巴岱伊論尼采 24

Bataille 24

Bataille on Nietzsche
巴岱伊論尼采
PART II
Summit and Decline
巔峰與衰微
V
Juxtaposed with these propositions, the essence of “popular morality” is most clearly brought to the fore when dealing with sexual license.

跟這些假設平行比列,「通俗道德」的本質顯而易見地突顯出來,當我們在處理性的容許問題。

To the extent human beings take it on themselves to give others a rule of life, they must make an appeal to merit, propose the good of being as an end that finds accomplishment in the time to come.

隨著人類自己承擔起這個責任,給予別人一套生活的規範,他們必須訴諸于美德,建議生命的實存的善,作為在未來的時間找到成就的目的。

If my life is threatened for some comprehensible good–for instance, for the nation or a useful cause–my behavior is deserving and is popularly considered moral. And for the same reasons I’ll kill and wreck havoc in conformity to moral law.

假如我的生命因為可理解的善受到威脅,例如,因為國家或是一個有用的目標,我們的行為應該的值得,而且通常會被稱為道德。同樣的理由,為了要與道德法則相一致,我將殺戮及召致混亂。

In another area, squandering resources through gambling and drinking is wrong: though it’s right to improve the fate of the poor.

在另一個地區,透過賭博及飲酒耗費資源是不對的,雖然改善窮人的命運的正確的。

Blood sacrifice itself is execrated (a cruel waste). But the object of the greatest loathing is the freedom of the senses.

血的犧牲本身被憎恨(一種殘酷的浪費)。但是最大的憎惡毒目標,是各種感官的自由。

Sexual life considered in relation to these ends is almost entirely excess–a savage eruption toward an inaccessible summit-exuberance as essential opposition to concerns for the time to come. The nothingness of obscenity can’t be subjected to anything. The fact that it’s not a cancellation of existence but only a notion, and one resulting from contact, far from alleviates, and actually increases the disapproval generally felt. It is unrelated to value. It is not as if the erotic summit is something heroic attained at the cost of harsh sufferings. Clearly, the results bear no relation to the efforts. Only chance seems in charge here.

跟這些目標相關的考慮的性的生活,幾乎完全就是過度—一種野蠻的爆發,朝向一個無法接近的高峰—豐沛作為一種基本的對立,跟時時的關心—卑賤的空無無法被隸屬於任何東西。那不是生命實存的取消,而僅是一種觀念,一個由於接觸而來的觀念,絲毫沒有緩和,實際上是增加一般感受到的不贊同。它跟價值沒有關係。好像性愛的高峰時是某件獲得的東西,以嚴酷的痛苦作為代價。顯而易見,這些結果跟努力沒有什麼關係。在此掌控的似乎僅是機率。

Chance plays a role in wartime disorders-though effort and courage assign the appreciable part to merit. War’s tragical aspects, in contrast with the laughable indecencies of lovemaking, have the effect of raising the tone of morality, which extols war (and economic profits) to the detriment of any sensual life. I am afraid that I still haven’t clearly enough demonstrated the naïveté of a moral bias. The weightier argument stresses the benefit to family life, which is clearly injured by sensual excess. Constantly identified with the harshness of moral yearnings, concern for the integrity of beings is painfully demonstrated.

機率在戰時的混亂扮演一個角色—雖然努力跟勇氣指定這個可稱讚的部分給美德。對比於作愛的可笑的猥褻,戰爭的悲劇的層面,擁有提升道德語調的效果。道德語調頌揚戰爭(及經濟利益),結果傷害到任何感官的生命。對於一種道德的偏見的率真,恐怕我依舊還沒有足夠清楚地證實。還有更沉重的主張強調家庭生活的利益,它顯而易見地受到感官過度的傷害。由於不斷地認同與道德渴望的嚴酷,對於人類尊嚴的關心,令人痛苦地被證實。

In popular opinion, the substantive aspect of moral action is its subordination to utility, and the impulses for a yearning to transcend being are related to the good of one’s being. In this view, morality becomes simply a negation of morality. The result of this equivocation is to contrast the good of others with the good of the particular being that I am. In fact, this shift continues to identify a superficial contempt with the deep submission that acts on behalf of being. Evil is egotism–altruism good.

在通俗的意見,道德行動的實質的一面是隸屬於實用,渴望要超越生命實存的欲念衝動,跟一個人的生命實存的善相關。從這個觀點,道德變成僅是道德的否定。這種模棱兩可的結果,是將別人的善,跟作為「我」的特別的生命實存作對比。事實上,這種轉變繼續將表面的藐視,認同是代表生命實存行動的深刻的臣服。邪惡是自我中心,而利他則是善。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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