精神分析四個基本觀念 505

Concept 505

THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN Book XI
拉康研討班第十一冊

THE FOUR FUNDAMENTAL
CONCEPTS OF PSYCHOANALYSIS
精神分析四個基本觀念

5
TUCHE AND AUTOMATON

中斷與自動裝置

This requirement of a distinct consistency in the details of its telling signifies that the realization of the signifier will never be able to be careful enough in its memorization to succeed in designating the primacy of the significance as such. To develop it by
varying the significations is, therefore, it would seem, to elude it.

清楚一貫性的要求,在它述說的細節,意味著:能指的實現永遠無法足夠細心,在其記憶裏,成功地指明意義本身的原初性。以變化意義的方式來發展它,因此看起來等於躲避它。

This variation makes one forget the aim of the significance by transforming its act into a game, and giving it certain outlets that go some way to satisfying the pleasure principle.

這種變化使我們忘記意義的目標,因為它轉移它的行動成為遊戲,並且給予它某種的發洩。這些發洩在某個程度有助於滿足快樂原則。

When Freud grasps the repetition involved in the game played by his grandson, in the reiterated fort-da, he may indeed point out that the child makes up for the effect of his mother’s disappearance by making himself the agent of it—but, this phenomenon is of secondary importance.

當佛洛伊德理解到,他的孫子玩弄的遊戲牽涉到的「重複」,在反復的「去來遊戲」,他可能確實指出:小孩為了彌補母親不在家的影響,讓他自己成為它的代理—但是這個現象是次要。

Wallon stresses that the child does not immediately watch the door through which his mother has disappeared, thus indicating that he expects to see her return through it, but that his vigilance was aroused earlier, at the very point she left him, at the point she moved away from him.

萬頓強調,小孩並沒有立即觀看這道門,通過這道門,母親消失,因此指示著,他期盼看到母親經過那道門回來。但是他的警覺更早被喚起,在她離開他之時,在她移動離開他之時。

The ever-open gap introduced by the absence indicated remains the cause of a centrifugal tracing in which that which falls is not the other qua face in which the subject is projected, but that cotton-reel linked to itself by the thread that it holds—in which is expressed that which, of itself, detaches itself in this trial, self.mutilation on the basis of which the order of significance will be put in perspective.

由於被指明的母親不在,導致的這個越來越開的差距,始終是一種離心痕跡的原因。在這個原因裏,掉落的東西並不是,生命主體被投射的作為表面的它者,而是跟它自己連接一塊由它掌控的棉線捲軸—在裏面被表達的是在這個考驗裏自己被疏離的東西,也就是自我殘損。根據這個自我殘損,意義的秩序才能被面對觀看。

For the game of the cotton-reel is the subject’s answer to what the mother’s absence
has created on the frontier of his domain—the edge of his cradle—namely, a ditch, around which one can only play at ‘—jumping.

因為這個棉線線軸的遊戲,是生命主體對於母親不在,在他的領域的邊界,所引起的的回應—也就是在他的搖籃的邊緣—換句話說,這是一條橫溝,在橫溝四周,我們能夠玩跳躍的遊戲。

This reel is not the mother reduced to a little ball by some magical game worthy of the Jivaros—it is a small part of the subject that detaches itself from him while still remaining his, still retained.

這個棉線線軸並不是母親,被類似具有「吉凡洛斯」的魔術名聲的魔術遊戲,化簡成為一個小球—這是一生命主體的一小部分,本身跟他疏離,而依舊保留是他的一部分。

This is the place to say, in imitation of Aristotle, that man thinks with his object. It is with his object that the child leaps the frontiers of his domain, transformed into a well, and begins the incantation.

讓我們類比亞力斯多德的方式說,人使用他的客體在思考。使用他的客體,小孩跳躍到他的領域的邊界,被轉變成為一口井,然後開始召喚魔法。

If it is true that the signifier is the first mark of the subject, how can we fail to recognize here —from the very fact that this game is accompanied by one of the first oppositions to appear—that it is in the object to which the opposition is applied in act, the reel, that we must designate the subject. To this object we will later give the name it bears in the Lacanian algebra—the petit a.

假如能指確實是生命主體的最早標誌,我們在此如何會體認不出—根據這個事實,這個遊戲伴隨著一個最初的對立之一—就在對立被應用到行動裏的客體,我們指明這個生命主體。對於這個客體,我們後來將會給予它負戴的名字,在拉康的代數公式—那就是小客體。

The activity as a whole symbolizes repetition, but not at all that of some need that might demand the return of the mother, and which would be expressed quite simply in a cry.

作為整體的活動象徵著重複,可是根本不是某種需要的重複,需要母親的回來。這種需要,小孩只要用苦就能表達。

It is the repetition of the mother’s departure as cause of a Spaltung in the subject —overcome by the alternating game, fort-da, which is a here or there, and whose aim, in its alternation, is simply that of being the fort of a da, and the da of a fort.

就是母親離開作為生命主體的「分裂」的原因—用這個輪替的「去來遊戲」所克復的這種重複,在此或在彼,它的整個目標,在它的輪替中,「去」代替「來」,以及「來」代替「去」。

It is aimed at what, essentially, is not there, qua represented—for it is the game
itself that is the Rep räsentanz of the Vorstellung. What will become of the Vorstellung when, once again, this Reprasentanc of the mother—in her outline made up of the brush-strokes and gouaches of desire—will be lacking?

它的目標,基本上並不是在那裏,作為被代表物—因為遊戲的本身,才是母親「意象」的再現物。作為母親意象的再現物,再一次,會在她的輪廓裏,組成欲望的水彩畫及水粉畫—-那個再現物會發生怎樣的事情?

I, too, have seen with my own eyes, opened by maternal divination, the child, traumatized by the fact that I was going away despite the appeal, precociously adumbrated in his voice, and henceforth more renewed for months at a time—long
after, having picked up this child—I have seen it let his head fall on my shoulder and drop off to sleep, sleep alone being capable of giving him access to the living signifier that I had become since the date of the trauma.

根據這個母親不在所做的推測,我曾經親眼看過小孩,受到這個事實的創傷。因為儘管他的聲音預先透露的這個懇求,我還是離開,一口氣隔好幾個月,才重新開始—跟我接受這個小孩的個案,過了很久以後—我曾經看到小孩將頭依靠我的肩膀,沉沉入睡。單獨入睡讓他能夠接近,自從創傷的時日以來,我已經成為他的具體能指。

You will see that this sketch that I have given you today of the function of the tuche will be essential for us in rectifying what is the duty of the analyst in the interpretation of the transference.

你們將會看出,我今天給予你們的這個描述,有關「重複」的功用,對於我們而言,將是很重要的,用來改正精神分析師的責任,當他在解釋移情時。

Let me just stress today that it is not in vain that analysis posits itself as modulating in a more radical way this relation of man to the world that has always been regarded as knowledge.

讓我們今天僅是強調,這並不是白費力氣,精神分析提出本身,以一種更加積極的方式,調適人跟世界的關係。這個關係始終是被認為是知識。

If knowledge is so often, in theoretical writings, related to something similar to the relation between ontogenesis and phylogenesis—it is as the result of a confusion, and we shall show next time that the very originality of psycho-analysis lies in the fact that it does not centre psychological ontogenesis on supposed stages—which have literally no discoverable foundation in development observable in biological terms.

假如在理論的著作裏,知識往往關係到,類似個體發生學與眾族發生學之間的關係—這是一種混淆的結果。下一次,我們將會顯示,精神分析的原創性在於這個事實:它並沒有將心理的個體起源論集中在被認為的階段—這些階段實質上並沒有可發現的基礎,在生物術語可觀察的發展。

If development is entirely animated by accident, by the obstacle of the tuch, it is in so far as the tuché brings us back to the same point at which pre-Socratic philosophy sought to motivate the world itself.

假如發展完全是由於偶發性所激發,被「重複」的阻礙所激發,那是因為「重複」引導我們回到這個相同點,蘇格拉底前期的哲學就曾在這個相同點,設法激發世界本身的動機。

It required a clinamen, an inclination, at some point. When Democritus tried to designate it, presenting himself as already the adversary of a pure function of negativity in order to introduce thought into it, he says, It is not the μηδενis essential, and adds—thus showing you that from what one of my pupils called the archaic stage of philosophy, the manipulation of words was used just as in the time of Heidegger—it is not an wØiv, but a öev, which, in Greek, is a coined word.

在某個時刻,這要求一種傾向。當德莫克利圖斯嘗試指明它,呈現他自己作為是負面的純粹功用的敵意,為了介紹思想進入它,他說:重要的並不是這個「μηδεν」。然後他補充說—因此跟你們顯示:從我的一位學生所謂的哲學的過時階段,對於文字的操控被使用,如同在海德格的時代—重要的不是「wØiv」,而是「öev」。在希臘文,這是一個被鑄造的字。

He did not say ξν, let alone δγ. What, then, did he say? He said, answering the question I asked today, that of idealism, Nothing, perhaps?—not perhaps nothing, but not nothing.

他並沒有說「ξν」,更沒有說「δγ」。那麼他到底說什麼?他說,回答我今天問的問題,唯心論的問題。或許,空無一物—或許不是空無一物,而是並非是空無一物。

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 提問與回答

F. D0LT0: I don’t see how, in describing the formation of intelligence up to the age of three or four, one can do without stages. I think that as far as the. defence phantasies and the phantasies of the castration veil are concerned, and also the threats of mutilation, one needs to refer to the stages.

佛、德托:我不明白,當你描述智慧的形成,直到三四歲時,我們能夠免除不用階段。我認為,就防衛的幻見於閹割面紗的幻見而言,切割的威脅而言,我們都需要提到階段。

LACAN: The description of the stages, which go to form the libido, must not be referred to some natural process of pseudomaturation, which always remains opaque.

拉康:對於階段的描述,會形成生命的力比多,一定不要跟偽成熟的某個自然過程混淆,那總是晦澀難懂。

The stages are organized around the fear of castration. The copulatory fact of the introduction of sexuality is traumatizing—this is a snag of some size—and it has an organizing function for development.

階段被組織,環繞著閹割的恐懼。性的介紹的這個交媾的事實,是令人創傷的—這是某種的暗礁—對於發展,它具有一種組織的功用。

The fear of castration is like a thread that perforates all the stages of development. It orientates the relations that are anterior to its actual appearance—weaning, toilet training, etc.

對於閹割的恐懼,就像一條線索,貫穿發展的所有階段。它將先前的關係,定向於它的實際的出現,斷奶,自行上盥洗室的訓練,等等。

It crystallizes each of these moments in a dialectic that has as its centre a bad encounter. If the stages are consistent, it is in accordance with their possible registration in terms of bad encounters.

閹割具體表現每一個這樣的時刻,以一種不好的邂逅,作為它的中心。假如階段是一貫,那是符合它們可能的銘記,以這些不好的邂逅。

The central bad encounter is at the level of the sexual. This does not mean that the stages assume a sexual taint that is diffused on the basis of the fear of castration. On the contrary, it is because this empathy is not produced that one speaks of trauma and primal scene.
12 February 1964

作為中心的不好的邂逅,在性的層次。這並不意味著,階段具有性的污點,根據閹割的恐懼的基礎擴散。相反地,因為當我們談到創傷及原初場景時,這個同理心並沒有被產生。
1964年2月12日

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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