可能不是類似 210gb

可能不是類似 210gb

孟子的盡心篇有「性」與「命」的學說:

口之於味也,目之於色也,耳之於聲也,鼻之於臭也,四肢之于安佚也,
性也,有命焉,君子不謂性也。

仁之于父子也,義之於君臣也,禮之於賓主也,智之於賢者也,聖人之於
天道也,命也,有性焉,君子不謂命也。1

拉康在 Seminar 3: Wednesday 10 February 1971 也提到孟子的「性 hsing」與「命 ming」。讓我們比較一下

You see this is how this is written. That can be read, in a classical French transcription sing. If you put an h in front – hsing – this is the English transcription, and the most recent Chinese transcription, if I am not mistaken, because after all it is purely conventional, is written like that: xing.

你們瞧,這就是它如何被書寫。那能夠被閱讀為古典的法文拼法「sing」,你們若是在字前頭加個「h」,變成「hsing」,那是英文拼法。而最近的中文拼法,被書寫成「xing」,假如我沒弄錯的話,因為它畢竟純粹就是傳統。

Naturally that is not pronounced xing, it is pronounced „sing. It is nature. It is this nature which you have been able to see I am far from ruling out of the affair. If you were not completely deaf, you were able to notice all the same that the first thing that was worth retaining in what I told you in our first talk, is that the signifier – I strongly insisted – can be found everywhere in nature.

自然,它並沒有被發音為「xing」,而是被發音為「sing」。這是自然特性。你們始終能夠明白,我絲毫沒有排除這個事物的自然特性。只要你們不是完全充耳不聞,你們仍然能夠注意到:在我們第一次談論,我所告訴你們的,值得保留的第一件東西,就是:能指在自然天性的每個地方都能夠被找到。我強烈地堅持這一點。

I spoke to you about stars, more exactly of constellations, because there is a star and a star; for centuries all the same that is what the sky is: it is the first feature, what is above, that is important.

我跟你們談論到星辰,更確實地說是星座,因為星星有幾十萬顆,幾世紀以來,天空仍然就是這個樣子。這是第一個特徵,天空的特徵,這點很重要。

It is a tray, a blackboard. I am reproached for using a blackboard. It is the only thing that remains to us to serve as a sky, my good friends, that is why I use it, to put on it what ought to be your constellations.

這是一個盤子,一個黑板。我因為使用黑板而受到譴責。這是唯一留給我們充當天空的東西,我的朋友,這就是為什麼我使用它,在它上面放置應該是你們星座的東西。

(51) So then, a sufficiently developed discourse. From this discourse the result is that all of you no matter how many of you there are, and whether you are from here or from the USA, it is the same thing, and even elsewhere, you are underdeveloped with respect to this discourse.

所以,這是一個充分發展的真理論述。從這個真理論述,結果是,你們所有的人,無論數目有多少,無論你們從這裏或從美國,都是同樣事情,甚至是在別處,關於這個真理論述,你們是尚未開發。

I am talking about this thing, this something by which people are interested but which is certainly what people speak about when they speak about your underdevelopment.

我正在談論到這件事情,人們感到興趣的這件東西,但這確定是,人們所談論的東西,當他們談論到你們的尚未開發。

Where is it to be situated exactly? What can be said about it? It is not doing philosophy to ask where it comes from, what is its substance. There are things in this dear Meng-Tzu, I do not see, after all, any reason to drug you, I really have no hope that you will make the effort to stick your nose into it, so then I will go moreover, why not, to what I have to set out in three stages, especially since he tells us extraordinarily interesting things.

它確實應該被定位在哪里?關於它,有什麼能夠被說?詢問它來自哪里,它的本質是什麼,並非是賣弄哲學。在這位可敬的孟子這裏,有些事情,我不明白為什麼,有些理由會讓你沉迷。我真的並不希望,你們耗費心力去探究它。而且,我將前進,有何不可呢?前進到我必須要開始的三個階段,特別是因為他告訴我們特別有趣的事情。

There is one thing, there is no knowing how it came out moreover, because it is made God knows how, it is a collage, this book of Meng-Tzu, things follow one another, as they say, and are not alike. Anyway! Alongside this notion of hsing, of nature, there emerges all of a sudden that of ming, the decree of the heavens.

有一件事情,而且我們不可能知道,它是如何發生。天曉得是如何,因為它被形成,這是一種拼貼,孟子的這本書。事情接續發展,而且互不相同,如他們所說。無論如何!跟「性」這個觀念並列,突然出現「命」的這個觀念,上天的命令。

13.1.71 I 69
Obviously, I could very easily stick with the ming, with the decree of the heavens, namely, continue my discourse, which means in short: that is how it is because that is how it is, one day, science will grow on our terrain.

顯而易見,我很容易就堅持這個「命」,換句話說,這個上天的命令。我繼續我的真理論述。總之,這意味著,因為這是它實際的情況,有一天,科學會在這個領域成長。

At the same time capitalism did its own thing, and then there was a chap, God knows why, heaven‟s decree, there is Marx who has, in short, ensured a rather long survival for capitalism.

同時,資本主義逕自發展,這樣就產生一種裂痕,跟上天的命令。天曉得為什麼,有位馬克思,總之,他曾經確定資本主義會長治久安。

雄伯曰:
這句話頗費解,馬克思不是反對資本主義嗎?是否有人懂馬克思?幫我解謎一下?

And then there is Freud who all of a sudden was disturbed by something which obviously became the only element of interest that still had some relationship with this thing that people had previously dreamt about and which was called knowledge. At an epoch when there was no longer the slightest trace of something which had a
meaning of this kind, he noticed that there was the symptom.

然後有位佛洛伊德,他突然受到某件事的困擾。顯而易見的,這件事成為他感到興趣的唯一的因素。這個興趣跟人們先前夢想的,以及所謂的知識的事情,有些關係。在人們絲毫不再在乎生命有何意義的時代,他注意到這是一種病徵。

雄伯曰:
拉康將孟子的「性」解釋為nature (自然天性),也就是能指能夠被找到的地方。那應該是在「象徵界」the symbolic。而「命」則解釋為the decree of the heavens (上天的命令)。那應該來自「無意識界」the unconscious 或「真實界」the real 的訊息signs。

他開始談天上的無窮星辰,再轉向在黑板上畫星辰受責備作比喻:天空何其廣裘,星座何其無限,猶如人在無意識的「真實界」,是片「尚未開發的領域」underdeveloped field。而拉康要說明它們,卻必須借助有限範圍的黑板或人的有限語言,以管窺天的無奈溢於言表。

然後,他談到人類科學對於這塊「尚未開發的領域」的展望,開始推崇佛洛伊德的貢獻:將在「象徵界」的人,視為是一種「病徵」symptom。這種「病徵」是在「真實界」的生命主體,傳遞給與我們的訊息signs:真理與生命意義在「無意識界」或「真實界」,而不是在「象徵界」。

耐人尋味地,他突然抨擊資本主義的社會,悖離人的「天命」the decree of heavens,甚至引出馬克思的觀點,作為支持。只是這一個重要主題,他沒有多作發揮。我們只好各憑想像去詮釋。

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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