內視,同理心,及精神健康的半圓 04

Introspection, Empathy, and the Semi-Circle of Mental Health. (1982)
Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 63:395-407 (IJP)
Introspection, Empathy, and the Semi-Circle of Mental Health
Heinz Kohut

內視,同理心,及精神健康的半圓
海因茲、科胡特

195
SUMMARY
綱要

But now, after sharing with you this personal information about the triggers that prompted me to embark on an inquiry into experience-distant theory, I will attempt to enumerate those factors that justified the 1959 examination on substantial, intrinsically scientific grounds. I am using the word ‘substantial’ advisedly, because I would like to do what I can to prevent having my 1959 thoughts brushed aside, whether in ridicule or with respect, as being the unnourishing fruit of pedantry or purism (see Kohut, 1980, pp. 477f).

但是現在,跟你們分享這個個人的資訊,關於激發我從事研究遠距經驗理論的動機,我將設法列舉那些因素自圓其說,證明1959年的檢視,根據具有實質理由及本質是科學的理由。我正在使用「實質的」這個字詞,是經過慎密考慮的,因為我想要盡我的能力,阻止我1959年的思想被排擠一旁,無論是以諷刺或表示尊敬,作為學究及純粹學術的沒有滋養的成果。

Thus, had it been only for the fact that I felt that Alexander’s psycho-biology and Alexander’s and Hartmann’s socio-psychology had introduced concepts into the framework of analysis which, belonging to a different world of scientific discourse, were foreign bodies there and could not be accommodated, I would still have been inclined to welcome these, in and of themselves, valuable and impressive contributions to science. I would not have felt the need to outline the operationally-determined borders of psychoanalysis and thus to define the essence of this science.

因此,假如不是因為我感覺到的這個事實:亞歷山大的心理-生物學,及亞歷山大跟哈特曼的社會-心理學曾經介紹觀念到精神分析的架構裏,這些觀念由於屬於不同的科學論述的世界,在那裏是外來的身體,而且無法被接納。我當時本來會依舊傾向於歡迎這些對於科學有價值及令人印象深刻的貢獻,在它們本身,也屬於它們本身。我當時本來會感覺有這個需要,描繪出精神分析學由運作功用定義的邊界,因此定義這門科學的本質。

If it were not the need for theoretical exactitude and harmony, what was it that in fact impelled me to set out in 1959 on this excursion into epistemology? And what sustained my interest in pursuing my goal, however subordinated to other tasks, since then (see Kohut, 1977, Chapter 7) ? I have no doubt that it was the fact that this unacknowledged shift in the quintessentially significant basic stance of the analyst had led not only to changes in theory but also and this is the substantial issue for me to a covertly proceeding, gradually increasing distortion of the analyst’s perceptions in his function as a researcher in the applied field and, most importantly, in his therapeutic function as a professional practitioner.

假如不是因為理論的精確及和諧,事實上會是什麼驅使我在1959年出發探索認識論?從此以後,會是什麼維持我追求我的目標的興趣,無論它是多麽隸屬於其他的工作?我並不懷疑,這個沒有被承認的轉變,精神分析師本質上非常重要的基本態度,不但導致理論的改變,而且這是實質上的問題,要我秘密地繼續,慢慢地增加精神分析師感覺的扭曲,在他作為應用領域的研究員的功用。最重要的是,在他行使治療的功用,作為專業的開業治療師。

Leaving aside for this occasion the by no means second-in-importance responsibility of the psychoanalyst vis-a-vis such fields as literary criticism, medicine, anthropology, sociology, and, par excellence, political science and history, I will turn directly to the prevalent task of the analyst: the therapeutic analysis. How have the aforementioned foreign bodies in depth psychology the biologically understood concept of ‘drive’, the socio-psychologically understood concepts of ‘dependence’ and ‘adaptation’ led, as I think they did, to the decisive shift of the essence of analysis, to an alteration of the analyst’s basic stance that is more significant in the long run than external threats, such as that via its absorption by psychiatry, which are openly faced and resisted?

為了這個場合,我擱置精神分析師決非是此要的責任,那就是要面對這些領域,諸如文學批評,醫藥,人類學,社會學,尤其重要的,政治科學與歷史。我將直接轉向精神分析師最為盛行的工作:治療的精神分析。在深度心理學,以上所提的外來的身體,諸如,「欲望驅力」的觀念,從生物立場來瞭解,「依賴」及「適應」的觀念,從社會-心理學的立場來瞭解,依照我對於它們的實際看法,它們會導致精神分析學本質的決定性改變,導致精神分析師基本的態度的改變。這種改變最後將是比外在的威脅更加重要嗎?例如,公開被面對及阻抗的外在威脅 :精神分析學被併入精神病學。

The answer, broadly speaking, is that they have done so by becoming the unacknowledged and unquestioned basis of an unacknowledged and unquestioned value system and of an unacknowledged and unquestioned total view of the essence of man and of the essence of his life. Despite innumerable protestations to the contrary analysis has, under the influence of the aforementioned concepts become less of a science and more of a moral system, and psychoanalysis as therapy has become simultaneously less of a scientific procedure based on the elucidation of dynamic and genetic relationships and more an educational procedure, aiming at predetermined and thus extraneous goals which, again, are unacknowledged and unquestioned toward which the patient is led and which, on the basis of an unacknowledged and unquestioned dimension of his transference, the patient tries to reach.

廣義來說,這個回答是:它們曾經這樣做,是因為它們變成一個未受承認及未受質疑的基礎,充當一個未受承認及未受質疑的價值系統,及一個未受承認及未受質疑的人的本質的完全觀點,跟他的生命的本質的完全觀點。儘管無數的相反的異議,精神分析學在以上提到的觀念的影響之下,已經變成與其說是屬於科學,不如說是屬於道德系統。作為治療的精神分析學,同時也變得與其說是屬於科學的程式,以動力跟病因關係的說明作為基礎,不如說是一種教育程式,目標朝著預先決定,因此是外來的目標。而且,病人被引導前往的這些目標,未受承認及未受質疑。病人設法到達他的移情的一個未受承認及未受質疑的向度。

What are these values of traditional psychoanalysis which have been directing the analyst’s focus of attention and thus, secondarily, the goals that he pursues, both as researcher and therapist? No one familiar with my writings of recent years can be unacquainted with my answer. It is the fact that knowledge values and independence values have been the leading values of the psychoanalyst, and that they have guided him toward selective perception and selective action within the psychological field in which he has his home. It is not that I object to these values. Indeed, I subscribe to them. Yet, I believe that their unacknowledged influence distorts the depth-psychological scientist’s perception and here the effects are even more palpable that their unacknowledged presence interferes with the analyst’s ability to allow his analysands to develop in accordance with their own nuclear programme and destiny.

傳統精神分析學的這些價值是什麼呢?它們曾經引導精神分析師的專注關心,然後次要地,引導他所追求的目標,既作為研究員,又為治療師。對於我最近幾年的著作熟悉的人,莫不耳熟能詳我的答案。事實上,知識的價質與獨立的價值一直是精神分析師的主要價值,它們一直引導他朝向屬於他的家園的心理的領域內,選擇性的感覺與選擇性的行動。倒不是因為我反對這些價值。的確,我同意它們。可是,我相信它們未受承認的影響,扭曲了深度心理學科學家的感覺。在此更加可觸知的是這些影響:他們未受承認的存在,干涉到精神分析師容許他的分析物件發展的能力,以便符合他們自己的核心計畫及命運。

I am aware of the hold that the aforementioned ideals have had on Western Man, and, as a deeply-rooted member of Western civilization, I am, myself, strongly influenced by them. I know how difficult it is for us even to be aware of these basic ideals and thus to make them the target of our scrutiny. And, within certain limits, I do indeed not question them. What I do question is their abiding primacy in the hierarchy of Man’s values their primacy at all times and under all conditions.

我知道以上提到的理想曾經影響西方的人。作為深受西方文明薰陶的成員,我自己強烈受到他們的影響。我知道這是多麼困難,甚至要我們知道這些基本理想,然後讓他們成為我們審查的對象。然後,在某些限制內,我確實沒有去質疑它們。我所質疑的是它們在人的價值的階層,作為持久不變的首要地位,亙古以來,無論任何情況的它們的首要地位。

However great their importance for Western Man, they cannot serve as the ultimate guidepost by which the depth-psychological researcher evaluates Man and as the scale on which the depth-psychological therapist marks the goals and measures the degree of success or failure of the psychoanalytic treatment. On the contrary, I hold the view that these two values have prevented us from recognizing the central position of the self and its vicissitudes in Man’s psychological make-up and, above all as concerns the man of our time and his era-specifically prevalent psychopathology. They have prevented us, in other words, from acknowledging the significance of the innermost programme of the self, and the importance which the realization or non-realization of its potential has for the individual in deciding whether he feels psychologically ill or whether he feels that he is healthy.

對於西方人,這些價值的重要性,無論如何重大,它們無法充當深度心理學的研究員評估人的最後的指標,以及充當深度心理學治療師標示目標的準繩,並且充當測量精神分析的治療的成功或失敗的標準。相反地,我持有這個觀點:這兩種價值曾經阻礙我們,使我們無法體認出:在人的心理天性,完整自我及其興衰具有中央的地位,尤其是關係到我們時代的人,及其具有明確時代性的盛行的心理病理學。換句話說,它們曾經阻礙我們,使我們無法承認完整自我的最內在的內涵的重要性,以及它的潛力的實現或是沒有實現,對於個人的重要性,當他在決定是否他感覺心理有病或是他感覺是健康。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
http;//springhero.wordpress.com

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