可能不是类似 217

可能不是類似 217

On a Discourse that might not be a semblance

可能不是類似的真理論述

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

Seminar 4: Wednesday 17 February 1971

[Before the seminar Lacan writes on the board a quotation from Meng-Tzu: probably the following.]

在演講之前,拉康在黑板上寫下一句孟子的引言,可能如下:

“Everywhere under the heavens, when one speaks about nature, what is meant are natural effects”

天底下的每個地方,當我們談到自然,它的意思是自然的影響。

孟子曰:“天下之言性也,则故而已矣

– This is the name of the author of this little formula…
這就是這個小公式的作者的名字。

– Louder!
大聲一點!

– This is the name of the author of this little formula!
這就是這個小公式的作者的名字。

– Thank you.
謝謝

– this little formula to which, despite the fact that it was written around 250BC, in China as you see, in chapter 2 of Book IV, the second part, sometimes it is classified in a different way, so that in that case it would be part VIII, of Book IV, the second part of paragraph 26 of Meng-Tzu, whom the Jesuits called Mencius, because they are the ones who took a step forward, well before the epoch when there were sinologists, namely, at the beginning of the 19th Century.

這個小公式,儘管這個事實,它是在紀元前250年被寫,在中國,如你們所見,在第四冊第二章,第二部分,有時它被分類的方式不一樣。所以在那個情況,那將是第四冊第八部分,孟子第二十六節的第二部分。耶穌會稱他為孟子,因為他們是走在時代前面的人,就在有漢學家的時代之前,也就是在19世紀的開始。

I had the pleasure of acquiring the first book on which there are found conjointly a plaque of Chinese printing, it is not quite the same thing as the first book in which there were at the same time Chinese characters and European characters, it is the first book in which there was a Chinese printing plate with things written, with
things printed, from our part of the world. It is a translation of Aesop‟s fables.

我很榮幸獲得第一本書,跟這本書共連地發現中文印刷的飾板。這跟第一本書不完全相同,同時具有中文字與歐洲文字。這並不是第一本書,有中文的印刷鉛體字的書寫,還有印刷的東西,來自我們歐洲的部分。這是一本「伊索寓言」的翻譯本。

This appeared in 1840, and it prides itself, quite rightly in being the first book in which this conjunction was realised. (56) 1840, you can say that it is more or less, precisely, the notice of the moment when sinologists came on the scene. The Jesuits were in China for a very long time, as perhaps some of you may remember.

這本書出現在1840年,它頗為自傲,因為它確實是第一本書實現東西方的連接。你們可以說,它差不多就是漢學家來到現場的時刻的通知。耶穌會教徒在中國很久的時間,或許你們有些人還記得。

They almost made the connection between China and what they represented as missionaries. Only they allowed themselves to be a little, a little bit impressed by the Chinese rites, and as you know perhaps, in the middle of the 18th Century, that created some difficulties for them with Rome, which did not show on this occasion particular political acuity. That happens sometimes in Rome.

他們幾乎是從事連接中國跟他們作為傳教士所代表的東西。只有他們容許他們自己對於中國的儀式稍微有點印象。或許如你們所知,在十八世紀中葉,這些儀式引起一些困難,對於在羅馬的他們。在這個場合,他們並沒有顯示特別的政治敏銳性。在羅馬,有時會發生這樣的事。

Anyway in Voltaire, if you read Voltaire, but of course no one reads Voltaire anymore, you are making a great mistake, it is full of all kinds of things. In Voltaire, there is, very exactly in Le Siècle de Louis XIV, an appendix, I think that it forms a particular lampoon, a long elaboration about this Quarrel of the Rites, of which many things in history now find themselves in a position of filiation.

無論如何,在伏爾泰,假如你們閱讀伏爾泰,但是當然,若以為再沒有人閱讀伏爾泰,你們可是犯了一個大錯誤,它依舊包含各種的事情。在伏爾泰的著作,有個附錄,確實就在「路易十四時期」。我認為它形成一個特別的諷刺文章,對於儀式的繁文縟節長篇構想。在這些儀式裏,歷史上的許多事情現在發現自己處於起源於那裏。

In any case then, we are talking about Mencius, and Mencius wrote this – because I wrote it on the board….to begin with that does not form properly speaking a part of my discourse today, that is why I finished it before the exact hour of 12.30 – I will tell you, or I am going to try to make you sense what it means, and then this will get us into the swing of what, properly speaking, is the object of what I want to state today, it is namely that….in what preoccupies us, what is the function of writing (l‟écriture).

無論如何,我們正在談論有關孟子。孟子當時寫下這個—因為將它寫在黑板上、、、適當地說,從那裏開始並沒有形成我今天論述的一部分。那就是為什麼我要在12點半的確實時間以前講完。我將會告訴你們,否則我將嘗試讓你們感覺到那是什麼意思。然後這將會讓我們進入適當來說我今天想要陳述的目標。也就是說,在我們專注的部分是書寫的這個功用。

Since writing, exists in China since…time immemorial, I mean that well before we have to properly speak of works, writing already existed for an extremely long time, and one cannot evaluate how long it did exist.

因為書寫,自從遠古以來就存在於中國。我的意思是遠在我們必須適當地談論著作之前,書寫已經存在有極端漫長的時間。我們無法評估它確實存在有多久。

This writing has, in China, an altogether pivotal role, in a certain number of things that happened, and it is rather…it is quite illuminating as regards what we may think about the function of writing.

在中國,這個書寫具有一個非常重要的角色,在許多發生的事情上。它相當、、、它相當程度闡明,關於我們可能認為有關書寫的功用。

It is certain that writing has played a quite decisive role in supporting something, something to which we have… this particular access and no other, namely, a type of social structure that was sustained for a very long time and from which, until a recent epoch, one could conclude that there was a completely different filiation as regards what was supported in China, than what was engendered among us, and specifically by one of these phyla that interest us particularly, namely, the philosophical phylum in so far as, I highlighted it last year, it is nodal to understand what is at stake as
regards the discourse of the Master.

的確,書寫曾經扮演關鍵性的角色,在支持某件東西,某件我們擁有這個特別接近的東現,不是別的,也就是一種社會的結構,被維持很久的時間。直到最近的時代,我們才能獲得結論:有一種完全不同的起源,關於在中國所被報導,跟我們歐洲產生的不同。明確地說,有一種語系我們特別感到興趣,也就是說,哲學的語系。如同我去年強調它,瞭解岌岌可危的事情是很重要的,關於主人的真理論述。

(57) So then this is how this exergue is stated. As I showed you on the board the last time this designates the heavens, it is called tien. T‟ien hsia, is under the heavens, everything that is under the heavens.

這就是這個飾板所被陳述的方式。當我上一次在黑板上顯示給你們看,這指明是上天,它被稱為「天」,「天下」是指在天之下,每一樣在天之下的東西。

Here there is a determinative tchih, what is at stake is something that is beneath the heavens; what is beneath the heavens, is what comes afterwards. What you see there is nothing other than the designation of the word that on this occasion we will state as yen. Yen hsing, I already put it on the board the last time, in signalling to you that this
hsing, was precisely one of the elements that will preoccupy us this year, in so far as the term that gets closest to it is nature.

在此,有一個限定詞「青」,岌岌可危的是某件在天之下的東西,在天之下的東西,是隨後而來的東西。你們在那裏看到,道道地地就是那個字的指稱。在這個場合,我們將陳述為「言」。「言性」,我已經將它寫在黑板上,跟你們指示:這個「性」,確實是其中一個元素,今年我們將專注探討的,因為最靠近它的術語是「自然」。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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