可能不是類似 210b

可能不是類似 210b

On a Discourse that might not be a semblance

可能不是類似的真理論述

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

Seminar 3: Wednesday 10 February 1971

In the name of what, great God, I had no responsibility in the Ecole Normale for any teaching, but if the Ecole Normale found itself, according to this author, so little initiated in linguistics, it was certainly not I who should have been blamed for it.

我的天,以什麼的名義,我在艾可大學並對於我的教學沒有什麼責任。但是艾可大學發現它自己,依照作者的說法,在語言學方面沒有什麼創意。那確實是不應該怪罪到我的身上。

This indicates to you the point on which I intend all the same to specify something this morning. It is in effect the following, something which is raised and for some time with a sort of insistence, the theme is taken up in a more or less frivolous way in a certain number of interviews, there is a question which is raised about something: is one a structuralist or not when one is a linguist? And people tend to demarcate themselves and say: I am a functionalist.

這跟你們指示這一點,今天早上,我仍然打算要指明它的某件事情。實際上,事實如下:某件事情被提出,被堅持了某段時間,這個主題以相當輕率的方式被從事,用某些的面談。有個問題被提出,關於某件事情:當我是一位語言學家時,我是否一位元結構主義者?人們傾向於區分它們,然後說:我是一位機能主義者。

Why am I a functionalist? Because structuralism, is something, moreover, that is a purely journalistic invention. I am saying, structuralism is something which serves as a label and which of course, given what it comprises, namely, a certain seriousness, does not fail to be disturbing, so that, of course, people want to stake out their own preserve. [André Martinet interviewed in Le Monde, 5 January 1971.]

為什麼我是一位機能主義者?因為結構主義是某件東西,而且,那純粹是新聞記者杜撰之詞。我是說,結構主義是某件充當標籤的東西。當然,考慮到它所包含的東西,也就是說,某些的嚴肅性,一定會令人困擾。當然,人們想要正式宣稱他們包攬的事物。(1917年1月5日,馬提內在曼地接受採訪)

The question of the relationships of linguistics to what I teach, is, in other words, what I want to put in the forefront in order, in a way, to dissipate, dissipate I hope in a way that will mark an epoch, a certain equivocation. Linguists, the university linguists, would like in short to reserve to themselves the privilege of speaking about language.

語言學跟我的教學的關係的問題,換句話說,跟我想要呈現在面前的東西,在某方面,是為了要驅散,我希望驅散標示一個時代的某些的模棱兩可。語言學,大學的語言學,總之,他們想要保留關於語言的言說特權,給他們自己。

And the fact that it is around the development of linguistics that the axis of my teaching operates, is attached to, is supposed to be excessive in some way and is denounced in different formulae the principal one of which is the following, in any case it seem to me to be the most consistent one.

這個事實,環繞語言學的發展,我的教學軸心運作的東西,被連接,被認為在某方面很過分,並且受到不同準則的指責。其中主要的一個準則是以下:無論如何,我覺得它是最一致性的準則。

That of linguistics there is made – in the field which happens to be the one that I am inserted into, in the one also in which someone who certainly, on occasion, would deserve to be looked at a little more closely, much more as regards what comes from me, because….which people might have only a rather vague idea of, at least it is proved, Levi- Strauss for example, and so then Levi-Strauss and then some others again, Roland Barthes – we also are supposed to be making of linguistics a use, I quote, “a metaphorical use”. Well now! It is in effect about (42) this that I would like to clearly make some points.

語言學的準則在那裏被形成—在我被牽扯到的這個領域,也是在某個人有時應該值得受到注視的領域,關於我所表達的東西。因為人們可能會有一個相當模糊的觀念,至少它被證明,例如,列文、史特勞斯。因此,列文、史特勞斯,還有某些其他的人,羅蘭。巴特—我們也應該將語言學解釋為某種用途,我引述「一種比喻的用途」。哇塞!實際上就是關於這一點,我想要清楚地談述幾點。

First of all there is something from which we should start because all the same it
is written, written in something that counts, the fact that I am still here sustaining this discourse, the fact that you are also here to listen to it, the fact is, we have to believe that a formula is not altogether displaced as regards this discourse, in so far as I pronounce it, the fact is in a certain way finally, let us say that I know….I know what?

首先,有某件我們應該開始的事情,因為它仍然是被書寫,被書寫在某件重要的東西。事實上,我依舊在此維持這個真理論述。事實上,你們也在此傾聽它。事實上,我們必須相信:關於這個論述,一種公式並沒有完全被替代。因為我宣稱它。事實上,以某種的方式,容我說我知道、、、我知道什麼?

Let us try to be exact, it seems to be proven that I know what I should keep to (je sais à quoi m‟en tenir). Holding a certain place, I am underlining this, this place is no other – I am underlining it because I am not stating it for the first time, I spend my time clearly repeating that this is what I hold onto – than the place that I identified as that of a psychoanalyst – the question can after all be debated, because many
psychoanalysts debate it – but in any case this is what I hold to.

讓我們嘗試精確表達,它似乎被證明:「我知道我應該堅持什麼」。佔有某種的位置,我正在強調這個。這個位置不是別的—我正在強調它,因為我並不是第一次陳述它。我花費我的時間清楚地重複:這是我堅持的—這個位置就是我認同是一位精神分析師的位置—畢竟,這個問題是能夠接受辯論。因為許多精神分析師辯論它—但是無論如何,這是我堅持的。

It is not quite the same as if I were to state, I know where I stand (je sais où je me tiens), not because the I is repeated in the second part of the sentence, but this is where language always shows its resources, it is because to say I know where I stand, it is on the where that the emphasis would be put as regards what I was priding myself
knowing. I would have, as I might say, I would have the map, the mapping of the thing. And why after all would I have it?

這並不完全相等於好像我想要陳述:「我知道我的立場是什麼」。不是因為這個「我」在這個句子的第二部分被重複,而是因為這是語言總是顯示它的資源的地方。這是因為說「我知道我的立場」,這個強調點就是這個「立場」,關於我以自己「知道」而感到自傲的東西。我不妨這樣說,我將會擁有這個東西的圖形。但是為什麼我要擁有它?

There is a strong reason why I could not even sustain that I know where I stand. This is truly the axis of what I have to tell you this year. The fact is that the principle of science in so far as the process is engaged for us, I am talking about what I refer to when I give its centre as Newtonian science, the introduction of the Newtonian field,
the fact is that in no domain of science, does one have this mapping this map, to tell us where we are.

這是一個強烈的理由,為什麼我甚至無法維持我知道我的立場在哪里。這確實是今你我必須告訴你們的軸心。事實上,科學的原則,就這個過程對於我們的從事而言,我正在談論的我提到的東西,當我給予它的核心,作為牛頓的科學,牛頓領域的介紹。事實上,科學沒有一個領域,沒有這種圖形的描繪,為了告訴我們的所在位置。

And what is more, everyone agrees with this, but whatever the worth of the ell, of the objection that may be raised once one begins to speak precisely of a map, of its chance and of its necessity, well then, anyone at all is in a position to object to you that you are no longer doing science, but philosophy.

而且,每個人都同意這一點。但是這個L形模式的價值是什麼,一旦我們開始確實地談論一個圖形,它的機率,它的必要性,它可能引起的反對是什麼。呵呵,任何人都有反對你的立場,以致於你無法再從事科學研究,而是哲學。

That does not mean that anyone at all knows what he is saying when he says it. But anyway, it is a very strong position.

那並不意味著,任何人都知道,當他說它時,他知道他正在說什麼。但是無論如何,這是一個很強的位置。

The discourse of science rejects this where we have got to (où nous en sommes) it is not with this that it operates. As regards the hypothesis, remember Newton affirming that he did not claim to construct any, the hypothesis, although used, never concerns the foundation of things.

科學的真理論述拒絕這個「我們已經到達的地方」。科學並不是用這個在運作。關於這個假設,清記住,牛頓肯定地說:他並沒有宣稱建構任何東西,這個假設,雖然被使用,從來沒有牽涉到事情的基礎。

A hypothesis, in the scientific field, and whatever anyone may think, a hypothesis is, above all, something to do with logic. There is an if, the conditional of a truth that is never (43) articulated except logically; so then, apodosis: a consequent ought to be verifiable.

在科學的領域,一個假設,無論任何人怎麼想,一個假設尤其是跟邏輯有某些關係。有一個「假如」,這個真理的條件,真理除了以邏輯的方式,從來沒有被表達。所以要有「結句」,一個結果應該被驗證。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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