內視,同理心,及精神健康的半圓 02

Introspection, Empathy, and the Semi-Circle of Mental Health. (1982)
Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 63:395-407 (IJP)
Introspection, Empathy, and the Semi-Circle of Mental Health
Heinz Kohut

內視,同理心,及精神健康的半圓
海因茲、科胡特

195
SUMMARY
綱要

What does my 1959 essay discuss, what was its objective 目標? The answer to this question was spelled out 解釋in its title. It was to be ‘An examination of the relationship between mode of observation 觀察 and theory’. I did not write about empathy as a psychic activity. I did not write about empathy as associated with any specific 明確emotion 情感 such as, in particular, compassion同情 or affection 感情. It may be motivated 引發動機 by, and used in the service of, hostile-destructive 敵意及毀滅 aims. I did not write about empathy as associated with intuition 直覺.

我1959年的論文討論什麼?它的目標是什麼?這個問題的回答從它的標題可獲得解釋:這篇論文是要「檢視觀察模式與理論的關係」。我沒有寫到同理心作為心靈的活動。我沒有寫到同理心,作為跟任何明確情感的聯想,譬如,特別是同情心或情感。同理心的激發及使用,在於服侍敵意–毀滅的目標。我並沒有寫到同理心,作為跟直覺的聯想。

As is the case with extrospection , it may, occasionally, be used seemingly intuitively 直覺by experts: that is, via 經由mental processes 過度of observation that identify 辨認complex 複雜configurations 形態pre-consciously and at great speed. But mostly, certainly in psychoanalysis, empathy is used non-intuitively 非直覺, ploddingly 孜孜工作, if you wish, by trial and error.嘗試與錯誤 I did not write about empathy as being always correct and accurate 正確.

如同在外視的情況,有時它似乎被專家直覺地使用,也就是,經觀察到精神過程,前意識地而且快速地辨認複雜的形態。但是大部分來說,確實就是在精神分析學,同理心是非直覺地,孜孜不倦地,嘗試與錯誤地被使用。我並沒有書寫同理心,當著總是正確無誤。

As is the case with extrospection and external 外在reality, introspection and empathy may misperceive 錯誤 the psychic reality we scrutinize 審查(already on the level of data collection), either because we are guided by erroneous錯誤 expectations, by misleading theories that distort 扭曲our perception, or because we are not sufficiently充分 conscientious用心 and rigorous嚴格 in immersing沉浸于 ourselves for protracted延長 periods in the field of our observation觀察. We must, in other words, be able to tolerate 容忍uncertainty and to postpone 拖延our closures. 封閉

就外視及外在的現實的情況而言,內視及同理心可能會錯誤地感受我們審查的心靈的現實(已經是在資料收集的層次),要就是我們被錯誤的期望,誤導的理論所引導,這些理論扭曲我們的感覺。要不就是因為我們沒有充分地用心及嚴謹,當我們自己沉浸於我們觀察領域過分長久。換句話說,我們必須能夠容忍不確定,並拖延我們心靈的封閉。

But now, while I could, of course, go on and enlarge擴大 the list of the areas that I did not address處理 in my original essay, I will turn from the negative 負面to the positive正面 , from telling you what I did not say in 1959 to what, in fact, I said. I will begin with a general statement 陳述. There are, to speak descriptively 描述第 and implying no value judgment whatever, two roads in science. Let me call them the high road and the low road in science. The low road is the empirical 試驗stance態度的data 資料collection and experience-near theory vis-a-vis 面對面 the field that is investigated.

但是現在,我當然能夠繼續並且擴大,我原先論文沒有處理的這些地區的名單。我將從負面到正面,從告訴您們在1959年我沒有說的部分,到事實上我說出的部分。我將會以一般性的陳述開始。描述地,而且根本不含價值判斷地說,科學有兩條道路。讓我稱它們為科學的高端道路跟低端道路。低端道路是試驗性態度資料收集,及鄰近經驗理論,跟被研究的領域面面相覷。

The high road is the epistemological 認識stance 態度. It examines the relationship between the data already collected and, especially, the relationship between the experience-near theories that have already been formulated 說明. On the basis of these cognitive 認知 manoeuvres 策略 , it formulates 說明a broad and comprehensive 全面的 experience-distant 遙遠經驗theory. I believe that science needs to proceed 繼續on both of these roads. I rebel against 反叛 a purely speculative 推測的stance 態度when theory is built upon theory and the observation of the field is neglected 忽略.

高端道路上認識論的態度。它檢視已經收集的資料之間的關係,特別是已經被說明的鄰近經驗理論之間的關係。根據這些認知策略的基礎,它說明一個寬廣而全面性的遠距經驗理論。我相信,科學需要繼續沿著這兩條道路前進。我反抗的是一種純粹推測的態度,以理論建立在理論之上,而對於領域的觀察則是被忽略。

But I also know that every science must be aware of the experience-distant theories that provide the framework for its experience-near investigations and that it must, from time to time, re-examine the experience-distant theories it has espoused 擁護even those that seem so basic to its outlook 外觀that they are hardly considered to be theories anymore. Luckily, there is a voice in us that will tell us, however dimly we may perceive it at first, and however reluctant 不願意we may be to acknowledge承認 its message, that the time has come for us to question our basic theories. This voice will, in general, speak to us after we have been, persistently 持續地and increasingly, uncomfortable with the pragmatic 實用的results that we have been obtaining 獲得. It is then that we should move from the low road of pragmatism 實用主義to the high road of epistemology 認識論only to return to the first in order to test the new theoretical vantage 最佳的 point, that we may now have adopted 採用.
但是我也知道,每個科學必須知道遠距經驗的理論。這種理論提供架構給它的鄰近經驗的研究,有時它必須重新檢視它曾經擁護的遠距經驗,甚至是那些對它的外觀似乎如此基本的,以致於幾乎不再被認為是理論。幸運地,我們內心有一個聲音會告訴我們,無論起初我們只是模糊地感覺到它,無論我們多麼不願意承認它的訊息,我們質問我們基本理論的時間已經來到。一般來說,這個聲音會跟我們說,在我們持續而且逐漸地,對於我們一直獲得的實用結果,感覺不自在。就在那時,我們應該從實用主義的低端道路,轉移到認識論的高端道路。結果卻是回到低端道路,為了要測試新的理論最佳面相點,那是我們可能已經採用的。

In order to prevent confusion let me stress 強調here that during the first half of today’s presentation I will be primarily talking about empathy in the context 內容 in which I had used it in my 1959 paper and in which I have continued to use it, until very recently, almost entirely (for exceptions cf. Kohut, 1973a), (1973b). I will, in other words, be talking about empathy in an epistemological 認識論context. In this context, as should go without saying, empathy is a value-neutral 價值中立mode of observation; a mode of observation attuned適合於 to the inner life of man, just as extrospection 外觀is a mode of observation attuned to the external 外在的world.

為了阻擋混淆,讓我在此強調,在今天演講的前面一半,我將首先討論內容的同理心部分。這是在1959年的論文我曾經用過。後來我繼續使用它。直到最近,我幾乎是全部使用它。(1973a年及1973b 那兩篇例外)。換句話說,我將會從認識論的內容,來討論同理心。在這個內容裏,自不待言的是,同理心是一種價值中立的觀察模式,一種適合於人的內在生命的觀察模式。正如外視是一種觀察模式,適合於外在模式。

– 397 –
It is true, however, that, as I mentioned earlier, empathy can and should also be examined and evaluated 評估in an empirical 試驗性地 context as a mental 精神的activity, whether employed 運用in everyday life or in scientific pursuits 追求. And I have indeed, very recently, begun to look upon empathy from this point of view, complex 複雜but still manageable 可處理 undertaking 從事, if one keeps in mind that even with regard to關於 this ‘low road’, that is, with regard to this experience-near approach, we must differentiate區別 between two levels: (a) empathy as an information-gathering activity, and (b) empathy as a powerful emotional 情感的bond 契合between people. Before addressing 處理myself, as I did in 1959, to the role of empathy in the most experience-distant, epistemological 認識論sense, let me therefore briefly consider the specifics 明確 of the examination of empathy in these latter two more experience-near contexts 內容.

可是,確實的,如同我早先提到,同理心能夠而且應該在試驗性地內容被檢視及評估,,作為一種精神的活動,無論是被運用在日常的生活,或是在從事科學的追求。的確在最近,我曾經開始從這個觀點看待同理心。這是複雜但是還是可以掌控的從事,假如我們心裏記住,即使關於這個「低端道路」,也就是說,關於鄰近經驗的方法,我們必須區別兩個層次:其一,同理心作為一種收集資訊的活動;其二,同理心作為一種人際之間的強烈的情感默契。如同1959年,我從最遠距經驗的認識論的意義,先處理同理心扮演的角色。因此讓我簡短地考慮到對於同理心的檢視的明確細節,在這兩個更加鄰近經驗的內容裏。

As an information-collecting, data-gathering 收集資料 activity, empathy, as I have stressed 強調many times since 1971, can be right or wrong, in the service of compassion同情 or hostility 敵意, pursued 追求slowly and ploddingly 孜孜不倦or ‘intuitively’直覺, that is, at great speed. In this sense empathy is never by itself supportive 支持or therapeutic 治療. It is, however, a necessary precondition先決條件 to being successfully supportive 支持 and therapeutic 治療. In other words, even if a mother’s empathy is correct and accurate 正確, even if her aims are affectionate 情感, it is not her empathy that satisfies her child’s selfobject needs. Her actions, her responses 回應to the child will do this. In order, however, to achieve their end properly, these actions and responses have to be guided by correct and accurate 正確empathy. Empathy is thus a precondition 先決條件for a mother’s appropriate 適當functioning 功用as the child’s selfobject, 自我客體 it informs parental selfobject function vis-a-vis 面對面the child, but it is not, by itself, the selfobject function 功用that is needed by the child.

作為收集資訊,收集資料的活動,如同我自從19971年曾經強調好幾次,無論對錯,同理心能夠服侍同情或敵意,緩慢而孜孜不倦,或「直覺地」追求,換句話說,快速地追求。以這個意義,同理心本身從來不是支持或是治療。可是,對於要成功地支持及治療,它是一個先決條件。換句話說,即使母親的同理心是正確無誤,即使她的目標是情感,滿足她的小孩自身客體的需要,並不是同理心。她對於小孩的行動與回應,將可以滿足這個需要。可是,為了適當地達成它們的目標,這些行動與回應必須由正確無誤的同理心引導。同理心因此是母親適當充當小孩的自身客體功用的先決條件,它跟小孩當面告知父母親的自身客體的功用。它本身並不是小孩需要的自身客體的功用。

I wish that I could stop my discussion of empathy as a concrete 具體的force in human life at this point without having to make one further step which appears to contradict 矛盾everything that I have said so far, and which exposes me to the suspicion 懷疑of abandoning放棄 scientific sobriety 清醒and of entering the land of mysticism 神秘主義or of sentimentality 感傷性. I assure 告訴you that I would like to avoid making this step and that it is not the absence of scientific rigour 精力but submission 順服 to it that forces me to tell you that even though everything I have said up to now remains fully valid有效 so long as we evaluate評估 empathy as an instrument 工具of observation and as an informer of supportive 支持, therapeutic 治療and psychoanalytic action (in therapeutic analysis the action is called interpretation 解釋), I must now, unfortunately, add that empathy per se, the mere presence of empathy, has also a beneficial 有利, in a broad sense, a therapeutic 治療effect both in the clinical setting 背景and in human life, in general.

我但願,我能夠在這個時候停止我對於同理心的討論,當著述人類生命的具體力量,而不必須再跨前一步,把我迄今所說的一切,似乎弄得互相牴觸。向前一步會將我承受這種懷疑:我是在放棄科學的清晰態度,並且進入神秘主義或情感作用的領域。我告訴你們,我真想要避免跨出這一步。不是由於欠缺科學的精神,而是遵照科學的精神,我不得不告訴大家:即使我迄今所說的一切,始終充分有效,只要我們評估同理心,作為一種觀察的工具,及作為支持,治療及精神分析的行動(在治療的精神分析,這個行動被稱為解釋)。不幸地,我現在必須補充一句:同理心本身,僅是同理心的存在,廣義來說,就已經有治療的效果,在臨床的背景及一般的人際相處。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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