Archive for April, 2011

醫學與心理治療86

April 26, 2011

VII
MEDICINE AND PSYCHOTHERAPY
醫學與心理治療86

Carl Jung
卡爾 榮格

196
The sonorous diagnosis of neuroses secundum ordinem is just a facade, it is not the psychotherapist’s real diagnosis. His establishment of certain facts might conceivably be called “diagnosis,” though it is psychological rather than medical in character. Nor is it meant to be communicated; for reasons of discretion, and also on account of the subsequent therapy, he usually keeps it to himself.

神經症的「依照命令」的語調跨張的預診,僅是一個表面,那不是心理治療師的真實的預診。他證實某些事實,可以被想像地稱為是「預診」,雖然性質上它是心理,而非醫學。它也不是要被用來溝通。因為謹慎的理由,也沒有隨後的治療,他通常必須保持秘密。

Sonorous—音調跨張
Secundum ordinem—依照命令
Façade 表面
Keep it to himself 保持秘密

196b
The facts so established are simply perceptions indicating the direction the therapy is to take. They can hardly be reproduced in the sort of Latin terminology that sounds scientific; but there are on the other hand expressions of ordinary speech which adequately describe the essential psychotherapeutic facts. The point is, we are not dealing with clinical diseases but with psychological ones. Whether a person
is suffering from hysteria, or an anxiety neurosis, or a phobia, means little beside the much more important discovery that, shall we say, he is fils a papa Here something fundamental has been said about the content of the neurosis and about the difficulties
to be expected in the treatment.

這些被證實的事實,僅是指示著治療應該採取的方向的一些感覺。它們很難以聽起來合乎科學的這種拉丁術語來複製。但是在另一方面,會有普通談話的表達,適當地描述基本的心理治療的事實。重點是,我們不是在處理臨床的疾病,而是在處理心理的疾病。無論一個人有沒有患歇斯底里的痛苦,或是焦慮神經症,或是恐懼症,跟這個更重要的發現相形之下,並無關緊要:他是「拒絕長大」的小孩,我們不妨這樣說。在此,有某件基本的東西曾經被說出,關於這個神經症的內容,以及關於在治療時被預料到的困難。

fils à papa = someone young, weak, growing up in the shadow of (or heavily assisted by) his father. 活在父親陰影當中,拒絕長大

196c

So that in psychotherapy the recognition of disease rests much less on the clinical picture than on the content of complexes. Psychological diagnosis aims at the diagnosis of complexes and hence at the formulation of facts which are far more likely than revealed by the clinical picture.

所以在心理治療,對於疾病的體認,與其說是依靠臨床的場面,不如說是依靠情結的內容。心理的預診目標是要朝著情結的預診,因此也朝著事實的說明。這些事實更加有可能比臨床的場面顯示的更多。

The real toxin is to be sought in the complex, and this is a more or less autonomous
psychic quantity. It proves its autonomous nature by not fitting into the hierarchy of the conscious mind, or by the resistance it successfully puts up against the will. This fact, which can easily be established by experiment, is the reason why psychoneuroses
and psychoses have from time immemorial been regarded as states of possession since the impression forces itself upon the naive observer that the complex forms something like a shadow-government of the ego.

在情結的毒素應該被尋找出來,這是一種相當自動的心理力量。它證明是它的自動的特性,因為它無法被套進意識心理的階層,或是違背意志,而成功地建立的抗拒。這個事實,很容易憑藉實驗證實。這就是為什麼從遠古以來,心理神經症及精神變態症,就被認為是一種被附魔的狀態。純真的觀察者會被給予這樣的印象:情結形成某件像是某種陰影在統治著自我。

197
The content of a neurosis can never be established by a single examination, or even by several. It manifests itself only in the course of treatment. Hence the paradox that the true psychological diagnosis becomes apparent only at the end. Just as a sure diagnosis is desirable and a thing to be aimed at in medicine, so, conversely, it will profit the psychotherapist to know as little as possible about specific diagnoses.

神經症的內容從來無法僅靠著一次的檢查,或甚至幾次檢查,就被證實。它只是在治療的過程顯示它自己。因此,會產生這個矛盾:真實的心理預診在最後才會變得明顯。如同在醫學方面,我們渴望並且朝向要有確定的預診這樣的事情,心理治療師恰恰相反,關於明確的預診,他盡可能不要先有成見,反而越有利。

It is enough if he is reasonably sure of the differential diagnosis between organic
and psychic, and if he knows what a genuine melancholy is and what it can mean. Generally speaking, the less the psychotherapist knows in advance, the better the chances for the treatment. Nothing is more deleterious than a routine understanding of
everything.

他只要合理地確定,生理器官與心理之間的差異預診,以及他知道真正的憂鬱是什麼跟意味著什麼,這樣就足夠了。一般說起來,心理治療師預先知道得越少,療瘉的機率就越高。將每一樣東西都當成例行事務來瞭解,是傷害最大的事情。

Nothing is more deleterious than a routine understanding of everything.
= Nothing is so deleterious as a routine understanding of everything.
= A routine understanding of everything is the most deleterious thing.
將每一樣東西都當成例行事務來瞭解,是傷害最大的事情。

198

We have now established that the anamnesis appears more than usually suspect to the psychotherapist, and that clinical diagnosis is, for his purposes, well-nigh meaningless. Finally, the therapy itself shows the greatest imaginable departures from the views commonly accepted in medicine. There are numerous physical diseases where the diagnosis also lays down the lines for a specific treatment; a given disease cannot be treated just anyhow.

我們現在已經證實,就一般來說,心理治療師並不全然相信成立案例。就他的目標而言,臨床的預診也幾乎是沒有意義的。最後,治療的本身顯示,出乎我們的想像之外,它會偏離醫學界共同被接納的觀點。有無數的生理上的疾病,預診也會確認明確治療的界限。某種的疾病就是無法用某種方法來治療。

Well-nigh—almost 幾乎
Suspect to –Regard as untrustworthy;

198b

But for the psychoneuroses the only valid principle is that their treatment must be psychological. In this respect there is any number of methods, rules, prescriptions, views, and doctrines, and the remarkable thing is that any given therapeutic
procedure in any given neurosis can have the desired result.

但是對於心理神經症而言,唯一有效的原則是:它們的治療必須是從心理層面。在這一方面,有許多的方法,規則,診斷處方,觀點及信條。值得注意的是:在任何特定的神經症患者,所用的任何特定的治療程式,都會獲得渴望中的效果。

The various psychotherapeutic dogmas about which such a great fuss is made do not, therefore, amount to very much in the end. Every psychotherapist who knows his job will, consciously or unconsciously, theory notwithstanding, ring all the changes that do not figure in his own theory. He will occasionally use suggestion, to which he is opposed on principle.

因此,各種的心理治療的信條,會造成混亂雜遝,到最後並不完全相等。每一位對於自己工作內行的心理治療師,無論是有意識或是無意識,會不顧理論,迴響各種原先並不存在自己理論裏的改變。有時他會使用在原則上他是反對的建議。

There is no getting round Freud’s or Adler’s or anybody else’s point of view. Every psychotherapist not only has his own method –he himself is that method. Ars requirit totum hominem, says an old master.” The great healing factor in psychotherapy is the doctor’s personality, which is something not given at the start; it represents his performance at its highest and not a doctrinaire blueprint. Theories are to be avoided, except as mere auxiliaries.

我們不可能繞過佛洛伊德或阿德勒,或是任何其他人的觀點。每一位心理治療師不但擁有他自己的方法,他自己就是那個方法。「藝術要求完整的人。」如同一位耆老大師所說,心理治療的最大療瘉力量是醫生的人格。這是某件開始所沒有被給予的東西。它代表他最高層次的成就,而不是一個教條主義的藍圖。理論應該被避免,除了僅是充當輔助。

Ars requirit totum hominem. (“The art requires the total man.”) 藝術要求完整的人。

As soon as a dogma is made of them, it is evident that an inner doubt is being stifled. Very many theories are needed before we can get even a rough picture of the psyche’s complexity. It is therefore quite wrong when people accuse psychotherapists of being unable to reach agreement even on their own theories. .Agreement could only spell one-sidedness and desiccation. One could as little catch the psyche in a theory as
one could catch the world. Theories are not articles of faith, they are either instruments of knowledge and of therapy, or they are no good at all.

只要一個信條是由理論組成,顯而易見的,內在的懷疑就會被悶住。在我們能夠粗略地瞭解心靈的複雜性之前,我們需要許多的理論。人們批評心理治療師,即使對於他們自己的理論,都無法達成一致性,這種批評因此是完全錯誤。一致性只是指示著單面性及庸俗化。僅憑理論,我們幾乎無法理解心靈,如同我們幾乎無法理解世界。理論並不是一大堆信仰,它們僅是知識及治療的工具,要不然就是它們根本就沒有用途。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

醫學與心理治療84

April 25, 2011

VII
MEDICINE AND PSYCHOTHERAPY
醫學與心理治療84

Carl Jung
卡爾 榮格

192
Speaking before an audience of doctors, I always experience certain difficulty in bridging the differences that exist between medicine on the one hand and psychotherapy on the other in their conception of pathology. These differences are the
source of numerous misunderstandings, and it is therefore of the greatest concern to rne, in this short talk, to express one or two thoughts which may serve to clarify the special relationship that psychotherapy bears to medicine.

面對醫生作為我的聽從,我總是經驗到某些的困難,要區別這個差異,一方面存于於醫藥,另一方面,存在于心理治療,有關它們的病理的觀念。這些差異的無數誤解的來源,因此在這次簡短的演講,我最大的關注是要表達一兩種思想,可以充當澄清心理治療與醫藥的特別關係。

192b
Where distinctions exist, well-meaning attempts to stress the common ground are notoriously lacking in point. But it is extremely important, in his own interests, that the psychotherapist should not in any circumstances lose the position he originally held in medicine, and this precisely because the peculiar nature of his experience
forces upon him a certain mode of thought, and certain interests, which no longer have or perhaps I should say, do not yet have a rightful domicile in the medicine of today. Both these factors tend to lead the psychotherapist into fields of study
apparently remote from medicine, and the practical importance of these fields is generally difficult to explain to the non-psychotherapist.

在差異存在的地方,強調彼此有共同點立場的這種善意企圖,顯而易見是沒有意義的。但是極端重要的是,為了本身的利益,精神分析師無論如何不應該失去,他在醫藥方面所持有的立場。這確實是因為他的精神分析經驗的特性,強迫給予他某種的思想模式,某些的利益。而這些利益,在今天的醫藥,已經沒有,說得確實些,是不再有合適的存身之所。這兩種因素傾向于引導心理治療師進入研究的領域,顯見是跟醫藥相距甚遠。這些領域在心理治療實踐的重要性,通常很難跟非心理治療師去解釋。

Lacking in point—欠缺意義
Notoriously– Known widely and usually unfavorably 惡名昭彰
Domicile–Housing that someone is living in 存身之所

192c
From accounts of case histories and miraculously successful cures the non-psychotherapist learns little, and that little is frequently false. I have yet to come across a respectable specimen of neurosis of which one could give anything like an
adequate description in a short lecture, to say nothing of all the therapeutic intricacies that are far from clear even to the shrewdest professional.

從個案歷史及奇跡般成功的治療的描述,非精神治療師獲知的資訊甚少。而且,就連那甚少的資訊都還往往是虛假。我還沒有遇到一個可確信的神經症個案病例,我能夠在一次的演講中充份地描述完整。更不用說,所有那些心理治療的複雜性,即使是對於一個高明的心理治療專業,根本都還是朦朧不清。

193

With your permission I will now examine the three stages of medical procedure anamnesis, diagnosis, and therapy from the psychotherapeutic point of view. The pathological material I am here presupposing is pure psychoneurosis.

請容許我現在檢視醫療程式的三個階段。從心理治療的觀點來說,就是:病例成立,診斷,及治療。我在這裏假定的病理資料,是純粹心理神經症患者。

194
We begin with the anamnesis, as is customary in medicine in general and psychiatry in particular that is to say, we try to piece together the historical facts of the case as flawlessly as possible. The psychotherapist, however, does not rest content with these facts. He is aware not only of the unreliability of all evidence, but, over and above that, of the special sources of error in statements made on one’s own behalf the statements of the patient who, wittingly or unwittingly, gives prominence to facts that are plausible enough in themselves but may be equally misleading as regards the pathogenesis.

我們先從病例成立開始。依照一般醫學及特別精神病學的慣例,換句話說,我們設法將個案的歷史事實,盡可能完整地串聯起來。可是,心理治療師並沒有滿足於這些事實。他不但知道,所有的證據都有不可靠的地方,而且,在代表自己所陳述的所有的錯誤的特別來源裏,病人的陳述,無論精彩或是平淡,都會凸顯這些事實本身能夠自圓其說,但是關於病因診斷而言,卻是同樣的誤導。

On one’s own behalf—as the representative 代表
Over and above—in addition to something 除外

194b
The patient’s whole environment may be drawn into this system of explanation in a positive or negative sense, as though it were in unconscious collusion with him. At all events one must be prepared not to hear the very things that are most important. The psychotherapist will therefore take pains to ask questions about matters that seem to have nothing to do with the actual illness.

病人的整個環境可能會被吸引到這個解釋系統裏,以一個積極或是消極的意義。好像這個解釋不知不解地跟他共謀。無論如何,我們必須準備不要聽到非常重要的這些事情。心理治療師因此要很費心去問一些問題。這些問題表面上是跟實際的疾病沒有什麼關聯。

194c
For this he needs not only his professional knowledge; he has also to rely on intuitions and sudden ideas, and the more widely he casts his net of questions the more likely he is to succeed in catching the complex nature of the case. If ever there were an illness that cannot be localized, because it springs from the whole of a man, that illness is a psychoneurosis. The psychiatrist can at least console himself with diseases of the brain; not so the psychotherapist, even if he privately believes in such a maxim, for the case before him demands the thorough psychological treatment of a disturbance that has nothing to do with cerebral symptoms.

因為這樣,他不但需要他的專業知識,他也必須依靠直覺及突然的靈感。他將他的問題之網撒得越寬廣,他就越有可能成功地捕捉到個案的複雜特性。假如有某個疾病無法被明確定位,因為它從人的整體呈現出來,那個疾病就是心理神經症。精神病醫師至少能夠安慰自己,說這是腦的疾病。心理治療師則是不能夠這樣說,即使他私底下相信這句箴言。因為在他面前的這個個案要求:他應該徹底地從心理方面治療這樣的疾病。而這個疾病則是跟腦的病徵沒有絲毫關係。

194d

On the contrary, the more the psychotherapist allows himself to be impressed by hereditary factors and the possibility of psychotic complications, the more crippled
he will be in his therapeutic action. For better or worse he is obliged to overlook such cogent factors as heredity, the presence of schizophrenic symptoms, and the like, particularly when these dangerous things are put forward with special emphasis,
His assessment of anamnestic data may therefore turn out to be very different from a purely medical one.

相反的,心理治療師越是讓他自己對於遺傳的因素,及心理併發症的可能性產生印象,他在採取治療的作為越是會遭受挫折。無論結果好壞,他不得不將諸如遺傳,精神分裂症狀的存在,等等確實的因素,擱置一邊,特別是當危險的事情,特別強調地被提出。他對於病例資料的評估,結果會因此與純粹是醫療隊病例,迥不相牟。

195

It is generally assumed in medical circles that the examination of the patient should lead to the diagnosis of his illness, so far as this is possible at all, and that with the establishment of the diagnosis an important decision has been arrived at as regards prognosis and therapy. Psychotherapy forms a startling exception to this rule: the diagnosis is a highly irrelevant affair since, apart from affixing a more or less lucky label to a neurotic condition, nothing is gained by it, least of all as regards prognosis and therapy. In flagrant contrast to the rest of medicine, where a definite diagnosis is often, as it were, logically followed by a specific therapy and a more or less certain prognosis, the diagnosis of any particular psychoneurosis means, at most, that some form of psychotherapy is indicated.

在醫學領域,通常的認為是:對於病人的檢查,應該盡可能地促成對於他的疾病的診斷。而且隨著診斷的建立,關於預診及治療,要形成一個重要的決定。心理治療學形成一個非常令人驚訝的例外,對於這個常規。預診是一個非常不相關的事情,除了替神經症的病情貼上一個相當幸運的標籤外,沒有其他利益,關於預診及治療,尤其沒有。在其他的醫療,明確的預診之後,邏輯上就是緊隨著明確的治療,以及相當確定的診斷,可以這樣說。跟它們明顯相比起來,任何特別的心理神經症的預診,充其量意味著:某種形式的治療被指示。

As to the prognosis, this is in the highest degree independent of the diagnosis.
Nor should we gloss over the fact that the classification of the neuroses is very unsatisfactory, and that for this reason alone a specific diagnosis seldom means anything real. In general, it is enough to diagnose a “psychoneurosis” as distinct from
some organic disturbance— the word means no more than that.

關於預診,這是最高層次的獨立的預診。我們也不應該掩飾這個事實:神經症的分類是非常不令人滿意的。光是因為那個理由,一個明確的預診很少意味著任何真實的東西。一般說來,只要診斷一個「心理神經症」,當作是跟某些的有機器官的疾病不同,那就足夠了。「心理神經症」的意思僅就是那樣。

Gloss over—to speak kindly of or refuse to mention ( something bad) so as to hide or excuse its wrongness 迴避錯誤 ,掩過飾非

I have in the course of years accustomed myself wholly to disregard the diagnosing of specific neuroses, and I have sometimes found myself in a quandary when some word-addict urged me to hand him a specific diagnosis。The Greco-Latin compounds
needed for this still seem to have a not inconsiderable market value and are occasionally indispensable for that reason.

在過去幾年來,我已經習慣于完全將明確的神經症的預診,擱置一邊。我有時候發現我自己處於這個尷尬立場,當某位元偏愛文字解說者要求我給予他一個明確的預診。我依舊需要希臘文及拉丁文的組合字來解說,它們似乎還頗具有市場價值。因為這樣,有時候還非要不可。

雄伯譯
32hsing@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

心理治療與人生哲學 82

April 25, 2011

VI
Psychotherapy and a Philosophy of Life
心理治療與人生哲學 82

Carl Jung
卡爾 榮格

187

Not everybody is capable of this surrender. There is no “ought” or “must” about it, for the very act of exerting the will inevitably places such an emphasis on my will to surrender that the exact opposite of surrender results. The Titans could not take Olympus by storm, and still less may a Christian take Heaven. The most healing, and psychologically the most necessary, experiences are a “treasure hard to attain,”
and its acquisition demands something out of the common from the common man.

並不是每一個人都能夠這樣順服。在這裏沒有什麼「應該」或是「必須」。因為從事這種意志的行動,無可避免的,會將如此的強調「我」的意志的順服,以致於造成的結果,恰恰與順服相反。泰坦巨人乍臨奧林普斯山,會進退失據,基督教徒初對天堂,一時更可能是不知所措。最大的治療,從心理層次來說,最必須要的經驗是一種「難以獲得的財寶」。對於這種財寶的獲得,要求從普通人那裏獲得不尋常的東西。

Take by storm 給予深刻印象to make a great impression upon; ( The phrase originally meant to seize a castle, military position, etc, by a sudden and violent attack) 這個詞語原意是:突擊城堡與軍事基地

out of the common/ out of the ordinary –unusual; strange 不尋常;奇異

Not everybody is capable of this surrender.
= Some people are capable of this surrender, while others aren’t.
並不是每一個人都能夠這樣屈服。

The very act of exerting the will inevitably places such an emphasis on my will to surrender that the exact opposite of surrender results.
= The very act of exerting the will to surrender inevitably emphasizes my will to surrender so much that the exact opposite of surrender results from it.

從事這種順服意志的行動,無可避免的,會將如此的強調我的意志的順服,以致於造成的結果,恰恰與順服相反。

The Titans could not take Olympus by storm, and still less may a Christian take Heaven.
= The Titans could not take Olympus by storm, and a Christian may still less take Heaven by storm.

泰坦巨人乍臨奧林普斯山,會進退失據,基督教徒初對天堂,一時更可能是不知所措。

188
As we know, this something out of the common proves, in practical work with the patient, to be an invasion by archetypal contents. If these contents are to be assimilated, it is not enough to make use of the current philosophical or religious ideas, for they simply do not fit the archaic symbolism of the material.

眾所周知,這種不尋常的東西,在心理治療實踐在病人身上時,證明是原型內容的侵犯。假如這些內容想要被接納,僅是使用目前的哲學或是宗教的觀念是不足的。因為它們就是跟過時的符號象徵格格不入。

If these contents are to be assimilated, it is not enough to make use of the current philosophical or religious ideas
= If these contents tend to be assimilated, it is not enough to make use of the current philosophical or religious ideas

假如這些內容想要被接納,僅是使用目前的哲學或是宗教的觀念是不足的。

188b

We are therefore forced to go back to pre-Christian and non- Christian conceptions and to conclude that Western man does not possess the monopoly of human wisdom and that the white race is not a species of Homo sapiens specially favoured by God.
Moreover we cannot do justice to certain contemporary collective phenomena unless we revert to the pre-Christian parallels.

我們因此被迫回到基督教以前,及非基督教的觀念,然後獲得結論說:西方人並沒有擁有人類智慧的壟斷,白人並不是靈長類被上帝所特別關愛的唯一的人種。而且,我們無法正確而完整地處理某些當代的集體的現象,除非我們回到基督教以前,各種信仰各自成立的狀態。

Homo sapien —The only surviving hominid; species to which modern man belongs; bipedal primate having language and ability to make and use complex tools; brain volume at least 1400 cc唯一存活的屬於現代的人類種族,兩腳的靈長類,擁有語言跟使用複雜工具的能力,頭腦的量至少是1400cc。

Do justice to—to deal with something correctly and completely 正確而完整地處理
Parallel–Something having the property of being analogous to something else 類比的東西

189
Medieval physicians seem to have realized this, for they practised a philosophy whose roots can be traced back to pre- Christian times and whose nature exactly corresponds to our experiences with patients today. These physicians recognized, besides the light of divine revelation, a lumen naturae as a second, independent source of illumination, to which the doctor could turn if the truth as handed down by the Church should
for any reason prove ineffective either for himself or for the patient.

中世紀的醫生似乎曾經體會到這一點,因為它們實踐的哲學,根源能夠被追溯到基督教前的時代。它們的特性跟今天我們跟病人的心理治療經驗確實相吻合。這些醫生體會到,除了神性的啟發光輝外,黑暗之光作為啟明的輔助的獨立來源,是醫生能夠求助的物件,萬一由教會傳遞下來的真理,因為某種原因,對於自己或對於病人,證明是束手無策時。

Lumen naturae—the light of darkness 黑暗之光

!91
It was eminently practical reasons, and not the mere caperings of a hobby-horse, that prompted me to undertake my historical researches. Neither our modern medical training nor academic psychology and philosophy can equip the doctor with
the necessary education, or with the means, to deal effectively and understandingly with the often very urgent demands of his psychotherapeutic practice. It therefore behoves us, unembarrassed by our shortcomings as amateurs of history, to go to
school once more with the medical philosophers of a distant past, when body and soul had not yet been wrenched asunder into different faculties.

激發我從歷史淵源去研究,顯而易見是基於心理治療學的原因,而不是我消遣的娛樂。我們現代的醫學訓練,及學術的心理學與哲學,都沒有使醫生具備充足的教育或工具,能夠有效而理解地處理,就心理治療而言,經常是迫切的要求。因此,對於歷史淵源,我們雖然並非是專家,我們不必慚愧。我們理所當然地要再一次請教於遠古時代的病理醫生,當時的身體跟靈魂還沒有被分割成不同的性能。

Caperings 玩物
Hobby-horse—favorite pastime 消遣
Behove–Be appropriate or necessary 適當而需要
Wrench 扭曲Twist and compress, as if in pain or anguish
Asunder 分裂成為碎片Into parts or pieces

190b

Although we are specialists par excellence, our specialized field, oddly enough, drives us to universalism and to the complete overcoming of the specialist attitude, if the totality of body and soul is not to be just a matter of words. Once we have made up our minds to treat the soul, we can no longer close our eyes to the fact that neurosis is not a thing apart but the whole of the pathologically disturbed psyche.

雖然我們是優秀的專業人員,說來奇怪,我們的專業領域卻迫使我們走向普遍性,及完全地克服專業的態度,假如身體與靈魂的完整性想要不流於空談的話。一但我們下定決心治療靈魂,我們就不再能夠無視於這個事實:神經症不是個別的事情,而是心靈病態發展的整體。

Par excellence– To a degree of excellence 優秀地
Universalism 普遍性

190c
It was Freud’s momentous discovery that the neurosis is not a mere agglomeration of symptoms, but a wrong functioning which affects the whole psyche. The important thing is not the neurosis, but the man who has the neurosis. We have to set to work on the human being, and we must be able to do him justice as a human being.

這是佛洛伊德的重大發現,神經症並不僅僅是病徵的集結,而是整個心靈受到影響的功用不良。重要的並不是神經症,而是患有神經症的人。我們必須開始研究人,而且我們必須要能夠讓人充分地表現當個是人。

Agglomeration– A jumbled collection or mass 集結
Momentous– Of very great significance 非常重要的
Set to work—to start with 開始
Do one justice –to treat or represent somebody fairly 充分地表現

191
The conference we are holding today proves that our psychotherapy has recognized its aim, which is to pay equal attention to the physiological and to the spiritual factor. Originating in natural science, it applies the objective, empirical methods of the latter to the phenomenology of the mind. Even if this should remain a mere attempt, the fact that the attempt has been made is of incalculable significance.

今天我們正在舉行的會議證明:我們心理治療已經體認出它的目標。那就是要同樣地關注到生理及精神的因素。因為起源于自然科學,它應用自然科學的客觀及實驗性的方法,到心靈的現象學。即使這僅是一種嘗試,我們已經著手這樣的嘗試,意義卻是非同小可。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

心理治疗与人生哲学 80

April 23, 2011

VI
Psychotherapy and a Philosophy of Life
心理治疗与人生哲学 80

Carl Jung
卡爾 榮格

180
As the most complex of psychic structures, a man’s philosophy of life forms the counterpole to the physiologically conditioned psyche, and, as the highest psychic dominant, it ultimately determines the latter’s fate. It guides the life of the therapist
and shapes the spirit of his therapy. Since it is an essentially subjective system despite the most rigorous objectivity, it may and very likely will be shattered time after time on colliding with the truth of the patient, but it rises again, rejuvenated by the experience. Conviction easily turns into self-defence and is seduced into rigidity, and this is inimical to life. The test of a firm conviction is its elasticity and flexibility; like every other exalted truth it thrives best on the admission of its errors.

作为心灵结构的最大情结,一个人的人生哲学,跟受到生理制约的心灵,形成相反的极地。作为最高的心灵支配者,它最后决定后者的命运。它引导心理治疗师的人生,并且塑造他的治疗的精神。因为它基本上是主观的系统,尽管它具有最精确的客观性,它可能,很有可能一再地被粉碎,当它与病人的真理相冲突时。但是它会屡败屡战,根据经验捲土重来。而信仰则是容易变成防卫立量,然后沦为僵化教条,这对生命力有害。对于一个坚定信仰的考验,在于它是否具有弹性及变通。就像每一个其它崇高的真理,越是肯承认自己有犯错的可能,越是发展得蓬勃。

181
I can hardly draw a veil over the fact that we psychotherapists ought really to be philosophers or philosophic doctors or rather that we already are so, though we are unwilling to admit it because of the glaring contrast between our work and what passes for philosophy in the universities. We could also call it religion in statu nascendi, for in the vast confusion that reigns at the roots of life there is no line of division between philosophy and religion.

我几乎无法遮蔽这个事实,我们心理治疗师真的是位哲学家或是哲学博士,说得更精确些,我们已经是这样,虽然我们不愿意承认,我们的工作跟大学里被认为的哲学,有天渊之别。我们也称我们的工作为原初的宗教。因为在统辖生命根源的广大混乱地区,并没有哲学与宗教的分界线。

statu nascendi,–status of birth 出生状态

181b
Nor does the unrelieved strain of the psychotherapeutic situation, with its host of impressions and emotional disturbances, leave us much leisure for the systematization
of thought. Thus we have no clear exposition of guiding principles drawn from life to offer either to the philosophers or to the theologians.

心理治疗情境的紧张急迫,再加上它众多的印象与情感的困扰,也使我们没有空闲从事系统化的思想。因为我们没有明显的描述从人生所获得的引导的方针,提供给哲学家,或是神学家。

182
Our patients suffer from bondage to a neurosis, they are prisoners of the unconscious, and if we attempt to penetrate with understanding into that realm of unconscious forces, we have to defend ourselves against the same influences to which our patients have succumbed. Like doctors who treat epidemic diseases, we expose ourselves to powers that threaten our conscious equilibrium, and we have to take every possible precaution if we want to rescue not only our own humanity but that of the patient from the clutches of the unconscious. Wise self limitation is not the same thing as text-book philosophy, nor is an ejaculatory prayer in a moment of mortal danger a
theological treatise. Both are the outcome of a religious and philosophical attitude that is appropriate to the stark dynamism of life.

我们的病人遭受神经症的桎梏之苦,他们是无意识的囚犯。假如我们企图以理解进入无意识力量的领域,我们必须防卫自己,对抗跟病人所承受的相同的影响。就像治疗瘟疫疾病的医生,我们暴露自己在威胁我们意识平衡的力量。我们必须採取尽可能地预先防范,假如我们想要我们自己的人性,以及病人的人性,免于被无意识所拘获。明智的自我设限,并不相等于就是哲学教科书,正如人类濒临危险时刻的惊叫的祈祷,并不等于就是神学的论文。两者都是宗教与哲学态度的结果,这种态度对于生命完全的动力是适当的。

Wise self limitation is not the same thing as text-book philosophy, nor is an ejaculatory prayer in a moment of mortal danger a theological treatise.
= Wise self limitation is not the same thing as text-book philosophy, and an ejaculatory prayer in a moment of mortal danger is not a theological treatise either.

明智的自我设限,并不相等于就是哲学教科书,正如人类濒临危险时刻的惊叫的祈祷,并不等于就是神学的论文。

183
The highest dominant always has a religious or a philosophical character, It is by nature extremely primitive, and consequently we find it in full development among primitive peoples. Any difficulty, danger, or critical phase of life immediately calls forth this dominant. It is the most natural reaction to all highly charged emotional situations. But often it remains as obscure as the semiconscious emotional situation which evoked it. Hence it is quite natural that the emotional disturbances of the patient should activate the corresponding religious or philosophical factors in the therapist.

最高的支配力量总是具有宗教或是哲学的特性。它在本质上是非常原始的,结果我们发现它在原始民族当中充分地發展。生命的任何的困难,危险,或关键时刻,立刻会召唤这个支配的力量。这是对于高度负荷的情感的情境,最自然的反应。但是,它始终是模糊的,跟召唤它的半意识状态的情感的困扰。因此,相当自然的是:病人的情感上的困扰,应该在心理治疗师身上,激发相对应的宗教或是哲学的因素。

183b
Often he is most reluctant to make himself conscious of these primitive contents, and he quite understandably prefers to turn for help to a religion or philosophy which has reached his consciousness from outside. This course does not strike me as being illegitimate in so far as it gives the patient a chance to take his place within the structure of some protective institution existing in the outside world. Such a solution is entirely natural, since there have always and everywhere been totem clans, cults, and creeds whose purpose it is to give an ordered form to the chaotic world of the instincts.

往往他很不愿意使他自己意识到这些原始内容。相当理解地,他喜欢求助于从外在抵达他的意识的宗教或是哲学。这个过程给我的印象,并没有什么不适当。因为它给予病人一个机会,在外在世界现有的某些的保护性的机构结构里面,找到安身之地。这样一个解决方法完全是自然的,因为图腾的部落,教派与迷信总是存在,也处处存在。它们的目的是要给予本能的混沌世界一个有条理的形式。

l84
The situation becomes difficult, however, when the patient’s nature resists a collective solution. The question then arises whether the therapist is prepared to risk having his convictions dashed and shattered against the truth of the patient.

可是,情况会变得困难,当病人的天性抗拒用集体方式来解决。因此会产生这个问题:,面对病人的真理时,心理治疗师准备冒的危险是,自己的信念会被动摇或是破灭。

If he wants to go on treating the patient he must abandon all preconceived notions and, for better or worse, go with him in search of the religious and philosophical ideas that best correspond to the patient’s emotional states. These ideas present themselves in archetypal form, freshly sprung from the maternal soil whence all religious and philosophical systems originally came. But if the therapist is not prepared to have his convictions called in question for the sake of the patient, then there is some reason for doubting the stability of his basic attitude.

假如他想要继续治疗病人,他必须要放弃预先存有的观念。然后无论结果好坏,跟着病人去从事宗教与哲学的观念的追寻。这些观念最能够符合病人的情感的状态。这些观念以原型的方式,呈现它们自己,因为它们新鲜生猛地来自大地之母。所有的宗教与哲学系统原先都起源于那里。但是假如心理治疗师并没有准备要让他的信念,因为病人的缘故而受到置疑,那么我们就有理由怀疑他的基本态度是否稳定。

Perhaps he cannot give way on grounds of self-defence, which threatens him with rigidity. The margin of psychological elasticity varies both individually and collectively, and often it is so narrow that a certain degree of rigidity really does represent the maximum achievement. Ultra posse nemo obligatur.

或许,他因为基于自卫的立场,不能屈服,因为这会严重地威胁到他。心理的弹性的边缘,会因为个人与集体而有差异。往往这个边缘是过于狭窄,某种程度的严格限制,就代表最大量的成就。如同拉丁谚语所说:「没有人被迫超越他做不到的事情。」

注释:
Ultra posse nemo obligatur is a Latin legal term, meaning, “No one is obligated beyond what he is able to do.”
Ultra posse nemo obligatur 是一句拉丁术语,意思是:「没有人被迫超越他做不到的事情。」

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Desire 59 Jacques Lacan

April 23, 2011

Desire 59

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN
BOOK VI
Desire and its Interpretation
欲望及其解釋

Seminar 7: 7 January 1959

It is precisely in the measure that man, in love, is really alienated, that this phallus, the object of his desire, which nevertheless reduces the woman in the erotic act to being an imaginary object, that this form of desire will be realised.

確實就是隨著這個戀愛中的男人是疏離的。這個陽具,這個他的欲望的這個客體。可是,陽具作為他的欲望的客體,將性愛行動中的女人,化簡成為想像界的客體。欲望的形式將會被實現。

And this indeed is why there is maintained, at the very heart of the most profound, the most intimate loving relationship, this duplicity of the object on which I have so often insisted in connection with the famous genital relationship. I come back to the idea that precisely if the loving relationship is complete here, it is to the degree that the other will give what he does not have, which is the very definition of love.

這確實是為什麼,在最深刻最親密的戀愛關係的核心,我時常堅持的客體的欺騙被維持,關於這個著名的性器官關係。我回頭談論這個觀念:假如戀愛關係在此是完整的話,確實是到這個程度,它者將會給予他沒有的東西。那就是愛的定義。

On the other hand the relationship of the woman to the man, which everyone is happy to believe to be much more monogamous, is (29) something which presents no less ambiguity, except that what the woman finds in the man, is the real phallus, and therefore as always her desire finds its satisfaction there. Effectively she finds herself in the right position and sees a relationship of satisfying jouissance.

在另一方面,女人跟男人的關係,每個人都很高興相信是一夫一妻制。這件事情呈現同樣的模糊曖昧。除了,女人在男人身上找到的,就是這個真實的陽具。因此,像平常一樣,她的欲望在那裏找到它的滿足。有效地,她發現她自己處於適當的位置,並且看到一個令人滿意的歡爽的關係。

But precisely it is in the measure that the satisfaction of desire appears in the real order that what the woman effectively loves, and not desires, is this being who is beyond the encounter with desire and who is precisely the other, namely the man in so
far as he is deprived of the phallus, in so. far precisely because of his nature as a completed being, a speaking being, he is castrated.

但是確實的,隨著欲望的滿足出現在真實界的秩序,女人實際上所愛的東西,並不是欲望,而是這個生命的實存。這個生命的實存超越跟欲望的邂逅,就是大它者。換句話說,就是他被剝奪到陽具的這個男人。確實就是因為他的天性作為一個完整的人,一個言談的實存人,他是被閹割的。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchom.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Desire 58 Jacques Lacan

April 22, 2011

Desire 58

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN
BOOK VI
Desire and its Interpretation
欲望及其解釋

Seminar 7: 7 January 1959

(25) I am going to give a schema which those who followed the first year of my seminar will recognise. We have spoken about narcissism. I gave the schema of the parabolical mirror thanks to which one can make appear on a platform, in a vase, the image of a hidden flower, lit up either from underneath, or from the plate, and which thanks to the property of spherical rays comes to be projected, to be outlined here as a real image. I mean to produce for an instant the illusion that there is in the vase
precisely this flower.

我將給予你們一個基模,曾經參加我第一年研討會的人會認得出來。我們曾經談到自戀。我給予抛物線鏡面的這個基模。憑藉這個鏡子,我們能夠讓這個隱藏的花的意象,出現在平臺上,從底下,或從盤子點亮。憑藉圓形光線的屬性,這個隱藏的花在此被投射,被呈現輪廓,作為一個真實的意象。我打算產生這個幻覺一陣子。這個隱藏的花確實是在花瓶裏。

It may appear mysterious to see that one can imagine that it is necessary here to have a small screen to receive this image in space. This is not necessary at all. I pointed out that this illusion, namely the sight of the setting up in the air of this real image, can only be perceived from a certain spatial field which is precisely determined by the diameter of the spherical mirror,, mapped out with respect to the centre of the spherical mirror. Namely that if the mirror is narrow, it is necessary of course to place oneself in the field where the rays which are reflected from the mirror have recrossed its centre, and consequently in a certain expansion of a zone in space, to see
the image.

似乎神秘地,我們看出我們能夠想像,在此我們需要有一個小螢幕接收空間的這個意象。這根本就是沒有必要。我指出:這個幻覺,也就是在空中建立起這個真實意象的景象,只能從某個空間領域被感覺到。這個空間領域確實是被這個圓形鏡子的直徑所決定,被描繪出來,在這個圓形鏡子的中央。也就是說,假如這個鏡子是狹窄的,當然我們就需要將我們自己放置在這道光線重新穿越過它的中央的這個領域。這道光是從鏡子反射過來。結果我們才能看到這個影像,在空間的某個擴充到地區。

The trick of my little explanation at the time was the following: it was to say, if anyone wants to see this image being produced, phantastically, inside the pot, or a bit to one side, it does not matter, to see it being produced somewhere in the space where
(26) there is already a real object, and if this observer is there, he can make use of the mirror. If he is in a symmetrical position with respect to the mirror, the virtual position of the one who is in front of the mirror will be, in this tilting of the mirror, to come to situate himself within the cone of visibility of the image which is to be produced here.

在這個時候我的小小解釋的奧秘處在於底下:假如有任何人想要看到這個影像幻影地被產生,在花瓶裏面,或是有點靠向一邊,都沒有關係。假如他想要看的這個影像在空間的某個地方被產生,在那裏已經有一個真實的客體。假如這個觀察者在那裏,他能夠使用這個鏡子。假如他跟鏡子處於均稱的位置,鏡子前面的這個人,從這個鏡子的傾斜面來看,將會定位他自己在這個影像可見度的圓錐位置。這個影像在這裏應該能夠看到。

That means that he will see the image of the flower precisely in this mirror at the symmetrical point. In other words what is produced, if the luminous ray which is reflected towards the observer is strictly symmetrical with the visual reflection, of
what is happening on the other side, it is because the subject virtually will have taken the place of what is on the other side of the mirror that he will see in this mirror the vase – which is to be expected because it is there – and on the other hand the real image, as it is produced at the place where he cannot see it.

這意味著,他將會看到這個花的影像,確實就是在這個均稱點的這個鏡子裏。換句話說,假如發亮的光線被反射朝向觀察者,跟這個視覺的反射嚴格地均稱,在另外一部所發生,就是所被產生的東西。那是因為生命主體實質上是將已經取代了鏡子另外一邊的東西。他將會在這個鏡子裏,看到這個花瓶。這是我們應該預期的,因為它就在那裏。在另外一邊,這個真實的影像,在他看不見它的地方被產生。

The relationship, the interplay between the different imaginary elements and the elements of symbolic identification of the subject can be illustrated in a certain fashion in this optical apparatus, in a fashion that I do not think is untraditional
because Freud formulated it somewhere in the Traumdeutunq. He gives somewhere the schema of successive lenses in which there is refracted the progressive passage of the unconscious, of the preconscious. He was looking at analogous reference points,
optical ones he says precisely.

這個關係,這些不同的想像界的因素,與生命主體在意符界的認同,彼此的互動,能夠以某種的方式,在這個視覺的儀器上作為說明。這個方式,我不認為是非傳統式的。因為佛洛伊德在「夢的解析」度某個地方說明過它。他在某個地方給予這個連續透鏡的基模。在這些連續透鏡裏,無意識,或是前意識的不斷地經過,被折射在那裏。他觀看這些類比的指稱點,他確實地說,那是視覺的指稱點。

It effectively represents this something which, in the phantasy. tries to rejoin its place in the symbolic. This consequently makes of S something other than an eye. It is only a metaphor. (27) If it designates that it wishes to rejoin its place in the symbolic, it is in a specular fashion, namely with respect to the other who, here, is the capital 0. This mirror is only a symbolic mirror, it is not a question of the mirror in front of which the little child busies himself.

這個基模有效地代表這個某件東西,在幻見裏,這個某件東西設法重新加入它的位置,在意符界那裏。結果是,組成生命主體的是某件眼睛以外的某件東西。這只是一個比喻。假如這個某件東西指明,它希望重新加入意符界的它的位置,那是以自我理想的魅影方式。換句話說,關於這個大它者,這個大寫字母O。這個鏡子只是一個意符的鏡子。問題不是在鏡子,小孩在鏡子面前,忙個不停。

This means that in a certain reflection which is constructed with the help of words in the first learning of language the subject learns to regulate somewhere, at the right distance, the insignia with which he identifies himself, namely something which is
inclined towards the other side, which corresponds to him in these first identifications of the ego.

這意味著,以某種被建構的反映倒影,當生命主體首次學習語言時,他憑文字的幫助,學習在某個地方,在適當的距離,規範這個他認同的標誌。換句話說,某件傾向於另外一邊的某件東西。在自我的這些首次的認同裏,這個某件東西跟他符合。

And that it is within this, in so far as there is already something at once preformed,
open to fragmentation, but which only enters into this game of fragmentation, and in so far as the symbolism exists which opens up its field for him, it is within this that there is going to be produced this imaginary relationship in which the subject will
find himself caught, and which, I pointed out, means that in the erotic relationship to the other, however complete, however advanced one supposes it to be, there will always be a point of reduction which you can grasp as extrapolations of the early
erotic outline between the subjects.

那就是在這個裏面,已經有某件東西同時被執行,開放零碎化。但是只有參與這個零碎化的遊戲。因為意符界的存在開放它的領域給他。就在這個領域裏,這個想像界的關係將會被產生。在這個想像界的關係裏,生命主體將會發現他自己被套陷住。容我指出,它的意思是:跟大它者的性愛關係,無論我們們認為它是多麼完整,多麼進展,總是會有一個還原點,你能夠理解它,當著述生命主體之間的早期性愛輪廓的推斷。

The fact is that there is a transformation of this first relationship of o to o’ the image
of o, of this fundamentally specular relationship which regulates the relationships of the subject to the other. There is a transformation of that, and a distribution between on the one hand the group of the fragmented elements of the body, those that we have to deal with in so far as we are a marionette and in so far as our partner is a marionette. But the marionette is only missing one thing, the phallus. The phallus is occupied
elsewhere, in the signifying function.

事實上,這個從0到0‘最初的關係有一種轉變,這個基本的自我理想的魅影關係,規範這生命主體跟大它者的關係。它們的關係有一個轉變,有一個分配,一方面,處於是身體的零碎化的元素的團體,我們必須處理的那些元素,當我們是一個牽線木偶,我們伴侶也是一個牽線木偶。但是這個牽線木偶只是漏了一件東西,那就是陽具。陽具的功用在別的地方,在意符化的功用。

(28)
This is why there is always, I am not saying at the heart of …………… which are always opposed, but which can be rediscovered at any moment of the interpretative ………… of the situation. The subject, in so far as he identifies himself with the phallus in face of the other, fragments as himself in the presence of something which is the phallus.

這就是為什麼總是有對立的東西,我不是說在「、、、」的核心,總是有某件東西被重新發現,就在解釋「、、、」這個情況的任何時刻。當生命主體認同這個陽具,面對這個大它者,他讓自己被零碎化,在這個陽具這個東西的面前。

And to dot the i’s I would say that between man and woman, I would ask you to dwell on the fact that in the most loving relationship between a man and a woman, to the very degree that desire takes ……. desire finds itself on the part of the man beyond the loving relationship. I mean that in so far as the woman symbolises the phallus, that man finds in her the complement of his being. It is what I might call the ideal form.

為了給這個「我」用點點點表示,我不妨這樣說,在男人與女人之間,我要求你們詳述這個事實:男人與女人之間的這個親密的關係,欲望產生。在男人這一邊,欲望發現它自己超越親密的關係。我的意思,女人象徵陽具,男人在女人身上找到他的生命實存的互補。這就是我所謂的理想形式。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

心理治療與人生哲學 78

April 22, 2011

VI
Psychotherapy and a Philosophy of Life
心理治療與人生哲學 78

Carl Jung
卡爾 榮格

178
The problem of opposites offers an eminently suitable and ideal battleground for the most contradictory theories, and above all for partially or wholly unrealized prejudices regarding one’s philosophy of life. With this development psychotherapy
stirred up a hornets’ nest of the first magnitude. Let us take as an example the supposedly simple case of a repressed instinct. If the repression is lifted, the instinct is set free.

矛盾對立的難題提供一個非常適合及理想的機會,讓針鋒相對的理論一爭勝負。尤其是,部分或是全部沒有實現的偏見,關於人生哲學。隨著這個發展,心理治療觸發紛至遝來的百家爭鳴。舉個公認是壓抑本能的簡單個案當例子。假如壓抑被取消,本能就會被釋放出來。

Hornets’ nest 極端爭議的情況A violent or highly contentious situation:
Magnitude-相對重要Relative importance

178b
Once freed, it wants to live and function in its own way. But this creates a difficult sometimes intolerably difficult situation. The instinct ought therefore to be modified, or “sublimated,” as they say. How this is to be done without creating a new repression
nobody can quite explain. The little word “ought” always proves the helplessness of the therapist; it is an admission that he has come to the end of his resources.

一但被釋放,本能想要以自己的方式生活及行使功用。但是這樣會引一種困難,讓人難於忍受的困難情境。本能因此應該被修正,或被「昇華」,如俗語所說。我們如何能夠做到這一點,而不會造成新的壓抑呢?沒有人能夠充分解釋。「應該」這個小字眼總是證明心理治療師的無助。那等於是承認,自己黔驢技窮。

178c
The final appeal to reason would be very fine if man were by nature a rational animal, but he is not; on the contrary, he is quite as much irrational. Hence reason is often not sufficient to modify the instinct and make it conform to the rational order. Nobody
can conceive the moral, ethical, philosophical, and religious conflicts that crop up at this stage of the problem– the facts surpass all imagination. Every conscientious and truth-loving psychotherapist could tell a tale here, though naturally not in public.

假如人的天性是一個理性的動物,最後訴諸於理性將是很好。但事實上人並不是理性的動物。相反的,人同樣有非理性的一面。因此,理性往往不足以修正本能,並且使它跟理性的秩序一致。沒有人能夠構想,在問題的階段,突然發生的道德,倫理,哲學,及宗教的衝突。這些事實超越一切的想像。每位用心而愛好真理的心理治療師在此都會有故事可說,當然可不是公開地說。

All the contemporary problems, all the philosophical and religious questionings of our day, are raked up, and unless either the psychotherapist or the patient abandons the attempt in time it is likely to get under both their skins. Each will be driven to a discussion of his philosophy of life, both with himself and with his partner. There are of course forced answers and solutions, but in principle and in the long run they are
neither desirable nor satisfying. No Gordian knot can be permanently cut; it has the awkward property of always tying itself again.

所有當代的問題,所有我們這個時代的哲學及宗教的問題,都被挖掘出來。除非心理治療師或是病人及時放棄這個企圖,否則只是自尋煩惱。每個人都會被迫討論他的人生哲學,跟自己或是跟同伴討論。當然,會因此被迫提出回答及解決方法。原則上,終歸到底,這些回答及解決方法並不是我們所渴望,也不會令人滿意。有的問題就像「高地斯結」,無法一勞永逸地快刀斬亂麻,它們總是剪不斷,理還亂。

Rake up—to find with difficulty 挖掘出來
Get under their skins 引起懊惱to cause someone to become annoyed or angry
Gordian knot—棘手的難題Any very difficult problem; insoluble in its own terms
高地斯結典故
An intricate knot tied by Gordius, the king of Phrygia, and cut by the sword of Alexander the Great after he heard that whoever undid it would become ruler of Asia
古代菲吉亞國王,高地斯綁的複雜的結。亞力山大帝聽到說,誰能解開這個結,誰就能成為亞細亞統治者,他用劍予以斬斷。

179
This philosophical discussion is a task which psychotherapy necessarily sets itself, though not every patient will come down to basic principles. The question of the measuring rod with which to measure, of the ethical criteria which are to determine
our actions, must be answered somehow, for the patient may quite possibly expect us to account for our judgments and decisions.

哲學的討論是一項心理治療必須賦予自己的工作,儘管並不是每一位病人都能談論基本的原則。我們用來測量的標準尺碼問題,應該決定我們的行動的倫理標準,必須獲得某種回答,因為病人相當可能期望我們說明我們的判斷及決定。

The question of the measuring rod with which to measure must be answered.
= The question of the measuring rod which we can measure with must be answered.
我們用來測量的標準尺碼問題,必須獲得某種回答。

Come down to basic principles 談論基本原則to talk about facts or practical matters

179b
Not all patients allow themselves to be condemned to infantile inferiority because of our refusal to render such an account, quite apart from the fact that a therapeutic blunder of this kind would be sawing off the branch on which we sit.

有時我們會拒絕提供這樣的說明,因為這種方式的治療錯誤,會動搖我們立足點的根基。但並不是每一位元病人都會容許他們像嬰兒時期的自卑,接受醫生的高高在上。

Condemn—被迫接受,認命to force somebody to accept a difficult or unpleasant situation
They are condemned to a life of hardship. 他們被迫接受一種困苦的生活。

Saw off the branch on which we sit 動搖我們本身的立場

Not….because of
I did not marry him because of his riches.
我並不是因為他很富裕,才跟她結婚
I did not marry him, because he was poor.
我沒有跟他結婚,因為他很窮。

Not all
Not all patients allow themselves to be condemned to infantile inferiority because of our refusal to render such an account,
= When we doctors refuse to render such an account, some patients allow themselves to be condemned to infantile inferiority, while others don’t.
有時我們會拒絕提供這樣的說明,但並不是每一位元病人都會容許他們像嬰兒時期的自卑,接受醫生的高高在上。

179c
In other words, the art of psychotherapy requires that the therapist be in possession of avowable, credible, and defensible convictions which have proved their viability either by having resolved any neurotic dissociations of his own or by preventing
them from arising. A therapist with a neurosis is a contradiction in terms.

換句話說,心理治療的藝術要求:治療師應該擁有可明言,可信任,可辯護的信念。這些信念要能解決屬於他自己的神經症的分裂,或是阻止神經症的分裂產生,
才能證明它們的可行性。一位神經症的治療師,光是就語詞來說,就已經是矛盾。

In other words, the art of psychotherapy requires that the therapist be in possession of avowable, credible, and defensible convictions
= In other words, the art of psychotherapy requires that the therapist should be in possession of avowable, credible, and defensible convictions
換句話說,心理治療的藝術要求,治療師應該擁有可明言,可信任,可辯護的信念。

179d

One cannot help any patient to advance further than one has advanced oneself. On the other hand, the possession of complexes does not in itself signify neurosis, for complexes are the normal foci of psychic happenings, and the fact that they are painful is no proof of pathological disturbance. Suffering is not an illness; it is the normal counter pole to happiness. A complex becomes pathological only when we think we have not got it.

我們心理治療師自己若是固步自封,我們也不可能幫助病人進步。在另一方面,擁有情結的本身,並不就是意味著患有神經症。因為情結是心靈事件的正常聚焦。情結會令人痛苦,這個事實並不足證明,它們會引起病理上的困擾。痛苦並不是一種疾病;它是跟快樂對立的正常情意。只有當我們認為我們完全沒有情結時,情結才會變成是一種疾病。

Foci 焦點(複數形)plural of focus
Counter pole—完全相反 an exact opposite

A complex becomes pathological only when we think we have not got it.
= Only when we think we have not got a complex does it become pathological.
= It is only when we think we have not got a complex that it becomes pathological.
只有當我們認為我們完全沒有情結時,情結才會變成是一種疾病。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Desire 57 Jacques Lacan

April 21, 2011

Desire 57

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN
BOOK VI
Desire and its Interpretation
欲望及其解釋

Seminar 7: 7 January 1959

This extraordinary element to which I will return in ( 2 2 ) connection with the phenomenology of anxiety, and in connection with which I will already indicate to you this distinction which is in Freud’s text, but to which naturally no one has ever paid the least attention in connection with anxiety, between the nuances which separate the pure and simple loss of the subject in the night of subjective indétermination, and this something which is quite different and which is already the
warning, the arousal as one might say of the subject before the danger, and which as such is articulated by Freud in Inhibitions symptoms and anxiety, where Freud introduces a still more astonishing distinction, because it is so phenomenologically
subtle, that it is not easy to translate it into French, between abqewarten (?) which I will try to translate by undergo (subir) to be able to do nothing except to accept it, and vorherqesehen (?) which is to expect it. (tr: GW xiv 199; SE 2J) 166)

在焦慮的現象學,我將會回頭談論的這個特別的元素。關於焦慮的這個現象,我已經跟你們指示在佛洛伊德文本裏的這個區別,當然,根本也沒有人去注意有關這個焦慮。在主體性猶豫不決定的夜晚,生命主體的純粹損失,與這個某件完全不同,已經是警告的東西,分別的細微的變化。生命主體在危險之前的覺醒,我們不妨這樣說。這個覺醒本身,被佛洛伊德所表達,在「壓抑、病徵與焦慮」一書裏。佛洛伊德介紹一個更加令人驚奇的區別。因為在現象的呈現很微妙,我們不容易將它翻譯成法文。我設法以這個「經歷」翻譯這個「abqewarten」 與期望它的「vorherqesehen」的區別。我別無它法,除了就是接受它,

It is in this register, in this range that there is situated the accentuated affect in the sadistic phantasy, and in so far as it is attached to the other, to the partner, to the one who is face to face with us, little o on this occasion.

就在這個銘記,這個範圍,受虐狂幻見的被強調的情意,被定位在那裏。它依附著它者,伴侶,依附著跟他在這個場合面面相覷的小客體。

After all where is this subject who, on this occasion, is the prey to something which he lacks precisely to know where he is?

畢竟,這個生命主體在哪里,在這個場合,這個生命主體成為某件他所欠缺的東西的獵物,為了知道他在哪里?

It would be easy to say that he is between the two. I will go further, I will say that in the final analysis the subject is to such a degree, really between the two, that if there is one thing here to which he is identical, or that he illustrates in an exemplary fashion, it is the role of that with which one strikes, it is the role of the instrument.

我們很容易說,他是處於這兩個之間。我再深入地說,最後的結果是,生命主體有相當程度是處於這兩個之間。假如在此有某件東西,是他所認同的,或是作為典範說明的,那就是我們用來打擊的角色,這個工具的角色。

It is to the instrument that he is here, in the last analysis, identical, because here the
instrument reveals to us, and always to our stupefaction – and (23) always with more reason to our great astonishment, except that we do not wish to see it – that it intervenes very frequently as the essential character in what we are trying to articulate as the imaginary structure of desire.

最後的結果是,他認同這個工具,因為在此,這個工具跟我們顯示,總是令我們驚慌失措,總是振振有理地令我們大吃一驚。除了,我們並不希望看到它。它時常介入,作為基本的特性,在我們設法要表達的東西,作為欲望在想像界的結構。

And this indeed is what is the most paradoxical, the most full of warning for us. It is the fact that in short it is under this signifier, here completely unveiled in its nature as signifier, that the subject manages to abolish himself in so far as he grasps himself on this occasion in his essential being. If it is true that with Spinoza we may say that this essential being is his desire.

這的確是最矛盾的部分,對於我們是警告重重的部分。總之,在這個能指之下,在此它的特性完全被揭露作為能指。生命主體成功地廢除他自己,當他在基本生命實存的這個場合理解自己。對於哲學家史賓諾莎,我們確實可以說:這個基本的生命實存就是他的欲望。

And in effect it is to this same crossroads that we are led every time that the problematic of sexuality is posed for us. If the pivotal point from which we began two years ago, which was precisely that of the phallic phase in the woman, is constituted
by this relay station to which Jones always comes back in the course of his discussion, in order to begin again from it to elaborate it, to really ………… it.

實際上,我們被引導到這個相同的十字路口,每當性的難題跟我們提出。假如兩年前我們從那裏開始的這個軸心點,確實就是女人身上陽具部分的軸心點。它由這個轉接站所建構。在討論的過程,鐘斯先生總是回到這個轉接站,為了重新從那裏建構它,為了真正的、、、它。

Jones’ text on this subject has the value of being an analytical elaboration. The central point is the relationship between the hatred for the mother and the desire for the phallus. It is from this that Freud began. It is around this that he sees beginning the really fundamental, genetic character of the exigency for the phallus at the emergence from the Oedipus complex for the boy, at the entry into the Oedipus complex for
the woman. This is the connecting point. Hatred for the mother, desire for the phallus. Which is the proper meaning of this Penisneid.

鐘斯討論這個生命主體的文本,擁有精神分析建構的價值。重點是對於母親的仇恨及對陽具的欲望。佛洛伊德就是從這裏開始。環繞這一點,他看出對於陽具迫切性的這個真正基本,基因的特性,開始于男孩的伊底普斯情結,開始于進入對於女人的伊底普斯情結。這就是連接點。對於母親的仇恨,對於陽具的欲望,哪一個才是「陽具羡慕」的適當意義?

Now Jones, quite correctly, underlines the ambiguities which are met every time we make use of it. Whether it is a desire to have (24) a penis with respect to an other, namely a rivalry, it is all the same necessary that it should present itself in an
ambiguous way which shows us that it is beyond that its meaning must be sought. The desire for the phallus, means desire mediated by the mediating phallus. An essential role that the phallus plays in the materialisation of desire.

現在,鐘斯相當正確地,強調被遭遇到的這些模糊曖昧,每當我們利用它時。是否這是一種欲望,想要擁有一個陽具,關於一位它者,也就是敵意的那方。這仍然是需要的的,它應該以模糊的方式呈現它自己。我們從這裏發現:它的意義必須在超越它的地方尋找。對於陽具的欲望,意味著欲望受到仲介的陽具所仲介。陽具扮演的基本的角色,具體地實踐欲望。

This leads us to pose, to introduce what we are going to have to develop subsequently in our analysis of the construction of phantasy, at a crossroads which is the following: namely that the problem when all is said and done is to know how there is going to be sustained this relationship of the signifier phallus in the imaginary experience which is hers, in so far as it is profoundly structured by the narcissistic forms which organise
her relationships with her counterpart as such.

這引導我們提出,介紹我們精神分析學對於陽具的建構,隨後將必須發展。在以下的這個十字路口。換句話是,當衡量一切之後,問題是要知道,這個能指點陽具的這個關係,在想像界的經驗裏,要如何能個維持。這個陽具能指屬於她,因為它由自戀的形式所深深架構。這些自戀形式組織她跟她的對應之物的關係。

It is between S as speaking subject, little o, namely this other which the subject has in herself. Little o, it is to this then that we have identified her today. It is the imaginary other, it is what the subject has in herself as “drive”, in the sense that the word drive is put in inverted commas, where it is not yet the developed drive, caught up in the signifying dialectic, where it is the drive in its primitive character where the drive presents one or other manifestation of need in the subject.

就在這個生命主體,作為言說的生命主體。也就是生命主體在自己身上擁有的這個「它者」。今天,我們已經將她認同是O 這個小客體。這是在想像界的「它者」,生命主題在她自己身上擁有的東西,作為「欲望驅力」。「欲望驅力」這個字詞,被用引號的意義來表達。在那裏,它是尚未是被發展的欲望驅力,套陷在能指化的辯證法當中。在那裏,它是原始特性的欲望驅力。在那裏,欲望驅力在生命主體身上呈現一兩個需要的證明。

An image of the other, namely that in which, through the mediation of the specular reflection of the subject in situating her needs, is at the horizon something different, namely what I called at the beginningg the first identification to the other, in the radical sense, the identification to the insignia of the other, namely the signifier of capital I over o. (?)

「它者」的一個意象,也就是生命主體定位她的需要時,自我理想魅影的反映,透過這個反映的仲介,某件不同的東西出現在地平線那裏。換句話說,我所稱為的東西,在最早對於「它者」認同的開始。以積極的意義而言,對於這個「大它者」的標誌的認同,換句話說,大寫字母的「我」的能指,跨越在「大它者」之上。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

心理治療與人生哲學 76

April 21, 2011

VI
Psychotherapy and a Philosophy of Life
心理治療與人生哲學 76

Carl Jung
卡爾 榮格

175
So much is psychotherapy the child of practical improvisation that for a long time it had trouble in thinking out its own intellectual foundations. Empirical psychology relied very much at first on physical and then on physiological ideas, and ventured only with some hesitation on the complex phenomena which constitute its proper field.

心理治療往往是實踐時權宜的產物,所以長久以來,它很難想出,它有什們知識方面的基礎。實驗心理學起初主要是依靠身體,然後依靠生理的觀念。再來就是依靠組成實驗心理學本體領域的複雜現象,猶豫謹慎地前進。

Improvisation—未計畫的權宜之計An unplanned expedient

Similarly, psychotherapy was at first simply an auxiliary method; only gradually did it free itself from the world of ideas represented by medical therapeutics and come to understand that its concern lay not merely with physiological but primarily with psychological principles.

同樣地,心理治療起初僅是一種輔助的方法。慢慢地,它才將自己從醫學治療所代表的觀念的領域,解放出來。然後漸漸地瞭解到,它的關注點,不僅是在生理方面,而是主要在心理的原理。

In other words, it found itself obliged to raise psychological issues which soon burst the framework of the experimental psychology of that day with its elementary statements. The demands of therapy brought highly complex factors within the
purview of this still young science, and its exponents very often lacked the equipment needed to deal with the problems that arose.

換句話說,它發現它自己不得不提出心理的議題。這些議題不久就將當時的實驗心理學的架構,跟它的基本陳述分裂開來。治療的要求將高度複雜的因素,帶入這門剛出道的科學可預期的範圍之內。這門科學的提倡者,往往缺乏所需要的裝備來處理所產生的難題。

Purview—能夠被預期的興趣與活動範圍The range of interest or activity that can be anticipated

It is therefore not surprising that a bewildering assortment of ideas, theories, and points of view predominated in all the initial discussions of this new psychology which had been, so to speak, forced into existence by therapeutic experience.

因此,這是不足為奇,當這門新的心理學在最初的討論時,會有各式各樣的觀念,理論及觀點紛至遝來。也就是說,這門新的心理學被迫要依靠治療的經驗,才能生存。

Assortment—各式各樣的東西A collection containing a variety of sorts of things

An outsider could hardly be blamed if he received an impression of babel. This confusion was inevitable, for sooner or later it was bound to become clear that one cannot treat the psyche without touching on man and life as a whole, including
the ultimate and deepest issues, any more than one can treat the sick body without regard to the totality of its functions or rather, as a few representatives of modern medicine maintain, the totality of the sick man himself.

所以我們很難責怪外面的人會接收這樣的印象:新的心理學眾說紛紜。這種混亂是無可避免的,因為這遲早會變得明朗,只要我們是在處理心靈的問題,我們必然會觸及到整體的人跟生命,包括終極及最深刻的議題。正如每當我們治療病人,我們必然會關心到心靈功用的整體性。說得更確實些,就是病人本身的整體性,如一些現代醫學代表所主張的。

One cannot treat the psyche without touching on man and life as a whole.
= Whenever one treats the psyche, one always touches on man and life as a whole.
只要我們是在處理心靈的問題,我們必然會觸及到整體的人跟生命。

One can not treat the sick body without regard to the totality of its functions.
= Whenever one treats the sick, one always shows concern about the totality of its functions.
每當我們治療病人,我們必然會關心到心靈功用的整體性

One cannot treat the psyche without touching on man and life as a whole, including
the ultimate and deepest issues, any more than one can treat the sick body without regard to the totality of its functions
= One cannot treat the psyche without touching on man and life as a whole, including
the ultimate and deepest issues, just as one can not treat the sick body without regard to the totality of its functions

只要我們是在處理心靈的問題,我們必然會觸及到整體的人跟生命,包括終極及最深刻的議題。正如每當我們治療病人,我們必然會關心到心靈功用的整體性。

這個長句翻譯時最容易犯錯的地方,在於它夾雜not….any more than 及 cannot….without 兩個雙邊否定的句型。

Babel—眾聲喧嘩地混亂A confusion of voices and other sounds

Or rather 說得更確實些 used to correct something you have said, or to give more accurate information 例句:
She worked as a secretary, or rather, a personal assistant.
她的工作是秘書,說得確實些,是當個人助理。

176
The more “psychological” a condition is, the greater its complexity and the more it relates to the whole of life. It is true that elementary psychic phenomena are closely allied to physiological processes, and there is not the slightest doubt that the
physiological factor forms at least one pole of the psychic cosmos.

一種病情越是屬於「心理性質」,它的複雜性就越強烈,它就跟生命的整體,就越有關係。的確,基本的心靈現象跟生理的過程息息相關,千真萬確的是生理上的因素,至少會形成心靈宇宙的一個極地。

there is not the slightest doubt—there is no doubt at all 絲毫無可懷疑,千真萬確
pole—極地One of two points of intersection of the Earth’s axis and the celestial sphere

176b
The instinctive and affective processes, together with all the neurotic symptomatology that arises when these are disturbed, clearly rest on a physiological basis. But, on the other hand, the disturbing factor proves equally clearly that it has the power to turn physiological order into disorder. If the disturbance lies in a repression, then the disturbing factor– that is, the repressive force– belongs to a “higher” psychic order.

本能跟情意的過程,再加上它們受到困擾時,引起的所有的腦神經的病症,這些都依靠生理上的基礎。但是,在另一方面,這個令人困擾的因素,同樣清楚地證明:它擁有力量將生理的規律秩序,轉變成為疾病。假如這個困擾是在於受到壓抑,那麼這個令人困擾的因素,換句話說,這個壓抑的力量,就屬於「較高」的心靈的層次。

176c
It is not something elementary and physiologically conditioned, but, as experience shows, a highly complex determinant, as for example certain rational, ethical, aesthetic, religious, or other traditional ideas which cannot be scientifically proved to have any physiological basis. These extremely complex dominants form the other pole of the psyche. Experience likewise shows that this pole possesses an energy many times greater than that of the physiologically conditioned psyche.

這並不是某件基本及被生理制約的東西,而是一個高度複雜的決定因素,這是我們根據心理治療經驗所發現的。例如,某些的理性,倫理,美學,宗教,或是其他傳統的觀念,它們都無法經由科學證明是具有任何生理上的事實。這些極端複雜的佔優勢的東西,形成心靈的另外一個極地。根據心理治療的經驗,我們同樣發現,這個極地擁有一種能源,比起受到生理制約的心靈的極地,強大好幾倍。

Dominant—佔優勢地位
As experience shows, it is a highly complex determinant.
= According to psychotherapeutic experience, we discover that it is a highly complex determinant.
它是一個高度複雜的決定因素,這是我們根據心理治療經驗所發現的。

Experience likewise shows that this pole possesses an energy many times greater than that of the physiologically conditioned psyche.
= According to psychotherapeutic experience, we discover that this pole possesses an energy which is many times greater than the energy of the physiologically conditioned psychic.
根據心理治療的經驗,我們同樣發現,這個極地擁有一種能源,比起受到生理制約的心靈的極地,強大好幾倍。

177
With its earliest advances into the field of psychology proper, the new psychotherapy came up against the problem of opposites —a problem that is profoundly characteristic of the psyche. Indeed, the structure of the psyche is so contradictory or contrapuntal that one can scarcely make any psychological assertion or general statement without having immediately to state its opposite.

這門新的治療學最初進入心理學特有的領域時,遭遇到許多矛盾對立的難題。這種難題是心靈的深刻特色。的確,心靈的結構是如此的矛盾及相反,以致於我們每次發表心理的主張或一般的陳述,我們幾乎立刻就會陳述它的矛盾對立。

Proper明確特有的 Limited to the thing specified
Come up against 遭遇到
Contrapuntal—相反的Relating to or characteristic of or according to the rules of counterpoint

One can scarcely make any psychological assertion or general statement without having immediately to state its opposite.
= Whenever one makes any psychological assertion or general statement, one always has immediately to state its opposite.
每次發表心理的主張或一般的陳述,我們幾乎立刻就會陳述它的矛盾對立。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Desire 56 Jacques Lacan

April 20, 2011

Desire 56

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN
BOOK VI
Desire and its Interpretation
欲望及其解釋

Seminar 7: 7 January 1959

Something essential, as Freud quite correctly says, has happened between the first and the second phase, namely no other than this something in which she saw the other being cast down from his dignity as a subject set up as a little rival. Something has opened up in her which makes her perceive that it is in this very possibility of subjective cancellation that there resides her whole being qua existing being; and it is there, in having the closest brush with this abolition, that she measures the very dimension in which she subsists as a being subject to willing, a being who can express a wish.

在第一階段及第二階段之間,某件基本的東西曾經發生,如同佛洛伊德說得很正確,道道地地就是這個某件東西。她看到另外一個實存從他的尊嚴被拋棄下來,作為一個生命主體被建立,當一個小對手。在她身上有某件東西曾經展開,使她感覺,就是這個生命主體取消的可能性,她的整個生命實存駐紮那裏,作為存在的實體。就是在那裏,跟這個廢除有最密切的摩擦。她測量這個維度。在那裏,她生存,作為隸屬於意志的實存,能夠表達願望的實存。

What does the whole phenomenology of masochism show us, the material that we must all the same go looking for in masochistic literature whether we like it or not, whether it is pornographic or not? Let us take a famous novel, or a recent novel put out by a semi-clandestine publisher. What after all is the essence of the masochistic phantasy? It is the representation by the subject of something, of a slope, of a series of imagined experiences, whose bank, whose edge essentially consists in the fact that at the limit she is purely and simply treated as a thing, as something which at the limit is haggled over, is sold, is mistreated, is cancelled out as regards every kind of properly
speaking votive possibility of grasping herself autonomously.

受虐狂的整個現象跟我們顯示什麼?我們仍然必須受虐狂的文獻裏,去尋找的材料,無論我們喜歡與否,無論是色情的材料與否。讓我們以一篇著名的小說為例,
或是一篇最近的小說,由一位半隱密的出版商出版。畢竟,受虐的幻見的本質是什麼?這是某件東西,某個斜坡,一連串想像的經驗的生命主體的再現符號。他的賭本,他的邊緣,基本上在於這個事實:說到極點,她純然是被對待,當著是一個物,當著某件東西。說到極點,她被討價還價,被販賣,被虐待,被取消。適當來說,她祈望可能自主地理解她自己。

She is treated like a phantasy, like a dog we could say, and not just any dog: a dog who is mistreated, precisely like an already mistreated dog.

她被對待就像一個幻見,像一條狗,我們不妨這樣說。不僅像任何一條狗,一條被虐待的狗。確實就是像一條已經被虐待的狗。

(20)
This is the point, the pivotal point, the foundation of the supposed transformation in the subject who seeks to find where this point of oscillation, this point of equilibrium, this product of this barred S is, which is what he has to enter into if he enters, if once having entered into the dialectic of the word he must somewhere formulate himself as subject.

這就是重點,樞紐,生命主體被認為是轉變的基礎。這位生命主體設法找到搖擺的這一點,平衡的這一點,這個被禁止的生命能指的產品是什麼。這是他必須開始的東西。假如他一定開始這個文字的辯證法,他必須在某個地方說明他自己,作為生命的主體。

But when all is said and done the neurotic subject is like Picasso, he does not search, he finds. Because this is how Picasso once expressed himself. A really splendid formula. And in fact there is a type of person who searches, and there is a type who finds.

但是衡量一切之後,神經症的生命主體,就像畢卡索,他沒有尋找,他是找到。因為這是畢卡索有一度表達他自己的方法。一種輝煌的公式。事實上,有一種人在尋找,有一種人是找到。

Believe me, neurotics, namely everything that is spontaneously produced from this embrace between man and his word, find. And I would point out that trouver comes from the Latin tropus, very prerecisely from what I speak about incessantly, the difficulties of rhetoric. It is very curious that the word which in the Romance languages designates trouver, contrary to what occurs in the Germanic languages where another root is used, is borrowed from the language of rhetoric.

請相信我,神經症患者,換句話說,從人與他的字詞之間的這個掌握,自動自發產生的一切東西。我將指出:「找到trouver」這個字詞來自拉丁字「借喻tropus」,確實是來自我不斷談論到的東西,修飾學的困難。耐人尋味的是,這個字詞,從拉丁語系的語言的意指「找到trouver」,跟日爾曼語系所發生的內容相反。在後者,它有另外一個字根,從修飾學的語言借用過來。

Let us pause for an instant at this third moment of the point where the subject has “found”. This we have immediately. It is perhaps worthwhile dwelling on it. In the – phantasy: “A child is being beaten”, what do we have? It is “One” who beats. It is
quite clear, and Freud insists on it. There is nothing to be done about it, she is asked: But who is beating? It is somebody or other.

讓我們暫停一下子,在這個點的第三時刻,生命主體在那裏已經「找到」。我們立刻擁有這個。可能詳述一下是值得的。在這個幻見:「小孩正在挨打」,我們領悟到什麼?那就是「有一個人」在打。那是顯而易見的,佛洛伊德堅持這一點。對於這個鞭打,她無可奈何,她被問。但是是誰在打?是某個人在打。

The subject is really evasive. It is only after a certain interpretative elaboration, when one has rediscovered the first phase that one can rediscover a certain paternal figure or image beneath this form, the form in which the subject has found her phantasy, in so far as the phantasy serves as a support for (21) her desire, for her masturbatory performance. At that very moment the subject is perfectly neutralised.

生命主體確實難以捉摸。只有經過某種的解釋建構後,當我們重新發現這個第一階段,我們才能夠重新發現某種父親的人物,或是這個形式的意象。在這個形式裏,生命主體已經找到她的幻見。因為幻見可充當是她的欲望的一種支持,支持她的手淫的表現。就在那個時刻,生命主體完全中立於男女的區分。

It is One. And what is beaten so much, it is no less difficult to grasp, is multiple. [German quotation] Several children, boys when it is a question of the girl, but not necessarily with an obligatory relationship between the sex of the child who is phantasised and the sex of the phantasised image.

這就是「打的那個人」。同樣難於理解的是,挨打得如此嚴重,有各式各樣。好幾個小孩挨打,就女孩而言,那就是很多男孩挨打。但是被幻想的小孩的性別,跟被幻想中的意象的性別之間,未必有必然的關係。

The greatest variations, the greatest uncertainties also reign around this theme in which we know well that, from whatever angle it may be, o or o’, whether it is i(o) or o, the child participates up to a certain point, because it is she who constructs the phantasy. But in fact the child never situates herself in a precise fashion, in an univocal fashion, in a fashion which is not precisely oscillating indefinitely.

最大的變數,最大的不確定性,也支配著這個主題。在這個主題,我們知道得很清楚:無論它是哪一個角度,0或是 0‘ ,「理想的自我」或是「它者」的角度,小孩參與到某個程度。因為是他在建構這個幻見。但是事實上,小孩從來沒有定位他自己在一個確實的方式,以一個明確的方式,以一個並不是確實無限搖擺的方式。

But what we would like to put the accent on here, is something very close to what I called above the distribution between the intrasubjective elements of the dream. On the one hand in the sadistic phantasy, this one here, and in the ………..phantasy that one can observe in their almost complete development.

但是我們想要在此強調的是,某件非常靠近我以上所謂的分配,處於夢的生命主體內部的元素。一方們,在虐待狂的幻見裏,在這裏的這個幻見,另一方面,在我們能夠觀察到的這個幻見,在它們幾乎是完整的發展。

I will ask where the accentuated affect is? The accentuated affect, just as in the dream it was referred to the dreaming subject, this form of pain is undoubtedly a sadistic phantasy, refers to the phantasised image, but of the partner. What is in suspense in the sadistic phantasy – and the sadistic phantasy, provided it is a little conscious and refined, is often very well able to dwell on it – is the expectation of the partner. It is
the partner, not so much in so far as he is beaten, in so far as he is going to be, or that he does not even know how he is going to be.

我將會問,這個被強調的情意是什麼?這個被強調的情意,如同在夢中,它被提到正在作夢的生命的主體。這個痛苦的這個形式,無可置疑的,是一個虐待狂的幻見,提到被幻想的意象,但是伴侶的被幻想的意象。在這個虐待狂的幻見裏受到懸置的是,這個虐待狂的幻見,只是它有一點在意識層面,而且被修飾,往往能夠詳述它。那就是對於伴侶的期望。就是這個伴侶,倒不是因為他挨打,或他將會被挨打,或是他甚至不知道,他會被如何處置。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com