Bataille 18

Bataille 18

Bataille on Nietzsche
巴岱伊論尼采
PART II
Summit and Decline
I
The crucified Christ is the most sublime of all symbols–even at present.
— 1885-86

被釘上十字架的耶穌,是最崇高象徵—即使是在目前。
—1885-86
I now want to contrast, not good and evil, but the “moral summit,” which is different from the good, and the “decline,” which has nothing to do with evil and whose necessity determines, on the contrary, modalities of the good.

我現在想要對比,不是善於惡,而是「道德巔峰」。這迴異於善,及「衰微」。「衰微」跟邪惡根本沒有關係,相反地,衰微的必要性,跟善相輔相成。
The summit corresponds to excess, to an exuberance of forces. It brings about a maximum of tragic intensity. It relates to measureless expenditures of energy and is a violation of the integrity of individual beings. It is thus closer to evil than to good.

巔峰對應於過度,對應於力量的飽滿。巔峰促成悲劇張力的極致。巔峰跟精力都無窮耗費息息相關,違抗個別人類的尊嚴。巔峰因此更加靠近與惡,而不是善。
The decline–corresponding to moments of exhaustion and fatigue–gives all value to concerns for preserving and enriching the individual. From it come rules of morality.

對應於窮盡與疲憊的時刻,衰微極力推崇對於保持及豐富個人的關心。道德的規則就來自衰微。

To begin with, I will show how the summit of Christ on the cross is an extremely equivocal expression of evil.

首先,我將顯示,耶穌在十字架上的巔峰,是惡的極端模棱兩可的表達。

THE KILLING of Jesus Christ is held by Christians as a group to be evil.
It is the greatest sin ever committed.
It even possesses an unlimited nature. Criminals are not the only actors in this drama, since the fault devolves on all humans. Insofar as someone does evil (every one of us being required to do evil), that person puts Christ on the cross.
對於基督耶穌的殺害,由基督徒來執行,作為惡的圖體。
那是有史以來犯過的最大的原罪。
那個原罪甚至擁有一個無限的特質。犯罪者並不僅是這個戲劇的演員,因為錯誤移轉給所有的人類。如同某人犯了惡行(我們每一個人都被要求從事惡行),那個人將耶穌放上十字架。
Pilate’s executioners crucified Jesus, though the God they nailed to the cross was put to death as a sacrifice. Crime is the agent of this sacrifice, a crime that sinners since Adam have infinitely committed. The loathesomeness concealed in human life (everything tainted and impossible carried in its secret places, with its evil condensed in its stench) has so successfully violated good that nothing close to it can be imagined.

皮拉多的劊子手將耶穌釘上十字架,雖然他們釘上十字架的上帝,是被處死刑,作為犧牲。罪是這個犧性的代理者,自從業當以來的原罪者曾經不斷地犯這個罪。對於某人的憎惡,被隱藏在人類的生命裏,(每一樣受到污染及不可能的事情,都在秘密的地方被執行,它的邪惡被濃縮在它的惡臭裏),這種憎惡曾經如此成功地違抗善,以致於靠近它的東西,哪堪被想像?

The killing of Christ injures the being of God.
It looks as if creatures couldn’t communicate with their Creator except through a wound that lacerates integrity.
The wound is intended and desired by God.
The humans who did this are not less guilty.

對於耶穌的殺害傷害到上帝的實存。
看起來好像人作為動物無法跟他們的創世主溝通,除了透過撕裂尊嚴的創傷。
這個創傷是上帝所意圖,所欲望。
從事這個創傷的人類,同樣是有罪。

On the other hand–and this is not the least strange–the guilt is a wound lacerating the integrity of every guilty being.

在另一方面,這絲毫不奇怪,罪是一種撕裂每一位犯罪者的尊嚴的創傷。

In this way God (wounded by human guilt) and human beings (wounded by their own guilt with respect to God), find, if painfully, a unity that seems to be their purpose.

以這種方式,上帝(被人類的罪所創傷)與人類(被他們自己對於上帝的罪所創傷),彼此找到一致,雖然是令人痛苦地找到。這個一致似乎適合他們的用途。

If human beings had kept their own integrity and hadn’t sinned, God on one hand and human beings on the other would have persevered in their respective isolation. A night of death wherein Creator and creatures bled together and lacerated each other and on all sides, were challenged at the extreme limits of shame: that is what was required for their communion.
假如人類當時維持他們自己的尊嚴,沒有犯原罪,一方面是上帝,另一方面是人類,他們本來會以他們個別的孤立持續下去。一個死亡的夜晚,創世主及作為動物的人一起流血,互相創傷。從各個角度來看,他們在極端的羞愧極限受到質疑。那就是為什麼他們被要求要彼此心靈交流。
Thus “communication,” without which nothing exists for us, is guaranteed by crime. “Communication” is love, and love taints those whom it unites.

因此,「心靈交流」的保證,是因為羞愧。假如沒有這個心靈交流,沒有一樣東西為我們而存在。「心靈交流」是愛,愛污染那些愛所聯繫的人。

In the elevation upon a cross, humankind attains a summit of evil. But it’s exactly from having attained it that humanity ceases being separate from God. So clearly the “communication” of human beings is guaranteed by evil. Without evil, human existence would turn in upon itself, would be enclosed as a zone of independence: And indeed an absence of “communication”–empty loneliness–would certainly be the greater evil.

在十字架上的莊嚴,人類獲得惡的巔峰。確實是因為獲得惡的巔峰,人類不再跟上帝分開。所以,顯而易見的,人類的「心靈交流」,是受到惡的保證。假如沒有惡,人類的存在會完全專注自己,會被封閉作為一個獨立的地區。的確,「心靈交流」的欠缺,也就是空無的孤獨,將確實是最大的惡。

The position of human beings evokes sympathy.
They’re driven to “communicate” (with both indefinite existence and themselves): the absence of “communication” (an egotistic folding back into self) clearly evokes the greatest condemnation. But since “communication” can’t take place without wounding or tainting our humanity, “communication” itself is guilty. However the good is construed, it’s the good of individuals–but by wanting to attain it (at night and through evil) we are impelled to question the very individuals in relation to whom we had sought it.

人類的處境博取同情。
他們被迫要「心靈交流」(既跟無限的存在,也跟他們自己):「心靈交流」的欠缺(自我中心又褶疊回到自我),顯而易見地會招致最大的譴責。但是既然「心靈交流」若是沒有創傷或是污染我們的人性,就無法發生,「心靈交流」本身就是一種罪。可是,善被解釋,那就是個人的善。但是因為想要獲得善,(在夜晚,並且透過惡),我們被驅使質疑這些個人,我們曾經尋求跟這些個人從事「心靈交流」。

A fundamental principle is expressed as follows:
“Communication” cannot proceed from one full and intact individual to another. It requires individuals whose separate existence in themselves is risked, placed at the limit of death and nothingness; the moral summit is the moment of risk taking, it is a being suspended in the beyond of oneself, at the limit of nothingness.

一條基本的原則被表達如下:
「心靈交流」無法從充實而完整的個人繼續前進到另一位個人。它要求個人的分開存在本身瀕臨危險,被處於死亡與空無的極限。道德的巔峰就是冒險的時刻,這是一種生命的實存,被懸置在自我的超越,在空無的極限。

雄伯譯
32hsiung2@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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