精神分析技術的基本原則p141

Fundamentals of Psychoanalytic Technique
精神分析技術的基本原則 p141

BRUCE FINK
布魯斯 芬克

How to Handle Transference
如何處理移情

Nevertheless, the majority 大多數 of analysts seem to have fallen in with Freud’s ( 19 1 3/ 1 958) point of view that we must interpret the transference whenever it begins to lead to resistance 阻抗:

可是,大多數的分析師似乎已經同意佛洛伊德的觀點:我們必須解釋移情,每當它通往阻抗。

So long as the patients communications 溝通 and ideas run on 進行 without any obstruction 阻礙, the theme of transference should be left untouched 沒有碰觸. One must wait until the transference, [the handling of] which is the most delicate of all procedures 程式, has become a resistance 阻抗. (p. 1 39)

只要病人的溝通及觀念沒有受到阻礙地進行,移情的主體應該留著不要碰觸。我們必須等到移情已經變成阻抗,因為對於移情的處理是最微妙的一種程式。

They seem not to have realized that an interpretation 解釋of the transference that comes from the transferential object herself, the analyst, is not a way out of the transference but simply reproduces 複製 the transference; for, as Lacan (2006, p. 59 1 ) said, ‘The analyst’s speech is [always] heard as coming from the transferential Other.”

分析師似乎沒有體會是,對於移情的解釋,來自移情的客體本身,分析師,並不是解決移情的好方法,而僅是複製移情。如同拉康所說的:「分析師的言談總是被聽見,當作是來自移情的大它者。」

If, for example, the analyst has become associated 聯想 with a critical重要的 parental figure, her interpretation will be heard as critical 重要; if she has become associated with a seductive誘拐 maternal 母親figure, her interpretation will be heard as seductive. We do not achieve some sort ‘of metaposition 形上位置 outside of the transference by interpreting it (the claims of therapists like Levenson, 1 995, p. 88, that we can “metacommunicate” 形上溝通 notwithstanding雖然).

例如,分析師已經跟重要的父母的人物聯想在一塊,她的解釋將會被聽見,當作很重要。假如他已經跟一位誘拐的母親的人物聯想在一塊,她的解釋將會被解釋為誘拐。我們透過解釋移情,並沒有完成某種的移情之外的形上位置。(有些治療師,譬如,李文森,宣稱說:儘管如此,我們能夠「形而上溝通」)

We remain up to our ears 忙碌於 in the transference. As Lacan ( 1967-1968, November 29, 1 967) said, there is “no transference of the transference,” meaning that–just as there is no position outside o f language that allows us to discuss language as a whole without having to rely on language itself in our discussion-there is no way in which we can step completely outside the transference situation in order to discuss what is happening in the transference itself (see also Lacan, 1 998b, p. 428).

我們始終為移情的問題所困。如同拉康所說,「沒有移情的移情」。他的意思是:正如語言之外,沒有立場容許我們討論語言的整體,因為在我們的討論,我們必須依賴語言本身。我們不可能完全跨越到移情情境之外,為了討論移情本身會發生什麼事情。

The interpretation of transference is a vicious cycle 惡性循環! Analysts have tried to get around this vicious cycle by dividing the analysand into two parts: the “experiencing ego” and the “observing 觀察 ego” (Sterba, 1 934).

移情的解釋是一種惡性循環!分析師曾經嘗試將受分析者分成兩個部分,繞過這個惡性循環:「正在經驗的自我」與「正在觀察到自我」。

The trick 竅訣, in their view, is to invite the observing ego, which they consider to be “rational 理性,” to step outside of the transference (which is presumably 假定 engaged in by the experiencing ego alone) into some kind of metaspace 形上空間 , a space outside of the transference where analyst and analysand can meet as “reasonable” observing egos and agree upon what is happening between the irrational, unreasonable, experiencing egos who are caught up in 忙於 the transference/countertransference. 16

依他們之見,這種竅訣是要邀請正在觀察的自我,跨越出移情之外,因為他們認為他是理性的,(這假定移情僅是由正在經驗的自我在進行,)進入某種的形上空間。這種移情之外的空間,在那裏,分析師與受分析者能夠會合,作我「理性的」觀察的自我,並且達成一致看法,對於正在發生於這些非理性,不理智的經驗自我,他們深陷於移情與反移情之中。

It may sound like I am being ironic 反諷here, but many authors 作者speak in precisely 確實these terms, as if “rational 理性,” “irrational,” “reasonable,” and “unreasonable” were simple, serviceable服務 categories1 範疇7 that could be unproblematically associated with one or another of the psychical agencies 代理, and as if–even if an agreement as to what is going on could be reached between reasonable, “dispassionate 冷靜,” observing egos taking a “time out” from the hothouse 溫室 of the transference relationship–it would change anything when they return to the hothouse (apart from encouraging the analysand to suppress 壓抑 any and all transference reactions 反動 in the future) .

聽起來像是我在此冷嘲熱諷。但是許多作者以很明確的這些術語談到,好像「理性」,「非理性」,「理智」「不理智」是簡單,可供服務的分類,能夠毫無棘手地就跟某種心靈的代理互相聯想—即使關於正在進行的事情,能夠獲得一致看法,在理性,「冷靜」的觀察的自我「暫停一段時間」,離開移情關係的溫室—好似這樣,當他們重回溫室時,他們就能一切改觀。(除了就是鼓勵受分析者壓抑未來的任何移情及全部移情。)

The analysand is likely to remain just as hypersensitive 過度敏感 to criticism as he was before, for example, but he may begin to “talk himself down” from his high dudgeon 生氣 when he remembers his discussion with the analyst to the effect that he constantly 不斷地felt criticized批評 by his father as a child, which is the origin 起源of his hypersensitivity to criticism today.

例如,受分析者很可能跟以前一樣,對於批評保持同樣的過度敏感。但是他在老羞成怒中,可能開始「舒解自己」,當他想起他跟分析師的討論,大意是說,他不斷地感到他小時候,受到他的父親的批評。這是他今天對於批評的高度敏感的起因。

The upshot 結局 is that he will still get very angry but will learn how to suppress 壓抑 his anger after the fact instead of acting on it. Or he will still experience women’s comments to him as invariably 一成不變 seductive 誘拐 but will learn how to “reason with himself,” reminding himself on each occasion that he experiences their comments that way because of things that occurred with his mother. Such is the usefulness (or uselessness, as the case may be) of enlisting 徵召 the aid of the analysand’s observing ego!

結局是,他依舊將會憤怒,但是學會如何壓抑他對於這個事實的憤怒,而不是根據這個事實採取行動。或者,他將依舊會經驗到女人對他的評論,作為一定是誘拐,但是學會如何「跟自己講道理」,在每個場合,提醒他自己:他以那種方式,經驗到他們的評論,因為跟他的母親一起發生的事情。徵召受分析者的觀察到自我,來幫忙的這個方法,是如此的有用,(或無用,端看情況而定)!

Gill ( 1 982) is one of the foremost proponents 提議者, in the non-Kleinian analytic world (I will discuss Klein later in this chapter), of the systematic interpretation of transference, yet he acknowledged something (which he appeared to view as a simple anomaly or curiosity, even though he repeated it numerous times in the course of his book) that seems to corroborate Lacan’s view that it is generally pointless to interpret the transference.

在非克萊恩的精神分析界,吉爾是最重要的提倡者之一,(在這個章節,我將會討論克萊恩),關於系統化地解釋移情,可是他承認某件事情(他似乎將它看作是單純的異常或好奇,雖然他在他的書裏,重述這件事好幾次)。這件事情似乎跟拉康的觀點不謀而合:解釋移情通常是沒有意義的。

Gill indicated that in the transcripts of complete sessions he provided in volume 2 of his work, one can see “how regularly the analysis of the transference has its own repercussions on the transference–often repercussions which result in an enactment of the very patterns of interactions to which the interpretations refer”

吉爾指示:在他的著作的第二冊,他提供完整的諮商晤談的錄音稿。我們能夠看出「移情的精神分析,對於移情如何規律地會有它自己的反作用—這些反作用,造成解釋所提到的分析師與受分析者互動模式的扮演。」

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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