夢的精神分析的實際應用 157

II
THE PRACTICAL USE OF DREAM-ANALYSIS
夢的精神分析的實際應用 157

Carl Jung
卡爾 榮格

347
“Horse” is an archetype that is widely current in mythology and folklore. As an animal it represents the non-human psyche, the subhuman, animal side, the unconscious. That is why horses in folklore sometimes see visions, hear voices, and
speak. As a beast of burden it is closely related to the mother archetype (witness the Valkyries that bear the dead hero to Valhalla, the Trojan horse, etc.). As an animal lower than man it represents the lower part of the body and the animal impulses
that rise from there.

「馬」是一個原型,在神話及民間傳說廣泛地流傳。作為動物,它代表這個非人類的心靈,次人類,動物這一邊,及無意識。那就是為什麼在民間傳說的馬,有時會看到幻象,聽到聲音,並且說話。作為載負東西的動物,它跟母親的原型息息相關(見證馬神載負死去的戰士到特洛伊城的木馬,等等)。作為次於人類的動物,馬代表身體較低的部位,從那裏起來的動物的衝動欲念。

The horse is dynamic and vehicular power: it carries one away like a surge of instinct. It is subject to panics like all instinctive creatures who lack higher consciousness.
Also it has to do with sorcery and magical spells especially the black night-horses which herald death.

馬是具有活力及作為運輸的力量。它就像一陣洶湧的本能,載負人離開。它就像欠缺較高意識到所有本能的動物,會經歷驚慌。而且,它必須跟巫術及魔法咒語有關聯,特別是黑色的夜間馬,通報死亡的訊息。

348
It is evident, then, that “horse” is an equivalent of “mother” with a slight shift of meaning. The mother stands for life at its origin, the horse for the merely animal life of the body. If we apply this meaning to the text of our dream, its interpretation
will be: The animal life is destroying itself.

顯而易見,「馬」是「母親」的相等語,意義稍有改變。母親代表生命的起源,馬代表身體的僅是動物的生命。假如我們運用這個意義到我們夢的文本,它的解是將會是:這個動物的生命正在毀滅它自己。

349
The two dreams make nearly identical statements, but, as is usually the case, the second is the more specific. Note the peculiar subtlety of the dream: there is no mention of the death of the individual. It is notorious that one often dreams of one’s
own death, but that is no serious matter. When it is really a question of death, the dream speaks another language.

這兩個夢表達幾乎是相同的陳述。但是,就通常的情形而言,第二個夢更加明確。請注意夢的特別微妙的部分:它們並沒有提到個人的死亡。惡名昭彰的是,我們時常夢見我們自己的死亡,但是那並不是嚴重的事情。當它真的是死亡的問題,夢所說的語言並不一樣。

350
Both dreams point to a grave organic disease with a fatal outcome. This prognosis was soon confirmed.

兩個夢都指向嚴重的器官的疾病,帶有致命的結果。預診不久就被證實。

35 1
As for the relatively fixed symbols, this example gives a fair idea of their general nature. There are a great many of them, and all are individually marked by subtle shifts of meaning.

至於這個相對固定的象徵,這個例子讓我們清楚瞭解這些象徵的一般的性質。這些象徵有很多,一切都是個別被標示,根據意義的微妙改變。

It is only through comparative studies in mythology, folklore, religion, and philology that we can evaluate their nature scientifically. The evolutionary stratification of the psyche is more clearly discernible in the dream than in the conscious mind. In the dream, the psyche speaks in images, and gives expression to instincts, which derive from the most primitive levels of nature.

只有憑藉神話,民間傳說,及文學的比較研究,我們才能夠使用科學方法,評估這些象徵的特質。心靈的進化的階層化,在夢裏,比在意識的心靈裏,更加清楚地被覺察。在夢裏,心靈使用意象談話,並且表達本能。這些本能從自然最原始的層出獲得。

Therefore, through the assimilation of unconscious contents, the momentary life of consciousness can once more be brought into harmony with the law of nature from which it all too easily departs, and the patient can be led back to the natural law of his own being.

因此,透過無意識內容的吸收,意識的暫時的生命,能夠再一次跟自然的法則互相和諧。它很容易脫離自然的法則,而且病人能夠被引導回到他自己生命實存的自然法則。

352
I have not been able, in so short a space, to deal with anything but the elements of the subject, I could not put together before your eyes, stone by stone, the edifice that is reared in every analysis from the materials of the unconscious and finally reaches completion in the restoration of the total personality.

在如此短暫的時間,我所能處理的僅是這個題目的因素。我無法根據無意識的材料,將每一個精神分析所建立的華廈,一石一石地堆聚在你們面前,這個精神分析建立的華廈,在恢復整體人格時,最後將大功告成。

The way of successive assimilations goes far beyond the curative results that specifically concern the doctor. It leads in the end to that distant goal which may perhaps have been the first urge to life: the complete actualization of the whole human being, that is, individuation. We physicians may well be the first conscious observers of this dark process of nature. As a rule we see only the pathological phase of development, and we lose sight of the patient as soon as he is cured. Yet it is only after the cure that we would really be in a position to study the normal process, which may extend over years and decades.

連續的吸收的方式,遠超過明確地跟醫生有關的治療的結果。它最後導致遙遠的目標。這個遙遠的目標可能就是生命的第一階段:整個人類實存的完整的實現,換句話說,就是個體化。我們醫生很有理由是第一位從意識角度,觀察人的天性的這個黑暗的過程。通常,我們看到僅是發展的病理的部分。當病人一被治療好,我們又對他視而不見。

Had we but a little knowledge of the ends toward which the unconscious development is tending, and were the doctor’s psychological insight not drawn exclusively from the pathological phase, we should have a less confused idea of the processes mediated to the conscious mind by dreams and a clearer recognition of what the symbols point to.

假如我們僅是略微知道,無意識發展朝向的這些目的,假如醫生的心理的洞見,沒有被從病理的部分,專注地獲得,我們對於藉由夢,間接傳送給意識心靈的過程,應該有比較清楚的觀念。而且會更清楚地承認象徵指向什麼。

In my opinion, every doctor should understand that every procedure in psychotherapy,
and particularly the analytical procedure, breaks into a purposeful and continuous process of development, now at this point and now at that, and thus singles out separate phases which seem to follow opposing course. Each individual analysis
by itself shows only one part or one aspect of the deeper process, and for this reason nothing but hopeless confusion can result from comparative case histories. .For this reason, too, I have preferred to confine myself to the rudiments of the subject and
to practical considerations;, for only in closest contact with the everyday facts .can we come to anything like a satisfactory understanding,

依我之見,每一位醫生應該瞭解,心理治療的每一個過程,特別是分析的過程,可細分為有目的及繼續的發展過程。有時在這個時刻,有時在那個時刻。醫生因此挑選出似乎會遵照相反途徑的分開的部分。每個個人的精神分析本身顯示的,僅是較深過程的一部分或一方面。也因為這個理由,我比較喜歡限制我自己於這個題目的基礎,及實踐時的考量。因為只有在跟日常的事實有密切的接觸,我們才能獲得任何像是令人滿意的瞭解。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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