵的女兒都可能產生這樣的心境,但如果有人企圖將這種想法強加于這位女兒的身上,那將會遭遇到相當猛烈地否認。就各面向來說揭露的夢並沒有任何願望實現的痕跡,也不是焦慮、警告或者是潛意識衝動的相反。

B. 即使再怎麼孝順的女兒,都可能產生這樣的心境。但如果有人企圖將這種想法強加于這位女兒的身上,他將會遭遇到她的斥口否認。從外表看起來,顯性的夢並沒有包含任何願望實現的跡象,相反的僅是包含是焦慮或警示的跡象。結果是跟被認為的潛意識衝動恰恰相反。

But we know well enough that exaggerated alarm can often and rightly be suspected of the contrary. (Here the critical reader may justi­fiably ask: When is the alarm in a dream exaggerated?) Such dreams, in which there is apparently no trace of wish-fulfilment, are innumerable: the conflict worked out in the dream is uncon­scious, and so is the attempted solution.

A. 但我們知道誇張的警示往往與猜想的剛好相反。(因此讀者可能會問:什麼時候在夢中會出現誇張的警示?)像這種完全看不出願望實現痕跡的夢數目很多:在夢中出現的衝突及企圖解決的方式都是潛意識的。

B. 但我們足夠清楚地知道,誇張的警示往往,而且很有理由被懷疑,是剛好相反的東西。(在此,挑剔的讀者很有理由會問:夢中的警示什麼時候被誇張?)像這種顯而易見看不出願望實現跡象的夢,多得不勝枚舉。在夢中蘊釀的衝突是潛意識,企圖獲得解決也是潛意識。

Actually, there does exist in our dreamer the tendency to be rid of her mother; expressed in the language of the unconscious, she wants her mother to die. But the dreamer should certainly not be saddled with this tendency because, strictly speaking, it was not she who fabricated the dream, but the unconscious.

A. 確實這位作夢的女兒真的存在想要除掉母親的傾向,但卻是以潛意識的語言呈現出來,也就是她希望她母親死亡。但作夢的人當然不會接受這種想法,因為就嚴格來說,並不是她製造這個夢,而是潛意識做的。
B. 的確,這位作夢的女兒真的存在想要除掉母親的傾向,但卻是以潛意識的語言呈現出來,也就是她希望她母親死亡。(但作夢的人當然不會接受這種想法,因為就嚴格來說,並不是她製造這個夢,而是潛意識做的。)

The unconscious has this tendency, most unexpected from the dreamer’s point of view, to get rid of the mother. The very fact that she can dream such a thing proves that she does not consciously think it. She has no notion why her mother should be got rid of.

A. 從作夢者的角度來看,潛意識想要除掉母親的傾向是相當意料之外的事,而事實上確實如果她都可以夢到這種夢,就代表她的意識心真的壓根地都沒想過。對於她母親為何該被除去她連一點概念也沒有。
B. 從作夢者的角度來看,潛意識想要除掉母親的傾向是相當意料之外的事。她會夢到這種事情,這個事實就證明,她的意識心靈真的沒想過。對於她母親為何該被除去,她連一點概念也沒有。
Now we know that a certain layer of the unconscious contains everything that has passed beyond the recall of memory, including all those infantile instinctual impulses which could find no outlet in adult life.
A. 現在我們知道潛意識某些層面包含過去記憶的每項事物,也包括嬰兒本能在成人世界無法找到出口的衝動。
B. 現在我們知道,潛意識的某個層面,包含每件經歷過,但不見得記得起來的事物。其中包括所有那些嬰兒本能的衝動,那些衝動在成人世界,無法找到發洩。
We can say that the bulk of what comes out of the unconscious has an infantile character at first, as for instance this wish, which is simplicity itself: “When Mummy dies you will marry me, won’t you, Daddy?” This expression of an infantile wish is the substitute for a recent desire to marry, a desire in this case painful to the dreamer, for reasons still to be discovered.

A. 我們可以說大多數潛意識的組成最初都是來自于嬰兒的性格,就像此例本身很簡單:「媽媽如果死了,爸爸你就會娶我,對吧?」。嬰兒願望的表達方式取代了想要與父親結婚的想法,這種欲望對作夢者本身相當痛苦,而原因仍有待瞭解。
B. 我們可以說,大多數來自潛意識的東西,最初都具有嬰兒時期的性格。就像此例,本身很簡單:「媽媽如果死了,爸爸你就會娶我,對吧?」。嬰兒願望的表達方式,取代了最近想要結婚的欲望,在這個個案,這種欲望令作夢者相當痛苦,而原因仍有待瞭解。

The idea of marriage, or rather the seriousness of the corresponding impulse, is, as they say, “repressed into the unconscious” and from there must necessarily express itself in an infantile fashion, because the material at the disposal of the unconscious consists largely of infantile reminiscences.

A. 結婚的想法,或就這種衝動的嚴肅性來說,正如前人所言是「被潛抑(repressed)至潛意識中」而從潛意識裡必須將它以嬰兒會使用的風格加以表現,因為潛意識的處理使用的絕大部分都是來自于嬰兒回憶的素材。

B. 結婚的想法,或確切地說,伴隨這種想法而來的衝動的嚴肅性,正如前人所言,是「被潛抑(repressed)至潛意識中」。 然後從那裡,它必須將它以嬰兒會使用的風格加以表現。因為潛意識的處理使用的素材,大部分都是由嬰兒時期的回憶組成。

Our dream is apparently concerned with a twinge of infan­tile jealousy. The dreamer is more or less in love with her father, and for that reason she wants to get rid of her mother. But her real conflict lies in the fact that on the one hand she wants to marry, and on the other hand is unable to make up her mind: for one never knows what it will be like, whether he will make a suitable husband, etc.

A. 我們的夢明顯地與嬰兒嫉妒的痛苦有關。這位作夢的人或多或少愛戀著她的父親,因此她想要除去她的母親。但她真實的衝突在於她既想要與父親結婚,又苦於無法下決定:因為她永遠不知道未來會怎樣,或擔心他會不會是

B. 我們的夢明顯地與嬰兒嫉妒的痛苦有關。這位作夢的人或多或少愛戀著她
的父親. 因為這個理由,她想要除去她的母親。但她真實的衝突在於這個事實: 她一方面想要結婚,另一方面,又無法下決定。因為她永遠不知道未來會怎樣,或他會不會是一個好丈夫,等等。

Again, it is so nice at home, and what will happen when she has to part from darling Mummy and be all independent and grown up? She fails to notice that the marriage question is now a serious matter for her and has her in its grip, so that she can no longer creep home to father and mother with­out bringing the fateful question into the bosom of the family.

A. 當她在待在家裡的情況或許還好,不過一旦當她與母親告別即將獨立而長大又會發生什麼事呢?她沒有注意到結婚是個嚴肅的問題但她卻已經被結婚這個問題所束縛,她將再也不能爬向她的父親及母親撒嬌而不去面對家庭內命中註定的核心問題。

B. 而且,待在家裡的情況還不錯。一旦當她必須離開親愛的母親,成為獨立及成年,又會怎樣的況景呢?她沒有注意到,對於她而言,結婚現在是一個嚴肅的問題,已經困擾著她。她將再也不能回家向她的父親及母親撒嬌,而不去面對家庭內命中註定的核心問題。

She is no longer the child she once was; she is the woman who wants to get married. As such she comes back, complete with her wish for a husband. But in the family the father is the husband and, without her being aware of it, it is on him that the daugh­ter’s desire for a husband falls. But that is incest!

A. 她再也不是的小孩子了,她已經是個想要結婚的女人了。因此她想走回家,完成她找到丈夫的願望。在她意識面沒有注意到的狀況下,家中的父親就是一個女兒心中的丈夫。但那可是亂倫!
B. 她再也不是以前的小孩子樣了,她已經是個想要結婚的女人了。作為這樣的女人,她想回家,完成她找到丈夫的願望。在她意識面沒有注意到的狀況下,家中的父親就是一個女兒心中的丈夫。但那可是亂倫!

In this way, there arises a secondary incest-intrigue. Freud assumed that the tendency to incest is primary and the real reason why the dreamer cannot make up her mind to marry. Compared with that, the other reasons we have cited count for little.

A. 也因此產生了次發性的亂倫陰謀。佛洛德假定傾向於亂倫是屬於原發性的,這位作夢者無法下決心是否要結婚是主要起源。我們提及的其他理由比較於此都顯得微不足道。

B. 以這種方式,產生了次發性的亂倫陰謀。佛洛德認為。亂倫的傾向是屬於原發性的,跟那個理由比較起來,我們提及的其他理由都顯得微不足道。

With regard to this view I have long adopted the standpoint that the occasional oc­currence of incest is no proof of a universal tendency to incest, any more than the fact of murder proves the existence of a uni­versal homicidal mania productive of conflict.

A. 關於這個想法我長期都採取一個觀點,那就是偶爾發生的亂倫並不代表全世界都傾向於亂倫,正如同有謀殺的事實並不代表全世界的人都會因衝突而去殺人。
B. 關於這個想法,我長期都採取一個觀點,那就是偶爾發生的亂倫,並不證明亂倫的傾向普遍存在,正如同有謀殺的事實,並不證明因衝突而去殺人的狂熱的普遍存在。

I would not go so far as to say that the germs of every kind of criminality are not present in each of us. But there is a world of difference between the presence of such a germ and an actual conflict with its result­ing cleavage of the personality, such as exists in a neurosis.

A. 我絕不會過度引申說每種犯罪的起源都不會存在我們身上。但存在犯罪的起源,與衝突導致的人格分裂(如精神官能症一樣)兩者之間是有差異性的。

B. 我絕不會過度引申說, 在我們每個人身上,不會存有各種犯罪的因數。但犯罪因數的存在,與實際的衝突及導致的人格分裂,諸如精神官能症的人格分裂,兩者之間是有很大的差異。

If we follow the history of a neurosis with attention, we regularly find a critical moment when some problem emerged that was evaded. This evasion is just as natural and just as common a reaction as the laziness, slackness, cowardice, anxiety, ignorance, and unconsciousness which are at the back of it.

A. 若我們注意看一下個案精神官能症的病史,可以發現某個時間出現的某種問題經常以逃避方式呈現,這種逃避看起來相當自然就好像一般的反應,但卻是出自於潛意識:如懶惰、鬆懈、膽小、焦慮、無知

B. 若我們注意追蹤精神官能症的病史,我們經常會發現,在某個時間,某種被逃避的問題會出現,這種逃避跟這些反應同樣自然,也同樣普遍:諸如懶惰、鬆懈、膽小、焦慮、無知、及支撐它們的潛意識。

Whenever things are unpleasant, difficult, and dangerous, we mostly hesi­tate and if possible give them a wide berth. I regard these rea­sons as entirely sufficient. The symptomatology of incest, which is undoubtedly there and which Freud rightly saw, is to my mind a secondary phenomenon, already pathological.

A. 當遇到一些令人不悅的事情或困難、危險的時候,我們大多會猶豫或,如果可以的話,就停在那兒不動。我認為這些理由就足夠解釋了。亂倫的症狀,無疑地絕對是存在的,而這些症狀正如佛洛德所見到的病態,對我來說是次發性的現象。

B. 每當事情令人不悅,困難、危險,我們大多會猶豫,如果可以的話,就跟它們敬而遠之。我認為這些理由就足夠充分。亂倫的症狀,無疑地絕對是存在的,佛洛德很有理由親眼目睹。我的看法是,這是次發性的現象,已經是病態的現象。

The dream is often occupied with apparently very silly details, thus producing an impression of absurdity, or else it is on the surface so unintelligible as to leave us thoroughly bewil­dered.

A. 夢常充斥著看起來令人覺得很笨的細微事物,因此給人一種荒謬的印象,或在表面上看起來艱澀難懂而讓我們徹底地感到困惑。

B. 夢常往往充斥著顯而易見的荒謬的細節,因此會產生一種荒謬的印象,或是在表面上如此匪夷所思,而讓我們徹底地感到困惑。

Hence we always have to overcome a certain resistance before we can seriously set about disentangling the intricate web through patient work.

A. 我們需要克服某種阻抗才能解開病人所製造出來錯綜複雜的心網。

B. 因此,我們總是需要克服某種阻抗,我們才能認真地開始解開,病人所製造出來錯綜複雜的心網。

But when at last we penetrate to its real meaning, we find ourselves deep in the dreamer’s secrets and discover with astonishment that an apparently quite senseless dream is in the highest degree significant, and that in reality it speaks only of important and serious matters.

A. 一旦我們穿越找到真實的意義時,我們將深陷作夢者的秘密中,驚奇的發現一個相當看似無目的的夢,竟然有著高度的意義。

B. 但是當我最後探究到它的真實的意義時,我們發現自己深入參與作夢者的秘密,驚奇地發現,一個表面上完全無意義的夢,竟然具有高度的重要性。而在現實界,夢僅是談到重要及嚴肅的事情。

This discovery compels rather more respect for the so-called superstition that dreams have a meaning, to which the rationalistic temper of our age has hitherto given short shrift.

A. 過去所謂夢具有意義的想法,曾被理性主義者譏為迷信,然這項發現讓我們不得不尊重過去的想法並且需要懺悔。

B. 夢具有意義的所謂迷信,我們這個時代的理性主義的精神,迄今始終予以漠視。現在這項發現,讓它獲得較多的尊敬。

As Freud says, dream-analysis is the via regia to the unconscious. It leads straight to the deepest personal secrets, and is, therefore, an invaluable instrument in the hand of the physician and educator of the soul.

A. 誠如佛洛德所說,夢的分析是通往潛意識的康莊大道。它直接引領我們前往最深層的私密,也是一位醫師及教育家所擁有一項價值非凡的工具

B. 誠如佛洛德所說,夢的分析是通往潛意識的康莊大道。它直接通往最深層的私人的私密,因此,在靈魂的醫師及教育家手中,它是一項價值非凡的工具。

The analytical method in general, and not only the specifically Freudian psychoanalysis, consists in the main of numerous dream-analyses. In the course of treatment, the dreams succes­sively throw up the contents of the unconscious in order to expose them to the disinfecting power of daylight, and in this way much that is valuable and believed lost is found again.

A. 一般而言,分析的方式不僅指佛洛德的精神分析,雖然它常被用在大部分夢的解析中。在治療過程中,夢會將潛意識中的東西不斷地丟出來好似將它放在日光下加以消毒一般。這種方式我們相信是極具有價值的,且能將我們曾經失去的加以找回。

B. 一般而言,分析的方式不僅明確指佛洛德的精神分析,它主要是由無數的夢的解析組成。在治療過程中,夢會將潛意識中的內容不斷地丟出來,好似將它暴露在日光下加以消毒一般。以這種方式,許多有價值的東西,而且被認為是已經消失的東西,再一次被尋找回來。

It is only to be expected that for many people who have false ideas about themselves the treatment is a veritable torture. For, in accord­ance with the old mystical saying, “Give up what thou hast, then shalt thou receive!” they are called upon to abandon all their cherished illusions in order that something deeper, fairer, and more embracing may arise within them.

A. 但對許多對自己擁有虛假信念想法的人們來說,這樣的治療可以想見是名副其實的酷刑。因為根據一句古老的秘語:「要先放棄,才能收穫」,會如此說是因為病人會先被要求放棄所有他們珍視的錯覺,只為了獲得某種更深層、更誠實、意涵更寬廣的事物就藏在錯覺裡面。

B. 但對許多對自己擁有虛假信念的人們來說,這樣的治療被預期是是名副其實的酷刑。因為根據一句古老的秘語,「要先放棄你的所有,你才能收穫!」,他們被要求放棄一切他們珍惜的幻覺,為了讓某種更深層、更美好、意涵更寬廣的東西,從他們內心升起。

It is a genuine old wis­dom that comes to light again in the treatment, and it is espe­cially curious that this kind of psychic education should prove necessary in the heyday of our culture. In more than one respect it may be compared with the Socratic method, though it must be said that analysis penetrates to far greater depths.

A. 古人的智慧在治療中再度體現,像這樣的精神教育在我們時代非常必要,某種面向來說它可以與蘇格拉底探索問法並駕齊驅,甚至可以說分析法接觸到的層次更深也更遠。

B. 在治療過程,再次真相大白的,是真誠的古人的智慧。特別耐人尋味的是,像這樣的精神教育,在我們文化的極盛時代,證明是非常必要的。從不僅是一個面向來說,它可以與蘇格拉底的探索問法相提並論,甚至我們必須說,精神分析探究到的更強烈的深處。

The Freudian mode of investigation sought to prove that an
overwhelming importance attaches to the erotic or sexual factor as regards the origin of the pathogenic conflict. According to this theory there is a collision between the trend of the conscious mind and the unmoral, incompatible, unconscious wish.

A. 佛洛德的探索模式尋求一個證明,也就是情色或性愛因素在致病衝突的來源扮演極度重要的角色。根據這項理論,意識心與潛意識中不道德、矛盾的願望兩者互相碰撞。

B. 佛洛德的探索模式嘗試證明,情色或性愛因素,在致病衝突的來源,扮演極度重要的角色。根據這項理論,意識心靈的趨向,與不道德、不和諧的潛意識的願望,兩者互相衝突。

The unconscious wish is infantile, i.e., it is a wish from the childish past that will no longer fit the present, and is therefore repressed on moral grounds.

A. 潛意識的願望是相當幼稚的,也就是說它是來自於童年時期過去的願望但與現在格格不入,也因此在道德層次會被潛抑。

B. 潛意識的願望是屬於嬰兒期,也就是說,它是來自於過去童年時期的願望。 這個願望將不再適合於目前,也因此根據道德的理由,它會被潛抑。

The neurotic has the soul of a child who bears ill with arbitrary restrictions whose meaning he does not see; he tries to make this morality his own, but falls into disunity with himself: one side of him wants to suppress, the other longs to be free-and this struggle goes by the name of neurosis.

A. 精神官能症就像是一個小孩,當施加於他身上任意的限制時他就會生病,卻不知道這些限制的意義。他企圖擁有自己的道德觀,卻缺乏自我整合。其中一個他想要壓抑(suppress),另一個他卻希望自由──這種掙扎正如精神官能症其名意涵一樣。

B. 精神官能症患者擁有小孩的靈魂。當施加於他身上任意的限制時,他就痛苦萬分,因為他不知道這些限制的意義。他企圖擁有自己的道德觀,卻陷入自身的分崩離析。他的其中一面想要壓抑(suppress),他的另一面,卻渴望自由─這種掙扎藉著精神官能症的名義在進行。

Were the conflict clearly conscious in all its parts, presumably it would never give rise to neurotic symptoms; these occur only when we cannot see the other side of our nature and the urgency of its problems.

A. 假若在意識上這些衝突也清楚的存在,那它應該不會產生精神官能症的症狀;這些症狀只會發生在當我們看不見另一個我們的天性時,以及問題已經非常緊急才會出現

B. 假若這個衝突在它的各個部分,都被意識到,,那它永遠不會產生精神官能症的症狀。只有當我們看不見我們的天性的另一面,及它的問題的迫切性時,這些症狀才會發生。

Only under these conditions does the symptom ap­pear, and it helps to give expression to the unrecognized side of the psyche. The symptom is therefore, in Freud’s view, the ful­filment of unrecognized desires which, when conscious, come into violent conflict with our moral convictions.

A. 只有在這樣的狀況下,這些症狀才會出現,它幫助吾人表達心理中不被承認的另一面。因此這些症狀在佛洛德的觀點中,是去實現不被承認的欲望,因這些欲望若存在意識中,那將會與我們自身的道德信念發生猛烈的衝突。

B. 只有在這些的狀況下,這個症狀才會出現。它有助於表達心靈不被承認的另一面。因此,在佛洛德的觀點,這個病徵是不被承認的欲望的實現。當這些不被承認的欲望被意識到時,它們會與我們自身的道德信念,發生猛烈的衝突。

As already ob­served, this shadow-side of the psyche, being withdrawn from conscious scrutiny, cannot be dealt with by the patient. He can­not correct it, cannot come to terms with it, nor yet disregard it; for in reality he does not “possess” the unconscious impulses at all.

A. 心理的黑暗面正如吾人的觀察,它無法被病人所處理,而在意識的監督下被抽離。病人不能修正它,無法與它妥協,更無法不去管它;因為就現實來說,他完全無法「擁有」這些潛意識的衝動。

B. B.如吾人的觀察,心理的陰陽的一面,在意識的監督下被抽離,而病人對它束手無策。病人不能修正它,無法與它妥協,更無法不去管它;因為就現實來說,他完全無法「擁有」這些潛意識的衝動。

Thrust out from the hierarchy of the conscious psyche, they have become autonomous complexes which it is the task of anal­ysis, not without great resistances, to bring under control again.

A. 我們分析的工作正是這些從心理意識的層面被推擠出來且自動出現的情節(autonomous complexes),使得它們在沒有太大阻抗的情況下,重新獲得控制。有些自吹自擂的病人聲稱他們沒有黑暗面,並向我們保證他們沒有衝突;

B. 當這些潛意識的衝動從意識到心靈被拋擲從來,它們已經變成自動自發的情結。將這些情結再次控制,就是精神分析的任務,雖然不無遭遇強烈的阻抗。

There are patients who boast that for them the shadow-side does not exist; they assure us that they have no conflict, but they do not see that other things of unknown origin cumber their path­hysterical moods, underhand tricks which they play on them­selves and their neighbours, a nervous catarrh of the stomach, pains in various places, irritability for no reason, and a whole host of nervous symptoms.

A. 有些自吹自擂的病人聲稱他們沒有黑暗面,並向我們保證他們沒有衝突;但他們卻沒有看到那些妨礙他們道路的未知事物──歇斯底里的情緒、他們對自己和對鄰居所施加的不正當的手段、神經緊張的胃炎、到處的疼痛、無緣無故的易怒,以及許多其他的神經質症狀。
B. 有些病人自誇地聲稱,對於他們而言,陰陽的一面並不存在。他們向我們保證,他們沒有衝突;但他們卻沒有看到,其它未知起源的東西,束縛他們的途徑──歇斯底里的情緒、他們對自己和對鄰居所施加的不正當的手段、神經緊張的胃炎、到處的疼痛、無緣無故的易怒,以及許多其他的神經質症狀。

Freudian psychoanalysis has been accused of liberating man’s (fortunately) repressed animal instincts and thus causing incalculable harm. This apprehension shows how little trust we place in the efficacy of our moral principles.

A. 有人指控佛洛德的精神分析釋放了人類(還算幸運地)潛抑的獸性而導致無法計量的傷害。這種憂慮顯示出我們對自己堅守的道德原則是多麼的不信任。
B. 佛洛德的精神分析曾經被指控解放了人類(還算幸運地)潛抑的動物本能,而引起無法計量的傷害。這種憂慮顯示出,我們對自己堅守的道德原則的有效性,是多麼的不信任。

People pretend that only the morality preached from the pulpit holds men back from unbridled licence; but a much more effective regulator is necessity, which sets bounds far more real and persuasive than any moral precepts.

A. 人們假裝只有從教堂佈道所獲得的道德是將人類從放縱中加以束縛的方式,但還需要更有效的調節方式,來界定更真實也更具說服力道德範疇。

B. 人們假裝,只有從教堂佈道所獲得的道德,才能控制人們不要從事肆無忌憚的放蕩。但還需要更有效的調節方式,比起任何的道德教誨,它們建立更加真實及更加具有說服力的約束,

It is true that psychoanalysis makes the ani­mal instincts conscious, though not, as many would have it, with a view to giving them boundless freedom, but rather to incorpo­rating them in a purposeful whole. It is under all circumstances an advantage to be in full possession of one’s personality, other­wise the repressed elements will only crop up as a hindrance elsewhere, not just at some unimportant point, but at the very spot where we are most sensitive.

A. 確實精神分析讓動物本能拉高到意識層次(但不是每個人都能夠做的到),與其說讓它自由自在,不如說是將它故意整合於自己全部的人格中。一個人如果能夠掌握自己全部的人格絕對是有好處的,不然的話,潛抑的部份將如同障礙物般出現在其他地方,不止不重要的地方,也會出現在我們最敏感的地方。

B. 的確,精神分析讓人瞭解到動物本能,但是不是為了要給予人們無拘無束的自由,如許多人所以為。相反地,而是為了融合它們成為一個有意義的整體。無論在任何情境,充分掌控自己的人格是有益的。 否則受到潛抑的因素只會突然出現,作為別處的阻礙。不僅在某個不重要的點,而且在我們最為敏感的地帶。

If people can be educated to see the shadow-side of their nature clearly, it may be hoped that they will also learn to understand and love their fellow men bet­ter. A little less hypocrisy and a little more self-knowledge can only have good results in respect for our neighbour; for we are. all too prone to transfer to our fellows the injustice and violence we inflict upon our own natures.

A. 如果人類能被教育去更清楚地正視自己的陰暗面,或許就能更好地學習去瞭解和愛他們自己的同胞。少一點虛偽和多一點自我認識,對我們鄰居來說有好處,因為我們太容易讓自己的同胞遭受不公不義,及因我們天性而對他們施加的暴力。

B. 如果人們能被教育,去更清楚地正視自己天性的陰暗面,我們或許就能希望,他們也會學習去更加瞭解和愛他們自己的同胞。少一點虛偽和多一點自我認識,對我們鄰居來說,都會獲得好的結果。因為我們太容易將施加在我們自己天性的不公正與暴力,轉移到我們同胞身上。

The Freudian theory of repression certainly does seem to say that there are, as it were, only hypermoral people who repress their unmoral, instinctive natures. Accordingly,the unmoral man,who lives a life of unrestrained instinct, should be immune to neurosis.

A. 佛洛德的潛抑理論似乎是在說,只有過度道德的人才會去潛抑他們不道德及本能的天性;那麼,不道德且無所羈絆的人應該對精神官能症免疫。

B. 佛洛德的潛抑理論確實是在說,只有所謂過度要求道德的人,才會去潛抑他們不道德及本能的天性。因此,不道德的人,他們過著本能無拘無束的生活,理應對精神官能症免疫。

This is obviously not the case, as experience shows. Such a man can be just as neurotic as any other. If we analyse him, we simply find that his morality is repressed. The neurotic immoralist presents, in N ietzsche’s striking phrase, the picture of the “pale felon” who does not live up to his acts.

A. 根據經驗事實上則非如此。像這種人可以像其他人一樣神經質。如果我們分析這類人,會發現他們只是把道德部份給加以潛抑。以尼采令人注目的說法來講,神經質的不道德者如果沒有實踐他們的行為將呈現「蒼白的重刑犯(pal會發現他們只是把道德部份給加以潛抑。以尼采令人注目的說法來講,神經質的不道德者如果沒有實踐他們的行為將呈現「蒼白的重刑犯(pale felon)」。

B. 根據精神分析經驗顯示,情況顯而易見並非如此。這種人會是像其他人一樣,都是精神官能症患者。如果我們分析他,我們就是會發現,他的道德是受到潛抑。以尼采令人注目的詞語來講,精神官能症的不道德者,呈現的畫面是「罪惡感深重的罪犯」,因為他們沒有實踐他的行為。

We can of course take the view that the repressed remnants of decency are in this case only a traditional hang-over from in­fancy, which imposes an unnecessary check on instinctual nature and should therefore be eradicated. The principle of ecrasez l’infd.me would end in a theory of absolute libertinism.

A. 我們當然可以採取這樣的觀點也就是說,潛抑不過就是嬰兒遭遇傳統威脅的反應,而施加於本能天性一些不需要的檢查而已,也因此必須加以消滅。打倒邪惡(ecraser l’infame)的原則會埋葬在絕對自由主義的理論之中。

B. 我們當然可以採取這樣的觀點,也就是說,在這個情況,正當行為受到潛抑的殘餘物,僅是嬰兒時期的傳統殘餘物。這個殘餘物施加於本能天性一些不需要的檢查,也因此必須加以消除。打倒邪惡(ecraser l’infame)的原則,最後會產生絕對自由主義的理論。

Naturally, that would be quite fantastic and nonsew; it should never be forgotten–and of this the Freudian must be reminded–that morality was not brought down on the stone from Sinai and imposed on the people, but is a function of the human soul, as old as humanity itse1f (Morality is not im­posed from outside; we have it in ourselves from the start–not the law, but our moral nature without which the collective life of human society would be impossible.

A. 自然地,這不過是幻想且不切實際。永遠不要忘記,特別是佛洛德學派要記住,道德並不是像十誡的西奈山(Sinai)帶來的石頭一樣將律法強加於人們身上。道德是人類靈魂的涵數,其存在與人性一樣久遠。道德並非從外部強加進來,而是一開始我們自身就擁有──它不是法律,若沒有人類社會團體生活,則我們道德天性不可能存在

B. 自然地,這完全是幻想,而且不切實際。我們永遠不要忘記,特別是佛洛德學派必須要記住,道德並不是像摩西從西奈山(Sinai)帶下來的十戒石碑一樣,將律法強加於人們身上。道德是人類靈魂的功能,其存在與人性一樣久遠。道德並非從外部強加進來,而是一開始我們自身就擁有──它不是法律,而是我們的道德天性。若沒有這個道德天性,人類社會的團體生活不可能存在。

That is why morality is found at all levels of society. It is the instinctive regulator of action which also governs the collective life of the herd. But moral laws are valid only within a compact human group. Be­yond that, they cease.

A. 這就是為什麼我們可以發現道德在所有階層的社會都存在。它調節我們的行為,統禦著我們團體生活。道德律法只有在人類緊密的生活團體中才有效,若不是,則它們會消失

B. 這就是為什麼道德在所有階層的社會都被找到。它是我們行為的本能調節者,也統禦著群眾的團體生活。但是,只有在密集的人類團體中,道德律法才具有效用,在那個範圍之外,它們會停止功用。

There the old truth runs: Homo homini lupus. With the growth of civilization we have succeeded in subjecting ever larger human groups to the rule of the same morality, without, however, having yet brought the moral code to prevail beyond the social frontiers, that is, in the free space between mutually independent societies. There, as of old, reign lawlessness and licence and mad immorality–though, of course it is only the enemy who dares to say it out loud.

A. 有一句古語說的好:人相對於其他人就是一隻狼(Homo homini lupus)。隨著文明化的進程,我們成功地讓更多人類團體接受同樣的道德規範,但道德仍未能行於社會團體的邊疆地區,也就是,在互相獨立社會團體之間的空白區域。在那裡舊有的統治階層仍不受法律制約,在那裡瘋狂的非道德是合法的──當然誰敢指出這點,誰就是他們的敵人。

B. 有一句古老的箴言:對於其他人而言,人就是一隻狼(Homo homini lupus)。隨著文明化的進程,我們成功地讓更多人類團體接受同樣的道德規範。但是,我們仍未將道德的法典,能行使於社會團體的邊域之外。也就是,在互相獨立社會團體之間的自由領域。在那裡,如同古代一樣,無法無天,放蕩行為及傷風敗俗大行其道—雖然,當然誰敢公開指出這點,誰就是他們的敵人。

The Freudian school is so convinced of the fundamental, indeed exclusive, importance of sexuality in neurosis that it has drawn the logical conclusion and valiantly attacked the sexual morality of our day.

A. 佛洛德學派深信基本、獨一無二的性在精神官能症當中扮演的角色,也大力抨擊我們今日社會的性倫理。

B. 佛洛德學派是如此深信,精神官能症的性,具有這個基本而確實獨一無二的重要性,以致於他們獲得這個邏輯的結論,並且勇敢地攻擊我們這個時代性的道德。

This was beyond a doubt useful and neces­sary, for in this field there prevailed and still prevail ideas which in view of the extremely complicated state of affairs are too un­differentiated.

A. 有鑒於許多事情極為複雜且難以區分其差異性來源,無庸置疑的至今盛行著佛洛德的觀點在這一個領域相當重要。

B. 無可置疑地,這個結論是有用而且有必要。因為在這個領域,以前盛行一些觀念,現在依舊盛行。由於事情的極端複雜的狀態,這些觀念過於不分青紅皂白。

Just as in the early Middle Ages finance was held in contempt because there was as yet no differentiated financial morality to suit each case, but only a mass morality, so today there is only a mass sexual morality. A girl who has an illegiti­mate baby is condemned and nobody asks whether she is a de­cent human being or not.

A. 中世紀的資金問題令人不齒,因為當時並沒有所謂財政倫理來深入討論每個個案之間的差異性,卻只存在粗淺的倫理概念,正如同今日只有粗淺的性倫理一樣。一個女孩若有非婚生子女,她就會受到譴責,每個人都會認為她不是什麼正派人士。

B. 正如在中世紀早期,商業斂財令人不齒,因為當時並沒有所謂商業道德來深入討論,每個個案之間的差異性,卻只存在籠統的倫理概念,正如同今日只有籠統的性倫理一樣。一個女孩若有私生子女,她就會受到譴責,卻沒有人詢問,是否她具有正常人的性欲需求。

Any form of love not sanctioned by law is considered immoral, whether between worthwhile people or bounders. We are still so hypnotized by what happens that we forget how and to whom it happens, just as for the Middle Ages finance was nothing but glittering gold, fiercely coveted and therefore the devil.

A. 任何非經律法宣告的愛情都被視為不道德,不論物件是真的值得結婚的人又或是暴發戶。我們著迷於發生了什麼事,卻忘記了應該注意是如何發生、對誰發生,正如中世紀資金不就是一些閃亮的黃金罷了,只因它讓人極度的夢寐以求因此被視為惡魔。

B. 任何非經律法宣告的愛情,都被視為不道德,不論他們品行優良,或是敗德者。我們專注於發生了什麼事,卻忘記了應該注意是,它如何發生,發生在誰身上。正如對於中世紀,商業斂財不就是一些閃亮的黃金罷了,只因它讓人極度的垂涎,因此被視為惡魔。

Yet things are not quite so simple as that. Eros is a question–able fellow and will always remain so, whatever the legislation of the future may have to say about it. He belongs on one side to man’s primordial animal nature which will endure as long as man has an animal .But on the other side he is related to the highest forms of the spirit.

A. 但事情可沒這麼簡單。不論將來會怎麼立法,情愛永遠是個大問題。只要人類的身體仍然是動物,情愛就會有最原始獸性的一面。但情愛的另外一面則與人類最高等的靈性連結。
B. 但是,事情可沒這麼單純。性愛永遠是一位善於詢問問題的人,也將來還始終是這樣的人,不論未來的立法如何定義它。在某方面,他屬於人類原始的動物天性,這個動物天性將會持續存在,只要人類的身體仍然是動物。但是在另外一面,他則與人類最高等的靈性息息相關。

But he thrives only when spirit and instinct are in right harmony. If one or the other aspect is lack­ing to him, the result is injury or at least a lopsidedness that may easily veer towards the pathological. Too much of the ani­mal distorts the civilized man, too much civilization makes sick 1 animals.

A. 情愛只能在當靈性與本能和平共處的情況下存在,若兩者缺少其一,將造成傷害或至少生病的方向進行。太多的獸性會扭曲一個文明人,太過於文明則讓一個動物生病;
B. 只當靈性與本能和諧共處的情況下,他才會蒸蒸日上。若他身上兩者缺少其一,結果將是傷害,或至少是一種扭曲。這種扭曲很容易朝向病態的方向進行。太多的動物性會扭曲一個文明人,太過於文明則造成生病的動物。
This dilemma reveals the vast uncertainty that Eros holds for man. For, at bottom, Eros is a superhuman power which, like nature herself, allows itself to be conquered and exploited as though it were impotent. But triumph over nature I is dearly paid for. Nature requires no explanations of principle, I but asks only for tolerance and wise measure. ‘

A. 這種矛盾顯示出情愛的存在對於人類的不確定性。如同大自然一般,情愛也擁有超人類的力量,它可以像是無能地,容許自己被征服、被剝削,只不過征服自然是需要付出代價的。自然的存在不需要原則,它只求包容及智慧。

B. 這種困境顯示,情愛的存在對於人類具有的不確定性。因為,追根究底,情愛擁有超人類的力量,像大自然的本身,它容許自己被征服與被剝削,好像它無能為力。但是,征服大自然是需要付出昂貴代價的。大自然的存在不需要原則來解釋,它只要求包容及明智的尊重。

“Eros is a mighty daemon,” as the wise Diotima said to Socrates. We shall never get the better of him, or only to our own hurt. He is not the whole of our inward nature, though he is at least one of its essential aspects.

A. 智慧哲人迪歐堤瑪(Diotima)曾對蘇格拉底(Socrates)說:「情愛是強大的惡魔」。我們永遠別想贏它,否則只會自己受傷而已。雖然它不是我們全部的天性,但至少是最重要的一部份。

B. 智慧哲人迪歐堤瑪(Diotima)曾對蘇格拉底(Socrates)說:「情愛是強大的惡魔」。我們永遠別想戰贏他,否則只會造成我們自己的傷害而已。雖然他不是我們內在天性的全部,但至少他是它最重要層面的一部份。

Thus Freud’s sexual theory of neurosis is grounded on a true and factual principle. But it makes the mistake of being one-sided and exclusive; also it com­mits the imprudence of trying to lay hold of unconfinable Eros with the crude terminology of sex.

A. 因此佛洛德精神官能症的性理論是基於真理及事實的原則,但犯了一個錯誤,就是認為它單向的且獨一無二的,而輕率地將沒有範圍的情愛(eros)魯莽地以性(sex)這個名詞來稱呼。

B. 因此,佛洛德有關精神官能症的性的理論,是以真理及事實的原則為基礎。但這個理論犯了一個錯誤,就是它是單方面強調,而且排除其它因素。它也犯了輕率之過,嘗試將無法限制的情愛(eros),以性(sex)這個輕浮名詞來稱呼。

In this respect Freud is a typical representative of the materialistic epoch, whose hope it was to solve the world riddle in a test-tube. Freud himself, with advancing years, admitted this lack of balance in his theory, and he opposed to Eros, whom he called libido, the destructive or death instinct.4 In his posthumous writings he says:

A. 佛洛德是唯物主義時代一位典型的代表人物 ,在這個時代每個人都以為可以將難解的謎題放入試管中就加以解決。佛洛德在晚年自己也承認在這個理論缺少平衡,相對於情愛(他稱為性欲(libido))來說,他提出毀滅或死亡本能的理論 。在他死後出版的著作提到:

B. 在這一方面,佛洛德是唯物主義時代一位典型的代表人物 ,這個時代的希望就是,要以試管試驗來解決世界的謎題。佛洛德自己,在晚年也承認,他的這個理論缺少平衡。相對於情愛(他稱為性欲(libido))來說,他提出毀滅或死亡本能的理論 。在他死後出版的著作,他提到:

After long hesitancies and vacillations we have decided to assume the existence of only two basic instincts, Eros and the destructive instinct …. The aim of the first of these basic instincts is to estab­lish ever greater unities and to preserve them thus-in short, to bind together; the aim of the second is, on the contrary, to undo connections and so to destroy things …. For the reason we also call it the death instinct.

A. 經過長期的躊躇及猶豫,我們決定假設有兩種基本本能,情愛和毀滅本能。…這些基本本能的第一種,它的目的是在於建立和諧而讓他們生存因此──簡言之就是綁在一起;第二種的目的,剛好相反,是去除連結而破壞事物。…因為這個原因我們又稱它叫死亡本能。

B. 經過長期的躊躇及猶豫,我們決定假設僅有兩種基本本能存在,情愛和毀滅本能。 這些基本本能的第一種,它的目的是在於建立更多的和諧,而因此能保存它們。簡言之,就是將它們約束在一起。第二種的目的,剛好相反,是去除它們的結合,而因此破壞事物。…因為這個原因,我們又稱它叫死亡本能。

I must content myself with this passing reference, without entering more closely into the questionable nature of the con­ception. It is sufficiently obvious that life, like any other process, has a beginning and an end and that every beginning is also the beginning of the end. What Freud probably means is the essen­tial fact that every process is a phenomenon of energy, and that all energy can proceed only from the tension of opposites.

A. 我必須先滿足於過去這些參考資料,而不去探討這些是不是有些問題。很顯然地生命正如同其他的程式(process)一樣,它有開始也有結束,但結束亦是另一個開始。佛洛德可能是在告訴我們一個基本事實,也就是每個過程都是能量的現象,而所有能量都只能在極度的張力下才能夠進行

B. 我必須滿足於這個權宜的參考指稱,而不去更加仔細探討這個觀念問題重重的特性。顯而易見地,正如同其他的過程(process),生命有開始,也有結束。而且,每次的開始,也就是這種結束的開始。佛洛德可能是在告訴我們一個基本事實:只有憑藉對立能量的緊張,所有的能量才能繼續下去。

C.

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