移情心理學167

Ill
PSYCHOLOGY OF THE TRANSFERENCE
移情心理學167

Carl Jung
卡爾 榮格

INTRODUCTION
導論

Bellica pax, vulnus dulce, suave malum.
(A warring peace, a sweet wound, an agreeable evil.)

JOHN GOWER, Confessio amantis, 57, II, p. 35

戰鬥中的和平,甜蜜的創傷,溫和的邪惡。
—約翰、高威 「懺悔錄」第二冊35頁
353

The fact that the idea of the mystic marriage plays such an important part in alchemy is not so surprising when we remember that the term most frequently employed for it, coniunctio, referred in the first place to what we now call chemical combination, and that the substances or “bodies” to be combined were drawn together by what we would call affinity.

在鍊金術扮演如此重要部分的神秘的結合的觀念,這個事實並沒有那麼令人吃驚,當我們想到,這個術語經常被使用來表達它,「身體跟聖靈的結合」,首先被提到我們現在所謂的化學的結合,應該被結合的這些物質,或是「身體」,由我們所謂的親密關係聚攏一塊。

In days gone by, people used a variety of terms which all expressed a human, and more particularly an erotic, relationship, such as nuptiae, matrimonium, coniugium, amicitia, attractio, adulatio.

在以往日子,人們使用各種表達人的術語,更加特別是一種神秘的關係,諸如nuptiae, matrimonium, coniugium, amicitia, attractio, adulatio.

Accordingly the bodies to be combined were thought of as agens et patiens, as vir or masculus, and as femina, mulier, femineus; or they were described more picturesquely as dog and bitch, horse (stallion) and donkey, cock and hen, and as the winged or wingless dragon.

因此,應該被結合的身體被認為是agens et patiens, as vir or masculus, and as femina, mulier, femineus,或者它們更加生動地被描述,當作是狗或是母狗,馬及驢子,公雞及母雞,作為有翅膀或是沒有翅膀的龍。

The more anthropomorphic and theriomorphic the terms become, the more obvious is the part played by creative fantasy and thus by the unconscious, and the more we see how the natural philosophers of old were tempted, as their thoughts explored the dark, unknown qualities of matter, to slip away from a strictly chemical investigation and to fall under the spell of the “myth of matter.” Since there can never be absolute freedom from prejudice, even the most objective and impartial investigator is liable to become
the victim of some unconscious assumption upon going into a region where the darkness has never been illuminated and where he can recognize nothing.

這些術語越是像人類,越是像獸形,創造的幻想,因此也是無意識,扮演的部分越是顯而易見。我們看到,古代的自然主義哲學家越是被誘惑。當他們的思想探索黑暗,未知的物質品質,從嚴格的化學的探究溜走,然後滑落在「物質神話」的魔力之下。因為永遠不會有絕對待自由,避開偏見,甚至最客觀,最沒有偏見的研究員,也傾向於變成是無意識假設的受害者,當他進入一個黑暗從來沒有被啟明的領域,在那裏,他什麼也不認識。

This need not necessarily be a misfortune, since the idea which then presents itself as a substitute for the unknown will take the form of an archaic though not inapposite analogy. Thus Kekule’s vision of the dancing couples, which first put him on the track of the structure of certain carbon compounds, namely the benzene ring, was surely a vision of the coniunctio, the mating that had preoccupied the minds of the alchemists for seventeen centuries.

這個未必是一種不幸,因為這個觀念呈現本身,為一種對於未知的代替。採取的形式,是一種過時,雖然不是不適合的類比。因此,凱庫勒對於跳舞夫妻的幻象,起初讓他去追求某些碳合物的結構。換句話說,也就是苯酯的環圈,那確實是一種結合的幻象。十七世紀來,讓金術師的心靈全神貫注地結合。

It was precisely this image that had always lured the mind of the investigator away from the problem of chemistry and back to the ancient myth of the royal or divine marriage; but in Kekule’s vision it reached its chemical goal in the end, thus
rendering the greatest imaginable service both to our understanding of organic compounds and to the subsequent unprecedented advances in synthetic chemistry.

確實就是這個意象,總是引誘研究者的心靈脫離化學的問題,回到古代皇家或神祗婚姻結合的神話。但是在凱庫勒的幻象,它最後到達它的化學的目標,因此提供我們所能想像的最大服務,讓我們瞭解有機成分,及隨後在綜合化學前所未有的進步。

Looking back, we can say that the alchemists had keen noses when they made this
arcanum arcanorumf this donum Dei et secretum altissimi, this inmost mystery of the art of gold-making, the climax of their work. The subsequent confirmation of the other idea central to gold-making— the transmutability of chemical elements also
takes a worthy place in this belated triumph of alchemical thought.

當我們回顧起來,我們能夠說,鍊金術師有敏銳的鼻子,當他們在探究這個作品,這個神的聖禮,這個製造黃金的內在秘密,他們工作的高潮。對於製造黃金很重要的另外一個觀念,隨後獲得證實。那就是化學的元素可以轉換,具有舉足輕重的地位,在後來鍊金術思想獲得發揚光。

Considering the eminently practical and theoretical importance of these two key ideas, we might well conclude that they were intuitive anticipations whose fascination can be explained in the light of later developments.

當我們考慮到這兩個關鍵的觀念,顯而易見具有實際及理論的重要性,我們很有理由下結論:它們是直覺的預期。這些預期之所以迷人,可以從後來的發展獲得解釋。

354
We find, however, that alchemy did not merely change into chemistry by gradually discovering how to break away from its mythological premises, but that it also became, or had always been, a kind of mystic philosophy. The idea of the coniunctio
served on the one hand to shed light on the mystery of chemical combination, while on the other it became the symbol of the unio mystica, since, as a mythologem, it expresses the archetype of the union of opposites. Now the archetypes do not
represent anything external, non-psychic, although they do of course owe the concreteness of their imagery to impressions received from without. Rather, independently of, and sometimes in direct contrast to, the outward forms they may take, they represent the life and essence of a non-individual psyche.

可是,我們發現,鍊金術並不僅改變成為化學,由於漸漸發現到如何脫離它的神話的假設。但是它也成為,或總是成為一門神秘哲學。「結合」的觀念,一方面充當化學結合的神秘的啟明。另一方面,它成為神秘主義的象徵。作為一神話主題,它表達對立元素的結合點原型。現在,這些原型並沒有代表任何外在及非心靈的東西,雖然它們確實將它們意象的具體性,歸功於從外在接收到印象。相反地,獨立於,或有時候直接對比於,它們可能形成的外在的形式,它們代表非個人的心靈的生命跟本質。

Although this psyche is innate in every individual it can neither be modified nor possessed by him personally. It is the same in the individual as it is in the crowd and ultimately in everybody. It is the precondition of each individual psyche, just as the sea is the carrier of the individual wave.

雖然這種心靈在每個個人都是與生俱來,它既無法被修改,也無法被他個人所擁有。在個人,如同在群眾,最後如同在每個人,道理都是一樣。這是每一個個人心靈的預設條件,如同海洋是個人波浪的承載者。

355
The alchemical image of the coniunctio, whose practical importance was proved at a later stage of development, is equally valuable from the psychological point of view: that is to say, it plays the same role in the exploration of the darkness of the psyche as it played in the investigation of the riddle of matter. Indeed, it could never have worked so effectively in the material world had it not already possessed the power to fascinate and thus to fix the attention of the investigator along those lines.

「結合」的鍊金術意象,它的實際的重要性,在發展的晚期階段被證實。從心理學的觀念,它是同樣有價值。換句話說,它扮演相同的角色,在探討心靈的黑暗。如同它扮演的角色,在研究物質的謎團。的確,假如它不是已經擁有這個力量,
來吸引人,假如沿著那些探討途徑,它沒有凝聚研究者的注意力,它本來無法在物質的世界有效地行得通。

The coniunctio is an a priori image which has always occupied an important place in man’s mental development. If we trace this idea back we find it has two sources in alchemy, one Christian, the other pagan. The Christian source is unmistakably the doctrine of Christ and the Church, sponsus and sponsa, where Christ takes the role of Sol and the Church that of Luna.

「結合」是一個先驗的意象,在人的精神發展,總是據有舉足輕重的地位。假如我們發現它在鍊金術有兩個資源,一個是基督教,另一個是異教徒。基督教的來源清楚無誤是耶穌與教會的信條,耶穌扮演太陽的角色,教會則是扮演月亮的角色。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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