內視,同理心,及精神健康的半圓 03

Introspection, Empathy, and the Semi-Circle of Mental Health. (1982)
Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 63:395-407 (IJP)
Introspection, Empathy, and the Semi-Circle of Mental Health
Heinz Kohut

內視,同理心,及精神健康的半圓
海因茲、科胡特

195
SUMMARY
綱要

Let me first support my claim 宣稱that the assertion 主張 that the presence of empathy per se 本身 is beneficial 有利 is a scientific hypothesis 假設and not an outgrowth 產物 of vague 模糊 sentimentality 情感or mysticism 神秘主義. It is the former 前者because it suggests an explanation for certain observable contents內容 and/or sequences 系列 of events in man’s psychic 心靈life; it is not the latter 後者because it is not the expression of hopes or wishes and/or of an openly espoused 擁護 or more or less hidden morality. 道德

讓我首先支持我的宣稱:同理心本身的存在是有利的這個主張,是一種科學的假設,而不是模糊的情感或神秘主義的產物。這是前者,因為它建議在人的心靈生命裏,解釋某種可觀察的內容,以及(或是)事件的系列。這不是後者,因為它並不是一種公開被擁護,或有點隱藏的道德,希望或願望的表達。

For the rest, in view of the fact that I am basically 基本上 dealing today, at least in the first part of my presentation 呈現, with experience-distant, epistemological 認識論的 considerations about the interrelationship 相互關係between empathy as a mode 模式of observation 觀察 and psychoanalytic theory, I will restrict 限制myself to enumerating 列舉a number of concrete 具體examples of the beneficial 有利effect of the mere presence of empathy 神入to which I have referred in my writings. I will first mention my hypothesis 假設that the fear of death and the fear of psychosis精神病 are, in many instances, the expression of the fear of the loss of the empathic milieu 周圍環境that in responding 回應to the self keeps it psychologically alive. Secondly I will adduce 引用 again the experiences of the astronauts 太空人when their space capsule太空船艙 seemed out of control 失去控制, an episode 軼事 which I described in my correspondence 通信with Professor Erich Heller. Thirdly I will again call attention to the psychologically destructive毀滅性的 effect of having faced impersonal 客觀, dehumanized 除掉人性的 ‘extermination’ 毀滅experienced by those who survived 存貨the Nazi 納粹concentration camps 集中營is opposed to the far less psychologically destructive 毀滅的experience of having been exposed 暴露於to impassioned 冷靜hate-motivated 被仇恨的killing.

至於其餘,由於我今天正在處理的這個事實,至少在我演講的第一部分,以遠距經驗,認識論的考慮,關於同理心作為一種觀察模式,及精神分析理論的互動關,我將限制於列舉許多的具體例子,關於我在著作中提到的,僅是同理心的存在就能產生的影響。我將首先提到我的假設:對於死亡的恐懼及對於精神病的恐懼,在許多例子裏,都是在表達對於同理心環境喪失的恐懼。在跟完整自我作回應時,這種同理心的環境會保持同理心的鮮活。其次,我將會再一次引用太空人的經驗,當他們的太空船艙似乎失去控制時。我描述這件軼事,在我跟阿瑞奇、黑樂教授通信時。第三,我將再一次提醒注意:那些納粹集中營的浩劫餘生者,所經歷的無情的泯沒人性的「滅絕」,產生的心理上毀滅性的影響,跟曾經暴露於被仇恨煽起的冷血殺戮,心理上比較不那麼具有毀滅性的經驗,對立並存。

– 398 –
And I remind you of the artistic renditions 表演 of the experience of exposure 暴露to the total 完全absence 欠缺of empathy 神人 (mainly by Kafka, as in Metamorphosis 變形記, but also by O’Neill, as in Long Day’s Journey into Night

我提醒你們:暴露于同理心的完全欠缺的這個經驗,卻仍然巧妙地演出,(舉其犖犖大者,如卡夫卡的「蛻變」,奧尼爾的「長夜迢迢日漫漫」)。

And, finally, I will refer to the significance 重要性 for self-development of the shift轉變 from the sustaining 維持effect of early empathy-informed physical contact 接觸between mother and child (that is, contact which occurs without direct, discrete 分離的 ‘responses’ on the part of the mother) to the sustaining 維持effect of the mother’s empathic 神人response 回應itself (as when the child moves away and, turning around, sees the mother’s face expressing pride in the child’s achievement). And alternately 輪流地 I will mention that the shift from the sustenance 維持supplied 供應by the analyst’s ‘understanding’ to the sustenance signified 表示by his ‘explaining’ can be understood as a shift 轉變from a lower to a higher form of empathy, analogous類同 to the aforementioned 前述的 shift 轉變in early development.

最後,我將提到這個轉變的自我的發展的重要性,從母親與小孩之間的早期同理心啟動的身體的接觸,產生持續的影響開始,(換句話說,在母親這一邊,這些接觸發生並沒有直接及分離的回應),到母親同理心回應的本身的持續的影響,(例如,當小孩走開,然後轉身,看到母親的臉上表現驕傲,對於小孩的成就。)輪流地,我將提到:從精神分析師的「理解」供應的支援,到他的「解釋」表示的支持,這種轉變被瞭解為從低層次形式的同理心,到高層次形式的同理心的轉變。類同於前述的在早期發展的轉變。

It is with the foregoing 前述的considerations in mind that I will now return to the scientific ‘high road’, to empathy 神入as a mode of observation 觀察, in order to spell out 說明once more the essential 基本的content 內容of my original essay on empathy. Specifically明確地說, I will give you my reasons for undertaking 從事the epistemological 認識investigation 研究of the analyst’s observational stance 態度, for my conclusion 結論 that psychoanalysis cannot do anything but employ the introspective-empathic 內觀神入stance 態度, and that it must, therefore, be a psychology, and, finally, for my assessment 評估of the pragmatic 實用consequences 結果that were brought about 導致by the consistent 一貫的application 應用of the new theory concerning關於 the operationally 運作 defined 定義basis on which analysis rests 依靠

記住前述的考慮,我現在將回到科學的「高端道路」,將同理心作為一種觀察到模式,為了要再一次說明,我原先探討同理心的論文的基本內容。明確地說,我將跟你們說明我的理由:我什麼我從事認識論研究精神分析師的觀察態度?以及我的結論:精神分析學無法從事別的,除了就是使用內視與同理心的態度。而且,精神分析學必須是一門心理學。最後,我要說明,這個理論的一貫運用促成的實用結果,我所做的評估,因為它關係到精神分析學賴以成立的運作定義的基礎。

What prompted me to undertake an epistemological investigation concerning the quintessence of psychoanalysis? What prompted me, in other words, to undertake a venture in basic theorizing that in general is not to my taste? It was my growing discomfort with the fact that the significance of the quintessential best in psychoanalysis was being increasingly downplayed by modern analysis and that this process was taking place without anyone’s seemingly knowing about it or, at least, without anyone’s openly acknowledging its very consequential and, in my judgment, deleterious presence. While it is not only legitimate but, of course, even desirable to apply psychoanalysis to biology and social psychology, as I saw already then with reasonable clarity and as I have since then come to see more clearly still, these exports beyond the bounds of the basic rule were not acknowledged as such. Instead it was simply taken for granted that these new developments which will provide conspicuous examples immediately were true expansions of analysis itself.

是什麼激發我從事認識論的研究,關於精神分析學的本質?換句話說,是什麼激發我以通常並非我的喜好的基本理論從事探索?那是因為我對於這個事實,逐漸感到很不自在:精神分析學最精髓部分的重要性,漸漸受到現代精神分析學的貶低。而且這種過程正在發生,似乎沒有任何人警覺到。或至少,沒有任何人公開地承認它造成的後果,依我的判斷,是有害的存在。雖然將精神分析學應用到生物學及社會心理學不但是合理,當然還是被渴望,我卻已經清楚明白地看出,從此以後,更是漸漸看得更加透徹:基本規則的範圍之外的報導並沒于如實地被承認。代替的,這些新的發展是精神分析本身的擴展,雖然它們將會供應顯著的例理。這件事被視為是理所當然。

I selected the examples that I will mention now for two reasons. First, having been formulated by outstanding minds and with courageous directness, they are easy to discern. Second, because, so far as I can judge in retrospect, they were the actual triggers that led me from my overall vague discomfort with the developments that analysis had undergone to the decisive scientific action, embodied in my essay of 1959.

我選擇我現在將會提到的例子,因為兩個理由。首先,因為它們曾經由傑出的心靈帶著勇敢的坦率說明過,所有它們很容易辨認。其次,根據我回顧判斷,它們是實際的啟動者,引導我脫離全面性的朦朧的局促不安,這是精神分析學曾經經歷的,為了採取在1959年我的論文具體呈現的決定性的科學的行動。

The examples that I will adduce are the following three. First and foremost, Franz Alexander’s application of psychoanalysis to biology, in particular his explanation of the various medical syndromes that he had selected for depth-psychological investigation via the pivotal concept of the vector of ‘the drives’. Secondly, Alexander’s application of psychoanalysis to social psychology, in particular his explanation of large sectors of human behaviour via the pivotal concept of man’s oral-drive-fuelled inclination toward ‘dependence’. And thirdly, Heinz Hartmann’s introduction of the pivotal concept of an ‘adaptive point of view’ as an expansion of psychoanalysis, I stress, not as an application of psychoanalysis to the field of social psychology.

我將會引用的例子是底下三個。首先最為重要的是法蘭茲、亞歷山大將精神分析下應用到生物,特別是他對於各種醫學病徵的解釋。這些病徵,他曾經挑選作為深度心理學的研究,透過「欲望驅力」的引導的軸心觀念。其次,亞歷山大應用精神分析學到社會心理學,特別是他對於人類行為的巨大引導大解釋,經由人類的口腔驅力激起朝向「依賴」的傾向的軸心觀念。第三,海因茲、哈德曼的軸心觀念的介紹「適應觀點」,作為精神分析學的擴展。我強調一下,不是作為精神分析學應用到社會心理學的領域。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
http://springhero.wordpress.com

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