移情心理學164

Ill
PSYCHOLOGY OF THE TRANSFERENCE
移情心理學164

Carl Jung
卡爾 榮格

INTERPRETED IN CONJUNCTION WITH
A SET OF ALCHEMICAL ILLUSTRATIONS

根據一套鍊金術的說明解釋

Quaero non pono, nihil hie determine) dictans
Coniicio, conor, confero, tento, rogo. . . .

(I inquire, I do not assert; I do not here
determine anything -with final assurance; I
conjecture, try, compare, attempt, ask. . . .)

—Motto to the Adumbratio Kabbalae Christianas

「我詢問,我沒有主張,我在此並不是要斬釘截鐵地決定任何東西。
我推測,設法,比較,企圖,詢問、、、」

—獻給予克麗蒂娜的箴言

TO MY WIFE

獻給我的妻子

FOREWORD

序言

Everyone who has had practical experience of psychotherapy knows that the process which Freud called “transference” often presents a difficult problem. It is probably no exaggeration to say that almost all cases requiring lengthy treatment gravitate
round the phenomenon of transference, and that the success or failure of the treatment appears to be bound up with it in a very fundamental way. Psychology, therefore, cannot very well overlook or avoid this problem., nor should the psychotherapist
pretend that the so-called “dissolution of the transference” is just a matter of course.

對於心理治療有過實踐經驗的人,都知道,佛洛伊德所謂「移情」的過程,往往會呈現一個困難的問題。容我們不算誇張地說:幾乎所有要求漫長治療的個案,都環繞著移情的現象運轉。治療的成功或失敗,似乎跟移情基本上息息相關。因此,心理學沒有充分理由忽略或避免這個問題。心理治療師也不應該假裝:所謂的「移情的消失」僅是一件天經地義的事情。

We meet with a similar optimism in the treatment of “sublimation,” a process closely connected with the transference. In discussing these phenomena, people often
talk as though they could be dealt with by reason, or by intelligence and will, or could be remedied by the ingenuity and art of a doctor armed with superior technique. This euphemistic and propitiatory approach is useful enough when the situation is not exactly simple and no easy results are to be had; but it has the disadvantage of disguising the difficulty of the problem and thus preventing or postponing deeper investigation.

在治療「昇華」時,我們面臨相同的樂觀,因為「昇華」是跟移情密切相關的過程。當我們討論這些現象,人們時常談論,好像這些現象能夠以理性,或是以智慧及意志來處理。或是以具備優異醫術的醫生的機智及仁術來補救。當病情確實並不簡單,無法獲得單純的解決結果,這種委婉及疏解的方法非常有用。但是它的缺點是偽裝問題的困難,因此阻擋或拖延更深入的研究。

Although I originally agreed with Freud that the importance of the transference could hardly be overestimated, increasing experience has forced me to realize that its importance is relative.

雖然我原先同意佛洛伊德的說法:移情的重要性,我們幾乎是無論如何強調也不為過。可是,隨著經驗越來越豐富,我不得不體會到:移情的重要性是相對的。

The transference is like those medicines which are a panacea for one and pure poison for another. In one case its appearance denotes a change for the better, in another it is a hindrance and an aggravation, if not a change for the worse, and in a third it is relatively unimportant. Generally speaking, however, it is a critical phenomenon of varying shades of meaning and its absence is as significant as its presence.

移情就像那些醫藥,對於某個人是萬靈仙丹,對於另外一個人卻是毒藥。在某個個案,移情的表像指明朝痊癒的轉變,在另外一個個案,它是一種阻礙與變得嚴重,即使不是每況愈下。在第三個個案,它卻是比較微不足道。可是,一般說來,這是一個具有差別程度的意義的緊要的現象,沒有移情跟擁有移情都是同樣重要。

In this book I am concerned with the “classical” form of transference and its phenomenology. As it is a form of relationship, it always implies a vis-a-vis. Where it is negative or not there at all,the vis-a-vis plays an unimportant part, as is generally the case, for instance, when there is an inferiority complex coupled with a compensating need for self-assertion.

在本書裏,我關心移情及其現象的「古典的」形式。因為這是一種關係的形式,它總是暗示著正面相對。當移情是負面,或是根本就沒有移情,這種正面相對扮演一個微不足道的角色,如通常發生的狀況。例如,當有自卑情結加上對於自我主張有補償性的需求。

It may seem strange to the reader that, in order to throw light on the transference, I should turn to something so apparently remote as alchemical symbolism. But anyone who has read my book Psychology and Alchemy will know what close connections exist between alchemy and those phenomena which must, for practical reasons, be considered in the psychology of the unconscious.

讀者可能覺的奇怪,為來啟明移情,我竟然求助於諸如鍊金術符號象徵,如此顯然是遙遠的東西。但是若是有人閱讀過我的書「心理學與鍊金術」,他將會知道,在鍊金術語那些現象之間,存在著多麼密切的關係。為了實踐的原因,那些現象必須從無意識的心理學來考慮。

Consequently he will not be surprised to learn that this phenomenon, shown by experience to be so frequent and so important, also has its place in the symbolism and imagery of alchemy. Such images are not likely to be conscious representations of the transference relationship; rather, they unconsciously take that relationship for granted, and for this reason we may use them as an Ariadne thread to guide us in our argument.

結果,他就不會大吃一驚,當他獲知這個現象:精神分析經驗顯示如此頻繁與重要的這個現象,在鍊金術的象徵符號與意象裏,也有它的一席之地。這樣的意象並不可能是移情關係的意識層面的再現。相反的,它們無意識地將那個關係,視為當然。因為這個理由,我們使用它們,作為一種在爭論中,引導我們走出迷宮的線索。

The reader will not find an account of the clinical phenomena of transference in this book. It is not intended for the beginner who would first have to be instructed in such matters, but is addressed exclusively to those who have already gained sufficient experience in their own practice.

在這本書裏,讀者將找不到有關移情的臨床現象的描述。本書並不是為了初學者而寫作,否則他們首先在這樣的事物上,必須接受教導。本書是處理的對象,專門是針對在他們自己的心理治療從業,已經獲得充分經驗的人。

My object is to provide some kind of orientation in this newly discovered and still unexplored territory, and to acquaint the reader with some of its problems. In view of the great difficulties that beset our understanding here, I would like to stress the provisional character of my investigation. I have tried to put together my observations and ideas, and I recommend them to the reader’s consideration in the hope of directing his attention to certain points of view whose importance has forced itself upon me in the course of time. I am afraid that my description will not be easy reading for those who do not possess some knowledge of my earlier works. I have therefore indicated in the footnotes those of my writings which might be of assistance.

我的目標是要提供某種的指向,在這個新被發現,依舊尚未開拓的疆域,並且讓讀者熟悉有關它的一些問題。因為這些巨大的困難,使我們的理解感到困擾,我想要強調,我的研究的特性僅是暫時性的。我曾經設法將我的觀察與觀念聚攏在一塊。我推薦它們讓讀者來從事考慮,希望引導他的注意力,來包含我在研究過程不得不接納的某些觀點。我的描述對於那些並未閱讀有我早期著作的讀者,恐怕是會有些晦澀難懂。因此,我在注釋裏指明我的著作可能會有幫助的那些描述。

The reader who approaches this book more or less unprepared will perhaps be astonished at the amount of historical material I bring to bear on my investigation. The reason and inner necessity for this lie in the fact that it is only possible to come to a right understanding and appreciation of a contemporary psychological problem when we can reach a point outside our own time from which to observe it.

對於未經準備就接觸這本書的讀者,他們或許會大吃一驚,對於我提出跟我的研究有關的歷史的材料的數量之多。我這樣做的理由及內部需要,在於這個事實:只有當我們從我們當代之外,從事觀察,然後到達這一點,我們才有可能對於當代的心理問題,獲得正確的瞭解跟評估。

This point can only be some past epoch that was concerned with the same
problems although under different conditions and in other forms. The comparative analysis here undertaken naturally demands a correspondingly detailed account of the historical aspects of the situation. These could be described much more succinctly if we were dealing with well-known material, where a few references and hints would suffice. But unfortunately that is not the case, since the psychology of alchemy here under review is almost virgin territory. I must therefore take it for granted that the reader has some knowledge of my Psychology and Alchemy, otherwise it will be hard for him to gain access to the present volume.

這一點可能僅是某個過去的時代,關心到跟我們一樣關心的問題,雖然是在不同的情況及以其他的方式。在此自然被從事的這種比較分析,要求一個互相一致的細節的描述,對於情況的歷史的層面。假如我們處理眾所周知的材料,這些細節的描述將會更加簡明,因為只需要一些指稱及暗示就綽綽有餘。但是不幸地,情況並不是這樣。因為在此我們審視的鍊金術的心理學,幾乎是未經開拓的疆域。我因此必須將它視為是當然條件:讀者必須對於我的「鍊金術心理學」,具備某些知識。否則他將會很難進入目前這本述的狀況。

The reader whose professional and personal experience has sufficiently acquainted him with the scope of the transference problem will forgive me this expectation.
Although the present study can stand on its own, it forms at the same time an introduction to a more comprehensive account of the problem of opposites in alchemy,, and of their phenomenology and synthesis* I would like to express my thanks here to all those who read my manuscript and drew my attention to defects. My particular thanks are due to Dr. Marie-Louise von Franz for her generous help.

有些讀者的專業及個人的經驗,已經充分讓他們對於移情問題的範圍耳熟能詳,他們將會原諒我,多此一舉的期盼。雖然目前的研究能夠自圓其說,同時它的形式僅是一種導論,對於鍊金術的對立的問題,還需要有更全面性的描述。關於這些對立的現象及綜合,在此我想要表達我的感激,對於所有那些審視我的原稿,並提醒我注意缺失的那些人。我特別要感謝的是范、法蘭茲醫生,因為她慷概的幫助。

Autumn, 1945 C. G. JUNG

1945年,秋天,卡爾 榮格

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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