Carl Jung
卡爾 榮格

Mythologems are the aforementioned “portions of the world” which belong to the structural elements of the psyche. They are constants whose expression is everywhere and at all times the same.



Mythologem—a basic theme, as of revenge, self-sacrifice, or betrayal, that is shared by cultures throughout the world.


Portion 宿命Your overall circumstances or condition in life (including everything that happens to you) 你人生的全面情境或情況(包括發生在你身上的一切)

Constant –常數A number representing a quantity assumed to have a fixed value in a specified mathematical context

You may ask in some consternation: What has all this to do with psychotherapy? That neuroses are somehow connected with instinctual disturbances is not surprising. But, as biology shows, instincts are by no means blind, spontaneous, isolated impulses; they are on the contrary associated with typical situational patterns and cannot be released unless existing conditions correspond to the a priori pattern. The collective contents expressed in mythologems represent such situational patterns, which are so intimately connected with the release of instinct. For this reason knowledge of them is of the highest practical importance to the psychotherapist.

Consternation—驚駭Fear resulting from the awareness of danger

The collective contents expressed in mythologems represent such situational patterns,
=The collective contents which are expressed in mythologems represent such situational patterns,

Clearly, the investigation of these patterns and their properties must lead us into fields that seem to lie infinitely far from medicine. That is the fate of empirical psychology, and its misfortune: to fall between all the academic stools. And this comes precisely from the fact that the human psyche has a share in all the sciences, because it forms at least half the ground necessary for the existence of them all.


Fall between stools—處於兩個機會之間,猶豫不決,兩頭落空to make a complete failure by hesitating between two opportunities or trying to use both

It should be clear from the foregoing discussion that everything psychotherapy has in common with symptomatology clinically understood i.e., with the medical picture is, I will not say irrelevant, but of secondary importance in so far as the medical picture of disease is a provisional one. The real and important thing is the psychological picture, which can only be discovered in the course of treatment behind the veil of pathological symptoms.


Provisional—for the time being, temporary 暫時的

In order to get closer to the sphere of the psyche, the ideas derived from the sphere of medicine are not enough. But, to the extent that psychotherapy, considered as part of the healing art, should never, for many cogent reasons, slip out of the doctor’s control and should therefore be taught in medical faculties, it is forced to borrow from the other sciences– which is what other medical disciplines have been doing for a long time. Yet whereas medicine in general can limit its borrowings to the natural sciences, psychotherapy needs the help of the humane sciences as well.


In order to complete my account of the differences between medicine and psychotherapy, I ought really to describe the phenomenology of those psychic processes which manifest themselves in the course of treatment and do not have their
counterpart in medicine. But such an undertaking would exceed the compass of my lecture, and I must therefore refrain. I trust, however, that the little I have been privileged to say has thrown some light on the relations between psychotherapy
and the medical art.



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