醫學與心理治療88

VII
MEDICINE AND PSYCHOTHERAPY
醫學與心理治療88

Carl Jung
卡爾 榮格

199
Psychotherapy can be practised in a great variety of ways, from psychoanalysis, or something of that kind, to hypnotism, and so on right down to cataplasms of honey and possets of bat’s dung. Successes can be obtained with them all. So at least it
appears on a superficial view. On closer inspection, however, one realizes that the seemingly absurd remedy was exactly the right thing, not for this particular neurosis, but for this particular human being, whereas in another case it would have been
the worst thing possible.

心理治療的實踐方式,可說是各式各樣,從精神分析,諸如其類的東西,到催眠術,等等。一直到蜂蜜的泥氨劑與蝙蝠的糞便。各式各樣都有其療效之處。至少,從外表的觀點來看。可是,當我們更仔細的檢視之後,我們體會到,表面看來是荒謬的療法,確實是正確的,倒不是對於這個特別的神經症患者,而是就這個特別的人而言。但是假如這個療法被運用到另外一個個案,那本來會是糟糕到極點。

cataplasms of honey 蜂蜜的泥氨劑
possets of bat’s dung. 蝙蝠的糞便

in another case it would have been the worst thing possible.
= If this remedy had been used in another case, it would have been the worst thing possible.
假如這個療法被運用到另外一個個案,那本來會是糟糕到極點。

199b

Medicine too is doubtless aware that sick people exist as well as sicknesses; but psychotherapy knows first and foremost –or rather should know –that its proper concern is not the fiction of a neurosis but the distorted totality of the human being. True, it too has tried to treat neurosis like an ulcus cruris, where it matters not a jot for the treatment whether the patient was the apple of her father’s eye or whether she is a Catholic, a Baptist, or what not; whether the man she married be old or young, and all the rest of it. Psychotherapy began by attacking the symptom, just as medicine did.

無可置疑的,醫學界也知道,求診的不僅是疾病,而且是病人本身。但是心理治療尤其知道,或說得更精確些,應該知道:它的適當的關注點,並不是神經症患者的虛構想像,而是作為人的整體受到扭曲。的確,它也曾經設法治療神經症患者,就像是治療慢性靜脈腫瘤潰瘍。治療慢性靜脈腫瘤潰瘍時,病人是否是父親眼中的寶貝女兒,或是天主教徒,浸信教會教徒,等等,她嫁的丈夫年老或是年輕,等等,這些都絲毫無關緊要。心理治療首先開始就是處理病徵,如同醫學界的做法一樣。

Ulcus Cruris is an ulceration of the lower leg that is caused by chronic venous .
慢性靜脈腫瘤引起的腳下肢潰瘍
Not a jot – 絲毫沒有 not at all ( used to mean “ not even a small amount” when are emphasizing a negative statement.

199c
Despite its undeniable youthfulness as a scientifically avowable method, it is yet as old as the healing art itself and, consciously or otherwise, has always remained mistress of at least half the medical field. Certainly its real advances were made only in the last half century when, on account of the specialization needed, it withdrew to the narrower field of the psychoneuroses. But here it recognized relatively quickly that to attack symptoms or, as it is now called, symptom analysis was only half the story, and that the real point is the treatment of the whole psychic, human being.

儘管無可否認的,心理治療剛出道不久,作為自承是科學的療法。可是,作為治療技藝的本身,它卻有悠久的歷史。無論人們意識到,或是沒有,至少有一半的醫學領域,總是以它充當輔助。的確,在過去半世紀來,它才真正的突飛猛進。因為醫院診療分科的需要,它被歸類到神經官能症這個狹窄的領域。但是,它相對快速地體認到:處理病徵,也就是現在所謂的「病徵分析」,只是治療的半途,真正的重點是:它治療的人的心靈要完整。

200
What does this mean: the whole psychic human being?
人的心靈要完整,這句話是什麼意思?

201
Medicine in general has to deal, in the first place, with man as an anatomical and physiological phenomenon, and only to a lesser degree with the human being psychically defined. But this precisely is the subject of psychotherapy. When
we direct our attention to the psyche from the viewpoint of the natural sciences, it appears as one biological factor among many others. In man this factor is usually identified with the conscious mind, as has mostly been done up to now by the so-called humane sciences as well.

一般的醫學首先必須處理的是將人視為解剖及生理的現象,被視為心靈定義的人,被處理的僅是較少數。但是心靈確實是心理治療的主體。當我們將我們的注意力,從自然科學的觀點,轉移到心靈,在諸多因素當中,心靈出現作為一個生物的因素。在人身上,這個因素通常認同於意識的精神,直到現在,這個意識的精神也是所謂的人文科學研究的客體。

201b
I subscribe entirely to the biological view that the psyche is one such factor, but at the same time I am given to reflect that the psyche in this case, consciousness occupies
an exceptional position among all these biological factors. For without consciousness it would never have become known that there is such a thing as a world, and without the psyche there would be absolutely no possibility of knowledge, since the object must go through a complicated physiological and psychic process of change in order to become a psychic image. This image alone is the immediate object of knowledge. The existence of the world has two conditions: it to exist, and us to know it.

我完全接納這種生物的觀點:心靈是這樣一個因素。但是同時我常常會反思:處於這種情況的心靈,意識佔據所有這些生物的因素中,一個特殊的地位。假如沒有意識,我們本來永遠不會知道:世界這樣一個東西的存在。假如沒有心靈,我們絕對不可能產生知識。因為客體必須經歷一個複雜的生理及心靈的改變過程,才能成為一個心靈的意象。光是這個意象,就已經是知識當下的客體。世界的存在有兩個條件:一是它本身存在;二是我們認識它。

Subscribe to 接納作為信仰Adopt as a belief
Be given to—往往to do something often or regularly

202
Now, whether the psyche is understood as an epiphenomenon of the living body, or as an ens per se, makes little difference to psychology, in so far as the psyche knows itself to exist and behaves as such an existent, having its own phenomenology
which can be replaced by no other. Thereby it proves itself to be a biological factor that can be described phenomenologically like any other object of natural science.

現在,心靈是否被瞭解為具有生命的身體的附帶現象,或本身就是作為「物質」,就心理學而已,這並無關緊要。因為心靈知道自己的存在,並且作為這樣一種存在在運作。心靈有它自己的現象,這些現象無法被其他的現象所取代。因此,心靈證明自己是一種生物的因素,能夠從現象方面來描述,如同任何其他的自然科學的研究的物件。

Epiphenomenon 附帶現象
Ens per se—物質substance

202b
The beginnings of a phenomenology of the psyche lie in psychophysiology and experimental psychology on the one hand, and, on the other, in descriptions of diseases and the diagnostic methods of psychopathology (e.g., association experiments and Rorschach’s irrational ink-blots). But the most convincing evidence is to be found in every manifestation of psychic life, in the humane sciences,
religious and political views and movements, the arts, and so forth.

心靈現象學的開端,一方面,存在于心理物理學及實驗心理學;另一方面,存在於疾病的描述及心理病理學的預診療法(例如,字詞自由聯想試驗與羅夏克墨蹟測驗)。但是被找到的最令人信服的證據,在心靈生活的每一個展示裏,在人文科學裏,在宗教與政治的觀點及運動,藝文活動,等等地方。

203
The “whole psychic human being” we were asking about thus proves to be nothing less than a world, that is, a microcosm, as the ancients quite rightly thought, though for the wrong reasons. The psyche reflects, and knows, the whole of existence, and everything works in and through the psyche.

我們正在探尋的這個「完整心靈的人」,因此證明道道地地是一個世界。換句話說,一個小宇宙,如同古代人合宜的設想,雖然理由並不正確。心靈會反思,會知道整個的生命存在,萬物在心靈裏,並且憑藉心靈在運作。

雄伯收集參照資料:

墨跡測驗或稱為羅夏克墨漬測驗是人格測驗的投射技術之一,由瑞士精神醫生羅夏克(Rorschach)於1921年最先編製。

測驗由10張有墨漬的卡片組成,其中5張是白底黑墨水,2張是白底及黑色或紅色的墨水,另外3張則是彩色的。受試者會被要求回答他們最初認為卡片看起來像什麼及後來覺得像什麼。心理學家再根據他們的回答及統計數據判斷受試者的性格。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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