Archive for March, 2011

雄伯手記100329

March 29, 2011

雄伯手記100329
Carl Jung 榮格
PRINCIPLES OF PRACTICAL PSYCHOTHERAPY 1
A. 實踐心理治療的原則1
B. 實用心理治療的原則
1
Psychotherapy is a domain of the healing art which has developed and acquired a certain independence only within the last fifty years.
A. 心理治療是一門療愈的藝術,只於近50年來才得到發展,獲得一定程度之獨立性。
B. 心理治療屬於療愈藝術的領域。在最近五十年來,它才蓬勃發展,獨當一面。
2
Views in this field have changed and become differentiated in a great variety of ways, and the mass of experience accumulated has given rise to all sorts of different interpretations.
A. 此領域的很多觀念都發生了變化,並且以諸多方式產生進一步分化,大量增長的經驗引發了五花八門的解釋。
B. 這個領域的觀點已經改變,並且再細分為各科的心理學。日積月累的豐富經驗,產生種種不同的解詮釋。
3
The reason for this lies in the fact that psychotherapy is not the simple, straightforward method people at first believed it to be, but, as has gradually become clear, a kind of dialectical process, a dialogue or discussion between two persons.

A. 這種現象的出現是基於如此一個事實,心理治療不是像人 們當初所以為的那樣,是一種簡單明白、直來直去的方法,而是,正如現在日益明瞭的,一種辯證性過程,一個兩人之間的對話或討論。
B. 出現這個現象的理由,在於這個事實:心理治療不像是人們起初所以為的,是一個簡單而清楚的方法。隨著它已經逐漸明朗,它證明是一種兩個人之間的辯證的過程,對談,或討論。
Straightforward 的意思是「清楚」「沒有曖昧模糊」Free from ambiguity
4
Dialectic was originally the art of conversation among the ancient philosophers, but very early became the term for the process of creating new syntheses.
A. 辯證一詞本來是指古代哲學家的對話藝術,但是很早人們就用這個詞來指稱創造新的綜合體(syntheses)的過程。
B. 辯證一詞原先是古代哲學家彼此之間的交談的藝術。但是很早以來,它就已經成為創造新的綜合的過程。

何謂「創造新的綜合的過程」?請參照哲學家黑格爾的「辯證過程」:
Hegelian dialectic, usually presented in a threefold manner, was stated as comprising three dialectical stages of development: a thesis, giving rise to its reaction, an antithesis, which contradicts or negates the thesis, and the tension between the two being resolved by means of a synthesis.
黑格爾的辯證法,通常以三個步驟被呈現。它被陳述為包含發展的三個辯證過程:先有一「正」,產生它的反動,出現一個「反」,這個「反」會牴觸或否定這個「正」。兩者之間的緊張,要憑藉著「綜合」,來解決。
5
A person is a psychic system which, when it affects another person, enters into reciprocal reaction with another psychic system.
A. 每個人都是一個精神系統,當他對另一個人發生影響時,他就和另一個精神系統開始了交互作用。
B. 每個人都是一個精神系統。這個精神系統影響到另一個人時,會跟另一個精神系統,開始相互反應。
6
This, perhaps the most modern, formulation of the psychotherapeutic relation between physician and patient is clearly very far removed from the original view that psychotherapy was a method which anybody could apply in stereotyped fashion in order to reach the desired result.
A. 這種表述,也許是最新的,對心理治療中醫生和患者關係的說明,顯然和以前的觀點想去甚遠,後者認為,心理治療是一種任何人都能以固定方式運用,以達到此人所欲達成結果的方法。
B. 對於醫生與病人之間的心理治療關係,這種說明可能是最先進的。但是它跟原先的觀點具有天淵之別。原先的心理治療是一種固定模式,人人皆可運用,為了要獲得渴望中的效果。
7
It was not the needs of speculation which prompted this unsuspected and, I might well say, unwelcome widening of the horizon, but the hard facts of reality.
A. 這個對治療觀的意料之外的、也許我要說,也是不受歡迎的擴展,之所以出現,不是出於與眾不同的意圖,而是基於千真萬確的事實。
B. 心理治療的視野,會有這個意想不到的擴展,我很有理由說,這個擴展並不怎麼受歡迎。而且,引起擴展到動機並不是由於審慎盤算的需求,而是根據千真萬確的事實。
Unsuspected—not believed likely 意想不到
Unsuspected difficulties arose. 意想不到的困難出現
Unsuspected turning to the road 意想不到的路的轉彎
May well—have good reason 很有理由
Hard—definitely true and based on information that can be proved 明確地真實,資訊可以驗證
The newspaper story is based on hard facts. 這則新聞報導千真萬確。
8
In the first place, it was probably the fact that one had to admit the possibility of different interpretations of the observed material.
A. 首先,人們也許要承認的是對觀察材料存在不同解釋是一個事實。
B. 首先,這可能是一個事實:我們必須承認,對於資料的觀察,我們的解釋可能會言人人殊。
9
Hence there grew up various schools with diametrically opposed views.
A. 於是這出現了各種彼此臨近又相反的學派觀點。
B. 因此,會有各家學派出現,它們的觀點可能會南轅北轍。
Diametrically–As from opposite ends of a diameter 垂直相反,完全相反
Grow up—arise 出現
10
I would remind you of the Liebeault-Bernheim French method of suggestion therapy, reeducation de la volonte; Babinski’s “persuasion”; Dubois’ “rational psychic orthopedics”; Freud’s psychoanalysis, with its’ emphasis on sexuality and the unconscious;
A. 比如說,李厄保-伯恩海姆(Liébeault-Bernheim)的法國派暗示治療(suggestion therapy) ——意志的再教育( rééducation de la volonté ); 巴賓斯基(Babinski)的“說服”(persuasion), 杜波依斯(Dubois)的“理性精神整形術”(rational psychic orhopedics) , 佛洛德(Freud)強調性和無意識的作用的精神分析。
B. 容我跟你們提醒幾個:,李厄保-伯恩海姆(Liébeault-Bernheim)的法國學派暗示治療(suggestion therapy) ——意志的再教育( rééducation de la volonté ); 巴賓斯基(Babinski)的“說服”(persuasion), 杜波依斯(Dubois)的“理性精神整形術”(rational psychic orhopedics) , 佛洛德(Freud)強調性和無意識的精神分析學。

1

雄伯手記100328d

March 29, 2011

雄伯手記100328d
62
If this statement were unreservedly true, there would be none of that creative fantasy which is responsible for radical changes and innovations.
A. 如果上述言論確實屬實的話,那麼人類就不存在任何創造性的幻想了,也就不會有激進的變革和創新了。
B. 假如這個陳述確實屬實,負責激烈變革及創新的創造性幻想,根本就不可能存在。
2
Therefore our statement must be in part erroneous, since creative fantasy exists and is not simply the prerogative of the unconscious psyche.
C. 然而事實上,人類是存在創造性的幻想的,而且還不是簡單的潛意識心理,由此可見,我們的言論在某些方面是錯誤的。
D. 因此,我們的陳述一定在某個部份是錯誤的。因為創造性的幻想確實存在,而且不僅僅是無意識精神的特權。
not simply的意思是「不僅僅」not only ,跟「簡單」沒有關係。
Prerogative– A right reserved exclusively by a particular person or group 特權
3
Generally speaking, it is an intrusion from the realm of the unconscious, a sort of lucky hunch, different in kind from the slow reasoning of the conscious mind.
A. 一般而言,創造性幻想是很類似潛意識的,是一種幸運的排序,而不像意識想法那般慢慢地輸入。
B. 一般來說,創造性幻想是從無意識的領域闖進了的東西。它是一種靈光的乍現,種類上不同于意識心靈的慢慢推理。
Hunch— An impression that something might be the case 預感
A lucky hunch 幸運的預感,機緣,心血來潮
4
Thus the unconscious is seen as a creative factor, even as a bold innovator, and yet it is at the same time the stronghold of ancestral conservatism.
A. 可見,無意識又是一個很有創造性的因素,甚至是一種大膽的突破,然而同時它又是很具祖先保守主義的堡壘。
B. 因此,無意識被視為是一個創造性的因素,甚至是一位大膽的革新者。可是,它同時又是祖先保守主義的保壘。
5
A paradox, I admit, but it cannot be helped. It is no more paradoxical than man himself and that cannot be helped either.
A. 我得承認,這看起來是一個悖論,然而事實就是這樣的。 這是人類自身無法超越的悖論。
B. 這是一個悖論,我承認,但是無可奈何。我們與其將無意識說成是一個悖論,不如說人的本身也是一個無可奈何的悖論。

這個句子棘手的地方,在於 no more … than 是「雙邊否定」的句型,有點not so much…as 「與其說是、、、不如說是」的意涵。
請參考下面文法書的說明:
F. “No more…than…”表示“不……;不如……”,如:
(14) I can no more do that than anyone else.
與其說我無法做,不如說別的人也無法做。
(15) A learner can no more obtain knowledge without reading than a farmer can get good harvest without ploughing.”
正如農夫不能不勞而獲,學者也不能無閱讀就能充實知識,

“No more……than…”的語義,也可用“not any more than…”來取代,因此 15 可以變成 16。
(16) A learner cannot… any more than …”同樣的, 17可以變成 18:
(17)  Dr Hu is no more a poet than Dr Wu is a philosopher.
(18)   Dr Hu is not a poet any more than Dr Wu is a philosopher.
與其說胡博士是一位詩人,不如說是他是一位哲學家。

It could not be helped 無可奈何的事
= There was no way of avoiding it and we must accept it. 我們沒有辦法逃避它,而且我們必須接受它。
I couldn’t help it if the bus was late. ( = It wasn’t my fault).
假如公車遲來,我也無可奈何。(言下之意,這不是我的錯,別怪我。)

6
There are sound philosophical reasons why our arguments should end in paradox and why a paradoxical statement is the better witness to truth than a one-sided, so-called “positive” statement.
A. 為什麼我們的爭論只能結束在一個悖論上面,為什麼這樣一個似是而非的結論會比那個片面、所謂的“積極”言論更接近真相呢,對於這些疑問,我們似乎有很充分的理由來解答。
B. 我們爭論的結果竟然是一個悖論!而且,比起片面的所謂「正面」的陳述,一個悖論的陳述,還更能彰顯真理,明智的哲學還為它自圓其說。
7
But this is not the place to embark on a lengthy logical discourse.
A. 然而在此我們不便進行太過漫長的邏輯爭辯。
B. 不過,在此我並不便要從事冗長的邏輯論述。]
8
Now if you will bear in mind what we have just said about the significance of the unconscious, and if you will recall our discussion of the regressive tendency, you will discover a further and cogent reason why the patient should have such a tendency and why he is quite justified in having it.
A. 現在,你如果能記住我們剛才所說的關於無意識的意義,如果你還能回憶起我們對退行趨勢的討論,你就會對患者為何會有、且必須有這種退行行為,得到一個有說 服力的理由。
B. 現在,假如你們願意記住我們剛剛所說的,關於無意識的重要性,假如你們願意回想一下,我們有關「倒退傾向」的討論,你們將會發現一個更深刻,更具有說服力的理由:為什麼病人竟然會有這樣一個傾向,以及為什們他擁有這個傾向,還振振有詞。
Now if you will bear in mind what we have just said about the significance of the unconscious, and if you will recall our discussion of the regressive tendency,
假如你們願意記住我們剛剛所說的,關於無意識的重要性,假如你們願意回想一下我們有關「倒退傾向」的討論,
這兩個if 引導的是副詞子句,表示條件。副詞子句裏面通常不能有「未來時態」,裏面的will ,只是表示「願意」,而不是「未來時態」。
= Now if you are willing to bear in mind what we have just said about the significance of the unconscious, and if you are willing to recall our discussion of the regressive tendency,…
significance 可作「重要」及「意義」兩種解釋,通常是根據上下文的內容判斷。我判斷的結果是「重要」,A譯的判斷是「意義」。哪一個比較貼近?願聽高明指教。
You will discover a further and cogent reason why the patient should have such a tendency and why he is quite justified in having it.
你們將會發現一個更深刻,更具有說服力的理由,為什麼病人竟然會有這樣一個傾向,以及為什們他擁有這個傾向,還振振有詞。
why 引導的子句表示驚訝時,用助動詞should 強調。此時,should 譯為「竟然」而不是「應該」。
9
To be retrospective and introspective is a pathological mistake only when it stops short at futilities like incest and other squalid fantasies, or feelings of inferiority.
A. 當患者的退回和反省只是停留在類似亂倫等其他骯髒的幻想中,或患者抱有自卑感時,這是一種病態問題。
B. 回顧與內省若老是逗留在類似亂倫及其它齷齪幻想的無聊行徑,或自卑感,它才會是一種「錯誤診斷」。
Stop short at—to limit one’s actions to 適可而止
It stops short at futilities like incest and other squalid fantasies, or feelings of inferiority.
回顧與內省逗留在類似亂倫及其它齷齪幻想的無聊行徑,或自卑感。
「回顧與內省」中文聽起來像是兩樣東西,可是To be retrospective and introspective 在英文是不定詞片語,充當句子的單數主詞,代替它的代名詞是 it (它), 不是 they「它們」。
Pathological mistake 的意思是「錯誤診斷」,不是A 譯的「病態問題。」
網路上有一篇文章,探討奈及利亞的體育運動的改革問題,用到pathological mistake 這個字眼:
Today, the problem of Nigeria’s sports is not one that can be solved in four months, even if the sports minister has the wand of Prof. Peller, the magician. And I feel that is Adedoja’s pathological mistake!.
今天,奈及利亞的體育運動動,不是四個月就能解決的問題,即使是體育部長擁有像培勒教授,像魔術師一般的魔杖。我覺得,那是他的「錯誤診斷」。
10
Retrospection and introspection should be carried much further, because then the patient will not only discover the true reason for his childhood longings, but, going beyond himself into the sphere of the collective psyche, he will enter first into the treasure-house of collective ideas and then into creativity.
A. 我們需要將患者的這種退回和反省行為再推進一步,因為只有這樣才能幫他不僅發現自己為何會產生那些童年渴望,還能幫他超越自我,進入集體心理領域。生平第一次,患者會進入到那間叫“集體觀念”的殿堂裏,並產生出強大的創造力。
B. 回顧與內省應該再向前推進。只有這樣,病人才能不僅發現,他對於童年如此渴望的真實理由,而且他能超越自我,進入集體潛意識精神的領域,先是進入集體潛意識觀念的寶庫,再進入創造的境界。
11
In this way he will discover his identity with the whole of humanity, as it ever was, is, and ever shall be.
A. 通過這種方式,患者會開始認同人類這個的身份,因為它曾在,現在在,將來還在,會永恆存在。
B. 以這種方式,他將會發現他認同整體人類的命運,如它以前的樣子,目前的
樣子,及未來的樣子。

as 引導的副詞子句,表示樣態manner
as it ever was, is, and ever shall be. 如它以前的樣子,目前的樣子,及未來的樣子。
The writer may present life as it is, as it once was, or as he would like to have it be.
作家呈現人生,可以依照人生現在的樣子,過去的樣子,或是他想要它成為的樣子。
Why don’t leave the fence as it is? 為什麼不讓圍牆保持現在的樣子?
12
He will add to his modest personal possessions which have proved themselves insufficient.
A. 他會越來越謙虛,因為集體心理是那麼地無限。
B. 他會充實他寒傖的私人擁有。這些擁有曾經征明是那麼微不足道。
13
Such acquisitions will strengthen his attitude, and this is the very reason why collective ideas have always been so important.
A. 隨著時間流逝,他會更加地堅定自己的這種態度,這就是為什麼集體觀念會一直如此重要。
B. 這樣的斬獲會增強他的態度。這就是為什麼,集體潛意識的觀念始終如此的重要。
14
It looks as if Freud had got stuck in his own pessimism, clinging as he does to his thoroughly negative and personal conception of the unconscious.
A. 我們可以看到佛洛德似乎一直沉浸在自己那悲觀的情緒中,固執得認定一切都是消極否定的,都是源於一種個體化的潛意識。
B. 佛洛伊德看起來好像沉迷不拔於自己的悲觀主義,因為他緊緊執著於他對於無意識的徹底負面及個人的觀念。
句型研究
clinging as he does to his thoroughly negative and personal conception of the unconscious.
=because he clings to his thoroughly negative and personal conception of the unconscious
因為他緊緊執著於他對於無意識的徹底負面及個人的觀念。
as he does 是加強語氣,does 是助動詞,代替cling to
Living as I do so remote from towns, I rarely have visitors.
因為我住的地方遠離城鎮,我很少有訪客。
I have next to nothing to say about my childhood, except that there was little time left for my own study, living as we did far from the school.
關於我的童年,我幾乎沒有什麼可說,除了我很少有自己上課的時間,因為我們居住的地方遠離學校。
Knowing as they do the character of the government, they can hardly blame the rest of the world.= Because they know the character of the government,…
因為他們知道政府的特質,他們很少責怪其他世界。
15
You get nowhere if you assume that the vital basis of man is nothing but a very personal and therefore very private afJaire scandaleuse.
A. 我則覺得,如果一個人覺得個人生活的重要基石,只是些非常私人化的東西,只是有關自己的一些醜聞,那麼他將註定只在那裏,哪也去不了。
B. 假如你認為,作為人的重要的基礎僅僅就是一些個人,因此也是私人的外遇醜聞,你不會有任何成就。

Affaire –A usually secretive or illicit sexual relationship 外遇或劈腿
Scandaleuse—醜聞
Get nowhere—to fail to make progress; be unsuccessful 沒有進展,沒有成功
The police tried to find out who had stolen the money but they got nowhere in their inquiries.
員警設法找出是誰偷錢,但是他們的調查沒有進展。
He’s a very clever man, but his abilities get him nowhere.
他很聰明,但是他的能力並沒有讓他有任何成就。
16
This is utterly hopeless, and true only to the extent that a Strindberg drama is true
A.、在他眼裏,一切都是無望的,除了斯特林堡戲劇看起來是真實的。
B. 這是全然的絕望,跟斯特林堡的戲劇表現的絕望,別無二致。

11
But pierce the veil of that sickly illusion, and you step out your narrow, stuffy personal corner into the wide realm of the collective psyche, into the healthy and natural matrix of the human mind, into the very soul of humanity.
=But if you pierce the veil of that sickly illusion, you step out your narrow, stuffy personal corner into the wide realm of the collective psyche, into the healthy and natural matrix of the human mind, into the very soul of humanity.
A. 可是,如果你能突破那層病態幻覺的面紗,走出那個狹窄而悶熱的死角,進入到一個很寬闊的集體心理中,你就會發現一個充滿健康和自然的心靈世界,抵 達人類的靈魂。
B. 可是,假如你撕開那種病態幻覺的面紗,你就能走出你那狹窄而窒悶的個人角落,進入集團潛意識精神的寬廣領域,進入人類精神健康而自然的基礎,進入人類的靈魂深處。
12
That is the true foundation on which we can build a new and more workable: attitude.
A. 只有在這裏,我們才能建立起一種新的、更可行的處事態度。(35頁碼完)
B. 那才是真正的基礎。在這個基礎上,我們才能夠培養一種新穎而更加可行的態度。

雄伯手記100328d

March 28, 2011

雄伯手記100328d
60
By adopting a more idealistic philosophy, one can interpret things differently and produce a perfectly decent and respectable psychology which is just as true, relatively speaking, as the sordid underside.
A. 一個人若能接受一種更理想的理念,就會對事物產生完全不同的解釋,從而引起非常體面而值得尊敬的心理狀態,這完全是可以做到的,就像那種相對應的骯髒的心理狀態。
B. 假如我們採用一種更加理想主義的哲學,我們就能夠以不同方式解釋,並且產生一個非常合宜及受人尊敬的心理學。比較起來,這種心理學跟污穢的暗流,同樣都是真實的。
Idealistic 「理想主義的」 跟 「ideal 理想」稍微有些不同。
Relatively speaking 比較起來說
which is just as true 的which 是指前面的psychology (心理學),just as true 的意思應該是「同樣的真實」。A 譯為「完全可以做得到」,令人費解。
The sordid underside 「污穢的暗流」指的應該是佛洛伊德主張的「無意識」的污穢的暗流」。相較起來,榮格主張的是「非常合宜及受人尊敬的心理學」,以一種理想主義的哲學,相容並蓄意識與無意識。
Relatively (比較)修飾speaking,合起來是一個獨立的副詞片語。A 譯「相對應的骯髒的心理狀態」,也是令人費解、

2
I do not see why one should not interpret the facts in a decent and positive way when one can easily afford to do so.

A. 當人們可以很輕鬆地去接受一個合理而積極的解釋時,為什麼不讓他就這麼去積極而合理得解讀事實呢?
B. 我不明白,為什麼我們竟然不以合宜而積極的方式解釋事實?這是我們輕而易舉的事。

should 表達驚奇及遺憾時,譯為「竟然」不譯為「應該」。
I am surprised that he should say so. 我很驚訝,他竟然這樣說。
It is a pity that he should cheat. 很遺憾,他竟然作弊。
3
For many people this is much better and more encouraging than to reduce everything to primitive constituents with nasty names.
A. 對很多人而言,這是一種更好、更激勵的方式,要比減少那些消極的原始成分要好得多。
B. 對於許多人而言,比起將每一件事情,都還原到具有齷齪名稱的原始的本性,這個心理學要好得多,而且更令人鼓舞。

Primitive constituents with nasty names (具有齷齪名稱的原始的本性),應該是指無意識的部份。
4
But here too we must not be one-sided, because certain patients are all the better for being told some drastic but cheansing truth.

A. 但這時我們的態度也不能太偏激了,因為若告訴患者一些偏激且被重構的真相後,他們會變得更好??這句沒讀懂
B. 但是,在此我們切勿過份以偏蓋全,因為確實有些病人,是因為被告知激烈但是具有清滌淨化的真相,而病情轉好。
榮格雖然對於佛洛伊德主張:病人被告知激烈而具有清滌淨化的真相時,病情會轉好,不完全苟同,但也不主張完全排斥。
5
Freud’s original idea of the unconscious was that it was a sort of receptacle or storehouse for repressed material, infantile wishes, and the like.
A. 佛洛德對無意識最初的看法是這樣的:它是一個容器,裏面裝載了一些被壓抑的東西、嬰幼兒時的願望,以及其他類似的東西。
B. 佛洛伊德對於無意識的原先看法是:無意識接收並儲藏受到壓抑的東西,嬰孩時期的願望,類似的東西等等。
6
But the unconscious is far more than that: it is the basis and precondition of all consciousness.
A. 但實際上本人覺得潛意識的涵義遠不止於此:潛意識,是所有意識的基礎和前提;
B. 但是不僅如此而已。無意識是所有意識的基礎跟先前狀況。
7
It represents the unconscious functioning of the psyche in general.

A. 它是所有一般心理的無意識運作基礎;
B. 無意識代表一般的精神的沒有意識到的功用。
8
It is psychic life before, during, and after consciousness.
A. 它是意識產生前、產生時、產生後都在發生的心理活動。
B. 無意識是精神的生命,處於意識之前,中間過程及之後。
9
And inasmuch as the newborn child is presented with a ready-made, highly developed brain which owes its differentiation to the accretions of untold centuries of ancestral life, the unconscious psyche must consist of inherited instincts, functions, and forms that are peculiar to the ancestral psyche.
A. 對每一個新生兒而言, 他都會有一個早已準備好的、發育良好的大腦,在這個大腦裏包含了幾百年來祖先生活的記憶,這些記憶繼承了祖先們特有的心理狀態(包括本能、功能、形式), 這些都構成了潛意識。
B. 雖然新生嬰兒生而具有現成及高度進化的人腦,這些人腦的精密,歸功於無數世紀以來,祖先的生命的薪傳。但是無意識精神,卻只包含祖先精神所特有的遺傳本能,功用及形式。
Inasmuch as 雖然 untold –numerous 無數
Differentiation– (biology) the structural adaptation of some body part for a particular function 某個身體的部份,在結構上適應某個特別的功用
10
This collective heritage is by no means made up of inherited ideas, but rather of the possibilities of such ideas–in other words, of a priori categories of possible functioning.
A. 這種集體記憶遺產並不是由某些既定的想法構成,而是充滿了各種可能性:這種或那種想法;或一種更可行的運作模式。
B. 這種集體潛意識的薪傳,絕非是由遺傳的觀念組成。相反地,它由這些觀念的可能性組成。換句話說,它由可能功用的先驗範疇所組成。
什麼是a priori 先驗?什麼是 category 範疇?網路上有兩條資訊參考一下:
A priori is Latin for “from the former” or “from before”, and may refer to: A priori (languages), a type of constructed language。
「先驗」是拉丁字,意思是「從前者而來」,或「從前面而來」。
In Kant’s philosophy, a category is a pure concept of the understanding. A Kantian category is a characteristic of the appearance of any object in general, before it has been experienced.
在康得哲學,「範疇」是瞭解到純粹觀念。康得的範疇是任何一般客體的表像的特徵,在它被經驗到之前。
11
Such an inheritance could be called instinct, using the word in its original sense. But it is not quite so simple.
A. 如果用最原始的詞語來描述,這種遺傳被稱為本能,但實際並不是那麼簡單的。
B. 這個集體潛意識的薪傳,用其原始的意義來說,可以被稱為是「本能」。但是,它並不那麼單純。
12
On the contrary, it is a most intricate web of what I have called archetypal conditions.
A. 相反,它是一個非常複雜的網,即我常提到的典型條件?
B. 相反地,它是我所謂的「原型條件」的一個非常複雜的網路。
a most intricate web= a very intricate web 一個非常複雜的網路
the most intricate web 最複雜的網路
什麼是archetypal conditions 原型條件?網路有一段描述,請參考一下:
榮格認為在潛意識中有個人潛意識及集體潛意識。他考察非洲及美洲等地原始人類的宗教、神話、傳說、童話、與夢並比較西方人與東方人的宗教、神話、傳說、童話、與夢,發現許多共同的原型而得到的結論。榮格認為集體潛意識是人格中最深刻、最有力的部分,它是幾千年來人類祖先經驗的積累所形成的一種遺傳傾向。這些遺傳傾向被稱為原型。各種原型在夢、幻覺、幻想、神經症中無意識地表現出來。
13
This implies the probability that a man will behave much as his ancestors behaved, right back to Methuselah. 。
A. 這也就意味著,一個人的行為舉止可能與他的 祖先非常相像,這裏的祖先指的是像瑪土撒拉那樣的先人 (舊約創世紀)。
B. 這意味著這個可能性:人的行為將會跟他的祖先一樣。這個祖先可回溯到瑪土撒拉。(舊約創世紀記載的人類的祖先)
14
Thus the unconscious is seen as the collective predisposition to extreme conservatism, a guarantee, almost, that nothing new will ever happen.
A. 所以,無意識被看作是一種具有集體傾向的極端保守,因為在這樣具有遺傳性的保證下,幾乎就不可能再產生什麼新的東西。
B. 因此,無意識被視為是這個傾向於極端保守的集體素質。這幾乎是一種保證:陽光底下無新事。
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

雄伯手記100328b

March 28, 2011

雄伯手記100328b
P.57
1
Is this goal of the regressive tendency entirely without justification?
A. 退行行為的出現是不是完全沒有原因呢?
B. 倒退傾向的這個目標,完全沒有道理嗎?
2
Or is it not rather the very thing the patient urgently needs in order to build up his conscious attitude?
A. 或者這不是患者非常迫切的需要,而只是為了能建立起某種意識態度呢?
B. 或者是相反的,倒退傾向是病人迫切需要的東西,這樣他才能培養他的意識到態度?
Rather 相反地
Build up—increase, develop 增加,發展
3
I believe that incest and the other perverted sexual aspects are, in most cases, no more than by-products, and that the essential contents of the regressive tendency are really those which I have just mentioned.
A. 我相信在多數情況下,亂倫和其他性變態行為只是某種副產品,而更本質的內容是我剛才提到的那些退行趨勢。
B. 我相信,在多數情況,亂倫及其它的性變態行為,僅是某些的副作用。我也相信,倒退傾向的基本內容,才真的是我剛剛提到的那些東西。
4
I have no objection to a patient’s going back to that kind of childhood, nor do I mind his indulging in such memories.
A. 我不反對患者退回到童年狀態裏,也不介意他沉迷在那樣的回憶裏。
B. 我不反對病人退回到那種的童年狀態,我也不介意他沉緬於那樣的回憶。
5
I am not blind to the fact that the patient must sink or swim, and that he may possibly go under as the result of infantile indulgence; but I call him back to these valuable memories with conscious intent.
A. 我不會盲目地任由患者沉迷其中,因為他可能會像嬰兒般放縱並沉淪。實際上,我是在有意識地用某種方式,把他帶回到有價值的回憶裏。
B. 對於病人必須沉湎其中,要不然就完蛋,以及他這樣做,可能是由於嬰孩時期受到溺愛的結果,我不會視若無睹這些事實。但是我會要求他回到,意識主導的這些寶貴的回憶。
Sink or swim—succeed or fail by your own efforts, without help or interference from anyone else 憑藉自己努力。成功或失敗,沒有別的人的干涉
When Joe was fourteen, his parents died, and he was left by himself to sink or swim.
當喬伊十四歲時,他父母雙亡。他靠著自己自生自滅。
6
I appeal to his sense of values deliberately, because I have to make the man well and therefore I must use all available means to achieve the therapeutic aim.
A.(治療中),我會故意去培養他的價值感,因為想治好他,所以我會用各種有用的手段來達到這個治療目的。
B. 我會刻意地訴諸於他的價值感,因為我必須要讓他恢復健康。因此,我必須使用各種可用的方法,來達成治療的目的。
Appeal to—to look for support in ( something ) 尋求支持
The chairman appealed to reason to win his argument.
主席訴諸于理性,贏得爭論。
7
The regressive tendency only means that the patient is seeking himself in his childhood memories, sometimes for better, sometimes for worse.
A. 當患者出現退行趨勢時,只是意味著他正在童年回憶裏找尋自己,有時候會讓自己變得更好,有時候會更壞。
B. 倒退傾向只是意味著:病人正從他的童年回憶,尋找「他自己」。這個「他自己」有時更佳,有所更遭糕。
8
His development was one-sided; it left important items of character and personality behind, and thus it ended in failure.
A. 他過去的成長是片面的,那些重要的性格和人格並沒有隨之發展,所以導致了某種失敗。
B. 他的個體化只是片面的發展。那些重要的性格和人格並沒有隨之發展,結果,這樣的發展是失敗。
9
That is why he has to go back.
A. 這就是為什麼他必須回到過去記憶中的原因。
B. 那就是為什麼,他必須倒退回去。
10
In Psychological Types, I tried to establish the general lines along which these one-sided developments move.
A. 在我的論文《性格類型》(84) 中,我嘗試沿著這些片面發展的軌跡,搭建出一條主線。
B. 在「心理類型」一書,對於這些單面的發展,沿著前進的一般軌跡,我設法予以證實。
Establish (證實)的定義是Make clear the validity of something, as by an example, explanation or experiment 使用例子,解釋或實驗,證實某件東西的有效性,
11
There are two main attitudes which differ fundamentally, namely introversion and extraversion.
A. 實際上有兩條完全不同的處世態度,即內向性和外向性。
B. 有兩種基本上不同的主要態度,也就是內向型與外向型。
12
Both are perfectly good ways of living, so long as they cooperate reasonably well.
A. 只要這兩者能搭配、合作得很棒,內向和外向這兩種生活態度都是相當完美的。
B. 兩種態度都是非常好的生活方式,只要它們互相合作得很理想。
Perfectly 「非常」, 是副詞,修飾 good , 而不是修飾 ways of living 生活態度
13
It is only a dominating onesidedness that leads to disaster.
A. 但若只有一種態度在片面地主導的話,人就會產生心理疾病。
B. 只有片面的個體化發展過份強勢,才會造成災難的結果。
14
Within this very general framework there are more subtle distinctions based upon whatever function is preferred by the individual.
A. 在這個大框架下,個體究竟偏好哪種生活態度,二者可能只有極其微妙的差別。
B. 在這個大架構裏面,還有更微細的區分,端看每個人偏好的功用而定、
More subtle distinctions 「更微細的區分」是指「內向型」與「外向型」兩種生活態度,還可以做更進一步的再分類,而不是如A譯的「二者可能只有極其微妙的差別。
15
Thus somebody with a good brain will develop a powerful intellect at the expense of his feelings.
A. 所以,一個大腦很聰明的人,也許智力發展得很健全,但是有可能以犧牲他的感受力為代價。
B. 因此,一位腦筋很好的人,智力會蓬勃發展,但是代價卻是:情意的發展會被犧牲。
15
Or again, the facts perceived by the realist will obliterate the beautiful visions of the intuitive.
A. 再比如,太過寫實的現實,將會抹殺美麗的直覺景象。
B. 或是,現實的人意識到的現實,會使他的直覺的美麗幻想蕩然無存。
16
All such people will look back to childhood when they come to the end of their particular tether, or they will hanker for some state when they were still in touch with the lost world, or their dreams will reproduce enchanting memories of a past that has sunk into oblivion.
A. 所以這些人會退回到童年中某個最無助的特定狀態裏,或渴望與過去那個迷失的世界保持聯繫,或他們的夢會重現那誘人的過去記憶,而這些記憶也許已經沉沒了,被忘卻了。
B. 所有這樣的人心力交瘁時,常將會回顧童年。或是渴望某種的狀態,讓他們依舊與失落的世界保持聯繫。或是他們的夢會產生迷人的過去回憶。這些回憶曾經被他渾然遺忘。
When they come to the end of their particular tether (當他們心力交瘁之時),是副詞子句,表時間,而不是如A 譯的形容詞子句解釋:「童年中某個最無助的特定狀態裏」。

At the end of your tether—to feel that you cannot deal with a difficult situation any more because you are too tired, worried, etc. 心力交瘁
Hanker for—have a strong desire for 強烈渴望
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

雄伯手记100328

March 28, 2011

雄伯手记100328
54
1
As you know, I am critical of Freud in this particular respect, but my criticism would not go so far as to deny the extraordinary power of the retrospective tendency.
A. 就如你所知,我在某些特定方面并不是很认同弗洛伊德的观点,但是这种不认同只是某种程度上的,并没有大到要否认他所提出的杰出观点——退行趋向。
B. 你们知道,在这个特别的方面,我对于佛洛伊德有所批评。但是我的批评没有过份到要否认,「倒退到婴孩时期」的倾向,是有特别的力量。

所谓「倒退倾向」The retrospective tendency,是指前面所说的「追逐婴孩时代的记忆」go chasing after infantile memories,「喜欢详述过去忍受的恶行,及沉缅于自怜自叹」 love to dwell upon the evils of the past and to wallow in self-commiserating memories,以及「不断地以过去,作为他自己的藉口」hanging back and constantly excusing himself on account of the past
2
On the contrary, I consider it to be of the greatest importance, so important that I would not call any treatment thorough that did not take it into account.
A. 恰恰相反,我认为退行的说法是最重要的,我觉得几乎所有的治疗都可以看到这一点。
B. 恰恰相反,我认为「倒退倾向」是最重要的,如此的重要,所以任何的心理治疗,假如没有考虑到这一点,我就不认为是这种治疗是完整的。

Take into account —take into consideration 考虑到 thorough 徹底,完整
3
Freud in his analysis follows this regressive tendency to the end and thus arrives at the findings you all know.
A. 弗洛伊德在个案分析中会贯穿着对患者退行反应的探讨,直到最终找到原因。
B. 在他的精神分析学,佛洛伊德徹底地探究这个「倒退倾向」,因此获得你们大家都知道的发现。

to the end—直到最后 arrive at 获得 findings 是发现 不是A 译的「原因」
4
These findings are only apparent facts; in the main they are interpretations.
A. 那些原因,看起来只是很显而易见的事实,但更关键的还在于对这些事实的解释。
B. 那些发现只是「表面上」的事实。大体上,它们是各种诠释。

“ apparent” 「表面上的」,荣格使用斜体字形,强调它仅是「表面上」,仅是「各种诠释」。这些「表面上的事实」就是「各种解释」,不是如A 译的,是两样东西。
In the main 的意思是「大体上」,不是A 译的「更关键的是」
The service here is, in the main, reliable.这里的服务,大体上让人信得过。
5

He has a special method of interpreting psychic material, and it is partly because the material has a sexual aspect and partly because he interprets it in a special way that he arrives at his typical conclusions.
A. 弗洛伊德对精神的东西,有自己一套很特别的解释方式,部分原因是和性有关,部分原因 是他会用一种特殊的方式解释,从而得到他那些经典的结论
B. 佛洛伊德对精神的东西,有一套特别的解释方法,部分是因为这个东西,跟「性」有关,部份是因为他以他所获得的典型的结论的特别方法来解释。

that he arrives at his typical conclusions 是形容词子句,修饰 a special way。他以他所获得的典型的结论的特别方法来解释,而不是如A译的「先解释,才得到经典的结论」。也就是佛洛伊德用「性」结论」来解释,而不是因为解释的结果是「性」。
6
Take for instance his treatment of dreams. He believes that the dream is a facade. He says you can turn it inside out, that this or that factor is eliminated by a censor, and so forth.
A. 就拿他治疗中的梦举例,他相信梦只是一个幌子,若能把这个或那个因素消除了,你就会看到梦背后的 一些东西。
B. 以他的梦的解析为例。他相信,梦是一个障眼法。你们可以将梦,里里外外翻遍,用潜意识的检查官,将各种因素消除,等等。
Censor 「检查官」在词典的定义是Psychology The agent in the unconscious that is responsible for censorship. 在无意识负责检查的执行者(心理学)
Façade「障眼法」的定义是A showy misrepresentation intended to conceal something unpleasant 外表呈现的误导,用以隐藏某件令人不愉快的事情。
7
I hold that interpretation is the crux of the whole matter.
A. 我认为,如何来解释才是整个问题的症结所在。
B. 我主张,解释是整个事情的关键。
Hold —Assert or affirm 主张、肯定
8 One can just as well assume that the dream is not a facade, that there is no censor, and that the unconscious appears in dreams in the naivest and most genuine way.
A. 人们完全可以这么假设:梦不是一个幌子,这里并不存在没有防御,潜意识就是以一种最真诚的方式出现在梦中的。
B. 我们倒不如假定,梦不是一个障眼法,检查官并不存在。无意识以最纯朴最真实的方式出现在梦里。

Can just as well 倒不如
I might just as well go home. I don’t see why I should stand around waiting.
我倒不如回家。我不明白,我要站在那里等待。
荣格提出跟佛洛伊德不同的观点。佛洛伊德认为:梦是一个障眼法。你们可以将梦,里里外外翻遍,用潜意识的检查官,将各种因素消除,等等。荣格则主张:梦不是一个障眼法,检查官并不存在。无意识以最纯朴最真实的方式出现在梦里。
8
The dream is as genuine as the albumen in urine, and this is anything but a facade.

A 梦就像尿中的蛋白质那般真实存在,那么它可以是任何东西,但绝不只是一个幌子而已。
B. 梦是真实的,如同尿中的蛋白质是真实的。它绝非是障眼法。
Anything but—not at all 绝非,根本不是
「绝对不是」跟「绝不只是」,意思差很多。
9
If you take the dream like this, you naturally come to very different conclusions.
A. 如果你是这么来理解梦,那么就自然会得出完全不同的结论。
B. 如果你是这么来理解梦,你自然就会得到非常不同的结论。
10
And the same thing happens with the patient’s regressive tendency.
A. 同样的事也会发生在对患者退行趋势的解释上。
B. 对于病人的「倒退的倾向」,情况也是一样。
11
I have suggested that it is not just a relapse into infantilism, but a genuine attempt to get at something necessary.
A.我认为这不仅仅是幼稚病的一种复发,而是真正地在尝试寻找某些很必要的东西。
B. 我曾经建议,倒退倾向不仅是恢复的婴孩时期,而是要真正企图要获得发现某件必需的东西。
Get at—reach and find 获得发现
12
There is, to be sure, no lack of infantile perversions.
A. 还可以肯定,这里也存在对幼儿行为的曲解认识。
B. 的确,婴孩时期的性的变态行为多的是。
Perversions—An aberrant sexual practice; 性的变态行为
No lack of—并不缺乏
There was no lack of volunteers. 义工多的是。

To be sure…but 的确、、、但是
He’s intelligent, to be sure, but he’s also lucky.
他确实是聪明,但也是运气好。

13
But are we so certain that what appears to be, and is interpreted as, an incestuous craving is really only that?

A 但是,我们竟如此坚信地把幼稚行为解读为:这只是对乱伦的一种渴求。真的是这样吗?
B. 但是,我们真的如此确定:外表看起来,被解释为「乱伦欲望」的东西,真的就仅是如此吗?
What appears to be , and is interpreted 是名词字句,充当 is 的主词
「表面上被解释的,及事实上被解释」,指前面所谓的「倒退倾向」,不是A译的什么「幼稚行为」。
14
When we try, conscientiously and without theoretical bias, to find out what the patient is really seeking in his father or mother, we certainly do not, as a rule, find incest, but rather a genuine horror of it.
A. 当我们去尝试认真地,不带任何理论偏见地探求,患者究竟想在父亲或 母亲身上得到什么,这时我们决不会觉得只是渴求乱伦,而是孩子的一种最真实的恐惧感。
B. 当我们认真而不带任何理论的偏见,设法去发现:病人在他的父母身上,真正要寻找的是什么,通常,我们确实没有发现什么「乱伦」。相反的,我们会发现对它的一种真实的骇惧。
Rather—相反地
15
We find that he is seeking something entirely different, something that Freud only appreciates negatively: the universal feeling of childhood innocence, the sense of security, of protection, of reciprocated love, of trust, of faith–a thing that has many names.
A. 实际上,他在渴求一种完全不一样的东西,一种不被弗洛伊德所赞赏的东西:一个纯真的童年,一份安全感,一种被保护的感觉,相互疼爱,彼此信任,对事物的信仰等等。
B. 我们发现,他正在寻找某件完全不同的东西,佛洛伊德只是以负面态度欣赏的东西:人人都曾有的童年纯真感,安全感,受保护感,爱的回报感,信任感,信仰感。诸如其类,名称不同而已。
对于这些,佛洛伊德只是以负面态度欣赏appreciated negatively ,而不是如
A 译的「所赞赏」。至于为什么?则请看下回分解!
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雄伯手記100327h

March 27, 2011

雄伯手記100327h
53
Even Freud, who tried to restrict what he called psychoanalysis to the medical sphere (with occasional, somewhat appropriate excursions into other spheres), even he was forced to discuss fundamental principles that go far beyond purely medical considerations.
A. 佛洛德曾試圖將精神分析嚴格局限在醫學領域(雖然偶爾也會一定程度上波及其他領域),但即便如此,他也不得不探討那些超出了醫學領域的心理學原理。
B. 佛洛伊德曾經設法將他所謂的精神分析學,限制在醫學的領域,(只是偶爾,但是相當合宜地跨越的其他領域。)即使是佛洛伊德本人也不得不討論一些基本原理。這些基本原理遠遠超過純粹醫學立場的考慮。
even he was forced to discuss fundamental principles that go far beyond purely medical considerations 裏的 even ,只是修飾he,而不是修飾前面的句子。A 譯為「但即便如此」,顯然有誤。
2
The most cursory professional treatment of an intelligent patient is bound to lead to basic issues; because a neurosis or any other mental conflict depends much more on the personal attitude of the patient than on his infantile history.
A. 醫生對患者的態度若過於草率,會導致一些問題,因為患者的神經症或其他精神衝突,取決於醫生對患者的態度,而非患者在嬰幼兒期的經歷,因為那時無論發生了什麼,
B. 對於一位高智力的病人,即使是最匆促的專業治療,都一定會是基本問題的原因。因為神經官能症患者,或是任何其他的精神衝突,更加取決於病人的個人的態度,而不是他他的嬰而時期經歷。
The most cursory professional treatment of an intelligent patient is bound to lead to basic issues.
對於一位高智力的病人,即使是最草率的專業治療,都一定會是基本問題的原因。

英文的最高級,帶有「退讓」「即使」 「甚至」的意味,例句
Even the shortest cut would take us five hours to get there.
即使走捷徑,我們也需要五小時,才能到達。
The lion’s roar will strike terror to the bravest heart.
聽到獅子的吼聲,即使是最勇敢的人,也會感到害怕。
Cursory — Hasty and without attention to detail; not thorough 匆促,沒有注意細節,草率
Lead to—to be the cause of something or doing something 成為、、、的原因
It’s sleeping late in the morning that leads to being late for work.
早上起得晚,是上班遲到的原因。
3
No matter what the influences are that disturb his youth, he still has to put up with them and he does so by means of a certain attitude. The attitude is all-important
A. 無論那些事情是否對年幼的患者造成影響,患者也只能默默忍受,並用某種態度模式來應對。所以,醫患間的態度是最重要的。
B. 無論擾亂他的幼兒期的影響是什麼,他依舊必須忍受它們。他憑藉著某種態度來忍受它們。病人的忍受它們的態度是非常重要的。

that disturb his youth 是形容詞子句,修飾the influences ,我譯為「無論擾亂他的幼兒期的影響」
The attitude is all-important. 這個態度非常重要。
「這個態度」指的是:病人忍受「影響的態度」,而不是「醫患間的態度是最重要的」
All 充當副詞,修飾形容詞時,作「非常」very 解釋,並沒有最高級大「最」的意外
She is all excited.= She is very excited. 她非常激動。
Put up with 忍受 by means of 憑藉著
4
Freud emphasizes the aetiology of the case, and assumes that once the causes are brought into consciousness the neurosis” be cured.
A. 佛洛德很看重一個案例的病因,他假設一旦病因從無意識帶到意識層面,患者的神經症就能治癒。
B. 佛洛伊德強調個案的病因學,並且認為,一但神經官能症患者知道自己的病因,他的病將會被治療痊癒。
The causes are brought into consciousness.
病因讓病人知道。
5
But mere consciousness of the causes does not help any more than detailed knowledge of the causes of war helps to raise the value of the French franc.
A. 但我認為,這種把病因意識化所帶來的效果,可能還不及剖析戰爭爆發的具體原因,從而導致法郎升值,來得效果明顯!
B. 但是,僅僅是知道病因並無助於痊癒,正如詳細瞭解戰爭的原因,並無助於提升法郞的幣值。

這個句型最容易譯錯的原因,在於它是一個「雙邊否定的句型」。
You cannot swim than I can fly.= You can no more swim than I can fly.
你不會游泳,正如我不會飛。
A home without love is no more a home than a body without a soul is a man.
一個沒有愛的家不成為家,正如一個沒有靈魂的身體不成為人。
6
The task of psychological therapy is to correct the conscious attitude and not to go chasing after infantile memories.
A. 心理治療的目的是為了糾正患者在意識層面的錯誤態度,而不是一味地探求患者在嬰幼兒期的遙遠記憶。
B. 心理治療是要改正知道的態度,並且不要探尋嬰兒時期的記憶。
To correct the conscious attitude (要改正知道的態度)跟not to go chasing after infantile memories(不要探尋嬰兒時期的記憶) 之間的連接詞是and,不是but 。翻成「並且」,比「而不是」較貼近原意。
7
Naturally you cannot do the one without• paying attention to the other, but the main emphasis should be upon the attitude of the patient.
A. 當然這兩個方面都重要的,醫生需既關注患者過往的記憶,也關注患者現在的生活態度,但我認為主要的還是關注患者的態度。
B. 當然,當你改變態度時,你不會再去探尋嬰兒時間的記憶。但是強調的重點,應該是在病人的態度。

the one 前者指的是 to correct the conscious attitude (改正知道時的態度);the other 後者指的是 not to go chasing after infantile memories(不要去追尋嬰兒時期的記憶).
8
There are extremely practical reasons for this, because there is scarcely a neurosis who does not love to dwell upon the evils of the past and wallow in self-commiserating memories.
A. 實際上,這麼做有著很現實的原因,要知道因為幾乎所有的神經症患者都喜 歡呆在過去的罪惡、內疚裏,並沉溺在自我憐憫中,不能自拔。
B. 強調病人的態度,是有非常實用的理由。因為幾乎每個神經官能患者,都喜歡詳訴以前忍受的邪惡,然後沉溺於自憐自歎當中的回憶。

There is scarcely a neurosis who does not love to dwell upon the evils of the past.
= Almost every neurosis loves to dwell upon the evils of the past.
幾乎每個神經官能患者,都喜歡詳述以前的忍受的邪惡。
9
Very often his neurosis consists in precisely in his hanging back and constantly excusing himself on account of the past.
A.漏譯
B. 往往他的神經官能症,確實就是在於他一直緬懷過去,然後以過去的原因,不斷地替他自己找藉口。
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雄伯手記100327b

March 27, 2011

雄伯手記100327b
51
The extraordinary importance which Freud attaches to the unconscious meets with scant approval, although it is an interesting point with a certain validity.
A. 佛洛德非常重視人的潛意識,這個觀點很有趣,也具有一定的效度,但是卻讓人難以接受。
B. 佛洛伊德對於無意識的額外重視,遭遇到很少的認同,儘管這個觀點很耐人尋味,而且有某個程度的證實。
2
But one should not stress it too much; otherwise one robs the conscious mind of its practical significance and eventually arrives at a completely mechanistic view of things.
A. 一個人不能太強調其潛意識,因為那樣會剝奪自己的意識力量,從而失去現實意義,最終導致自己站在一個完全機械的角度看待問題。
B. 人不應該過份強調無意識,否則他會讓他的意識的心靈,喪失它實用的重要性。最後,他所獲得的是一種完全是機械式的事物觀。
rob…of—to stop ( someone or something ) from having 使喪失
Television has robbed the cinema of its former popularity.
電視使電影院喪失它以前的受歡迎。
But one should not stress it too much; otherwise one robs the conscious mind of its practical significance
= But one should not stress the unconscious too much; if one stresses it too much, the conscious mind will lose its practical significance.
但是我們不因該過份強調無意識。否則意識的心靈,將會喪失它實用的重要性。
Significance—the importance something, especially when this has an effect on what happens in the future 重要性
We should be fully aware of the significance of television in shaping our ideas.
我們應該充份知道,電視形成我們的觀念的重要性。
Arrive at –reach ( something such as a decision ) ,達成,獲得
After many hours’ talk, the committee arrived at their decision.
經過幾小時的討論,委員會達成他們的決定。
3
This goes against our instincts, which have made the conscious mind the arbiter mundi.
A. 這與我們的本能背道而馳,讓意識淪成為仲裁者。
B. 這與我們的本能背道而馳,而我們的本能卻是以意識的心靈,作為最高的仲裁者。
Which 在此是指前面的instincts ,若是修飾前面整個句子,動詞應該用第三人稱單數,也就是 has 而不是have 。
arbiter mundi.—最高仲裁者
A 譯的內容,與原意恰恰相反。
Go against –oppose ( someone or something) 違背
It is no use going against the customs of a country that you are visiting.
違背你正在訪問的國家的風俗習慣是沒有用的。
5
It is nevertheless true that the conscious mind has been overvalued by the rationalists. Hence it was a healthy sign to give the unconscious its due share of value.
A. 以前,我們的意識思想被理性主義者過高重視了,所以若能開始重視潛意識,這是很好的,但這種重視程度不應過度,
B. 可是,意識的心靈曾經被理性主義主張者過份重視,也是事實。因此,假如能夠給予無意識它該有的一份重視,那才是健全的作法。
Sign —An event that is experienced as indicating important things to come 被經驗到,作為重要事情會發生的事件
6
But this should not exceed the value accorded to consciousness.
A. 一旦超過對意識價值的重視,則不可取了。
B. 但是給予無意識的重視,不應該超過給予意識的重視。
7
A further reason for hesitation is the absence of a real medical psychology, though there may be a psychology for doctor.
A. 我們為何對醫學心理學有各種遲疑?還有一個原因是,雖然有針對醫生的心理學,但卻缺乏真正的醫學心理學。
B. 對於大學開設醫學心理學的課程,我們會猶豫不決的另一個理由是:我們根本就沒有真正的醫學心理學,雖然我們可能有適用于醫生的心理學。
hesitation 「猶豫不決」在此指前面說過的 If I were responsible for a university department, I should certainly feel rather hesitant about teaching medical psychology.(即使我當大學系所得負責人,我應該也會確實地感到猶豫不決,關於要不要開設醫學心理學的課程。)
8
Psychology is not for professionals only, nor is it peculiar to certain diseases. It is something broadly human, with professional and pathological variations.
A. 心理學並不只是學術化、職業化的,也不是特指某些疾病的;心理學是泛指人性的,既包含專業學術上的,也包含病理上的內容;
B. 心理學不僅是適用於專業人員,也不是某些的疾病特別適用。心理學是某件凡是人都會有需要的東西,只是應用在某些專業及病理上,會有一些變化。

Professionals在此是名詞形式,指的是「專業人員」,不是A 譯「學術化、職業化的」
Peculiar to—特有 Variations—變數
9
Nor, again, is it merely instinctual or biological. If it were, it could very well be just a chapter in a textbook of biology.
C. 心理學也不僅僅是一種本能或是一種生物學,否則它可能只是生物課本上的一個章節而已。
D. 而且,心理學不僅是屬於本能或跟生物有關。就算它是,它很有可僅是生物學教科書上的一個章節。

If it were,在此是 If it were instinctual or biological (即使算是屬於本能或是跟生物有關,)的省略形,A 譯為「否則」,過於牽強。
Could very well— is likely to be 很有可能 Again –而且
10

It has an immensely important social and cultural aspect without which we could not imagine a human psyche at all.

A. 心理學涵蓋寬廣,有著社會、文化方面的重要意義,若缺乏心理學,我們很難想像人性究竟會是什麼樣的。
B. 心理學有著極端重要的社會及文化的特性,假如沒有這樣的特性,我們根本無法想像人類的精神是什麼。
Aspect —A characteristic to be considered 應該被考慮到的特性
Not at all 的意思是「根本就沒有」,「絲毫不」
Without which 的 which 指的是前面的 an immensely important social and cultural aspect 極端重要的社會及文化的特性,不是A譯的「心理學」。
11
It is therefore quite impossible to speak of a general or normal psychology as the mere explosion of a clash between instinct and moral law, or other inconveniences of that kind.
A. 因此,若讓我們對心理學給出一個概要或標準,這幾乎是不能的。心理學表現出了人的本能和道德法律間的某種衝突,或其他類似的衝突。
B. 因此,我們完全不可能提到普通心理學或是正常心理學,僅是當著本能與道德原則的爆發衝突,或是類似的糾紛。

speak of…as 提到、、、當
A 譯將 as 後面的內容,以句點分開陳述,完全背離原意。
General psychology 普通心理學 normal psychology 正常心理學
Mere 的意思是「僅僅」,不是「某種」。
Quite 的意思是「完全」,不是「幾乎」。
12
Since the beginning of history man has been the maker of his own laws; and even if, as Freud seems to think, they were the invention of our malevolent forefather it is odd how the rest of humanity has conformed to them and given them silent assent.
A. 有人說,人類的道德法律是由早期那些掌權者們自己指定出來的,連佛洛德他也認為,人類法律是由邪惡的先人們製造出來的。那就很奇怪了,為什麼其他人會願意順從並默默認同這樣的道德呢?
B. 有史以來,人類始終就是自己律法的創造者。佛洛伊德似乎認為,即使這些律法是居心不良的祖先所創造,其餘的人為何也一直遵守它們,並且默認它們?這真是令人匪夷所思。
Even if 即使,是連接詞,引導後面they were the invention of our malevolent forefather「即使這些律法是居心不良的祖先所創造」,充當副詞子句,表讓步。A譯「連佛洛德他也認為」,這個「連」變成修飾佛洛伊德,顯然非榮格原意。

雄伯手記100327b

March 27, 2011

雄伯手記100327b
1
Medical psychology is still pioneer work, but it looks as if the medical profession were beginning to see a psychic side to many things which have hitherto been considered from the physiological side only, not to mention the neuroses, whose psychic nature is no longer seriously contested.
A. 那時醫學心理學還是個待開拓的領域,但醫學界似乎已經開始意識到“心理” 對很多健康問題,醫生原本只會從生理方面去考慮,現在他們也開始意識到可能對應的心理原因了,而對一些神經官能症,醫生更會傾向于從心理角度去研究,對此已不再有任何異議。
B. 醫療心理學依舊還是正開始被創導的領域。但是從外表看來,醫學界似乎已經漸漸開始看到,許多事情具有精神的一面。迄今,這些事情僅是從生理的角度來考慮。神經官能症更是如此,它具有精神的特性,已經是無庸置疑。
Pioneer work—introducing ideas and methods that have never been used before
介紹從未曾被使用過的觀念及方法
a psychic side to many things 許多事情具有精神的一面
hitherto—until now, until the particular time you are talking about 迄今
not to mention —to say nothing of 更不用說
2
Medical psychology seems, therefore, to be coming into its own.
A. 由此看來,醫學心理的未來似乎充滿了希望。
B. 因此,醫學心理學似乎漸漸獲得肯定。

Come into one’s own—to gain independence or recognition; show one’s true worth
獲得獨立或肯定,表現自己真實的價值
The scientific study of dreams has not yet come into its own.
科學對於夢到研究尚未獲得它應有的肯定。
3
But where, we may ask, can the medical student learn it? It is important for the doctor to know something about the psychology of his patients, and about the psychology of nervous, mental, and physical diseases.
A. 但我們可能還會問,學醫的人也要學心理嗎?對醫生而言,瞭解患者的心理的確非常重要,就像他需要瞭解患者的神經、精神和生理疾患一樣。
B. 但是我們不禁要問,醫學院的學生能從哪里學到醫學心理學?就醫生而言,對於他的病人的心理學,有所瞭解是很重要的,無論是心理疾病,精神疾病,或是生理疾病的心理學。
4
Quite a lot is known about these things among specialists, though the universities do not encourage such studies. I can understand their attitude.
A. 有相當多的專家們都在研究這些主題,雖然他們所在大學可能並不鼓勵他們這麼做,對此,我很能理解。
B. 專家們對於這些問題已經非常瞭解,雖然這些研究並未受到大學的鼓勵。大學的立場,我能夠理解。
5
If I were responsible for a university department, I should certainly feel rather hesitant about teaching medical psychology.
A. 假如我是一名大學機構的負責人,我也會對是否要教授醫學心理,感到非常為難。
B. 即使我是大學系所負責人,對於是否開設醫學心理學課程,我也會持審慎保守的態度。

if 在此作「即使」解釋,而不是「假如」
If you don’t love me any longer, I will still take care of you
即使你不再愛我,我依舊會照顧你。
6
In the first place, there is no denying the fact that Freud’s theories have come up against certain rooted prejudices.
A. 首先不可否認,佛洛德的理論衝擊了某些過於根深蒂固的偏見。
B. 首先,無可否認的事實是:佛洛伊德的理論遭遇某些根深蒂固的偏見的反對。
Come up with—to meet ( something such as difficulty or opposition) 遭遇( 困難或反對)
We are sorry to be late with the goods, but we come up against some unexpected delays.
我們很抱歉貨物延遲,但是我們遭遇意想不到的耽擱。
7
It was to no purpose that he modified the worst aspects of his theories in later years. In the public eye he is branded by his first statements.
A. 多年後,佛洛德修改了自己理論中最不適宜的部分,但最初的那些言論固化了他在公眾眼中的形象。
B. 在晚年,佛洛伊德修正他的理論最為人構病的部份,但是白費力氣。在公眾的眼裏,他早先的那些陳述,已經替他留下受污蔑的形象。
to no purpose—in vain, with no useful effect or result 徒勞,沒有效果
in later years 在他的晚年 near the end of a period of time
She found happiness in her later years. 在她晚年,她找到幸福。
later on 後來 at a time in the future
brand—to describe somebody as being bad or unpleasant, especially unfairly 污蔑為,汙名化
They were branded as liars and cheats. 他們被污蔑為說謊者及騙子。
8
They are one-sided and exaggerated; moreover they are backed by a philosophy that is falling more and more out of favour with the public: a thoroughly materialistic point of view which has been generally abandoned since the turn of the century.
A. 佛洛德最初的那些觀點是片面而誇張的,這導致其公眾支持率越來越低。在世紀之交,人們已不再相信這種徹底的唯物主義觀點。
B. 那些陳述片面而誇張的。而且,作為支撐它的哲學,逐漸不受公眾的歡迎。那就是自從二十世紀以來,普遍受到唾棄的純粹唯物主義觀點。
They 指的是前面的 his first statements 佛洛伊德早先的陳述
Out of favor 不受歡迎, 指的是支撐它的哲學,逐漸不受歡迎,不是指「佛洛德最初的那些觀點」。也就是that is falling more and more out of favour with the public的形容詞子句,修飾 a philosophy。而A 譯的「其公眾支持率」的「其」指的是前面的They。
9
Freud’s exclusive standpoint not only offends too many ideals but also misinterprets the natural facts of the human psyche.
A. 可以說,佛洛德的一家之言,不僅得罪了很多理想主義者,而且也一定程度歪曲了人性。
B. 佛洛伊德奇特的觀點,不但冒犯太多的人類的理想,而且也誤解了人類精神的自然的事實。
Ideals 指的是人類的理想。理想主義者是 idealists
Human psychic 指的是「人類精神」,而不是「人性」 human nature。
10
It is certain that human nature has its dark side, but the layman as well as the reasonable scientist is quite convinced that it also s has its good and positive side, which is just as real.
A. 人性確有其陰暗的一面,但無論外行還是理性的科學家都深信,它也有好的、積極的一面。
B. 的確,人性有其陰暗的一面,但無論是學界以外的人,還是理性的科學家,他們都深信,人性也有其善良與光明的一面。這種善良與光明的一面,也是同樣地真實。
which 指的是 its good and positive side 人性善良與光明的一面
its good and positive side 既然與前面的 its dark side 「其陰暗的一面」相對比,翻成「善良與光明的一面」,應該是比「積極的一面」清楚些。
11
Common sense does not tolerate the Freudian tendency to derive everything from sexuality and other moral incompatibilities. Such a view is too destructive.
A. 出於常識,人們很難接受佛洛德那種什麼都歸因到性方面的觀點,這也與社會道德不相容的。可以說,佛洛德的這種觀點太具破壞性。
B. 一般的理智判斷,並不能容忍佛洛伊德的這種傾向:將一切都歸因於性及其它跟道德相悖的東西。這樣一種觀點太具破壞性。

common sense 在牛津高級詞典的定義是the ability to think about things in a practical way and make sensible decision (有實際思考及理智決定的能力)。我想翻譯為「一般的理智判斷」,是不是會比「普通常識」貼切些?
to derive everything from sexuality and other moral incompatibilities 裏的and,是連接sexuality 跟 other moral incompatibilities。也就是「性及其它跟道德相悖的東西」。而A譯的「這也與社會道德不相容的。」,變成是「性與社會道德不相容」。

雄伯手記100327

March 26, 2011

雄伯手記100327
SOME ASPECTS OF MODERN PSYCHOTHERAPY 1
三、現代心理治療的某些方面
三、現代心理治療片面觀
46

Modern psychotherapy finds itself in rather an awkward position at a public-health congress.
A. 在參加公眾健康大會中,現代心理治療學家會發現自己陷於一個十分尷尬的境地。
B. 在公共衛生大會,現代心理治療發現自己的立場,非常尷尬。
2
It can boast of no international agreements, nor can it provide the legislator or the minister of public hygiene with suitable or workable advice.
A. 因為他們既沒有值得炫耀的任何相關國際協議,也無法為公共衛生的立法、行政,提供適當而可行的建議。
B. 它並沒有達成任何國際協議,足以自炫,也無法提供任何適當可行的建議,給公共衛生的立法或行政部門。
3
It must assume the somewhat humble role of personal charity work versus the big organizations and institutions of public welfare, and this despite the fact that neuroses are alarmingly common and occupy no small place among the host of evils that assail the health of civilized nations.

A. 看來與那些大型公共福利機構或組織相比,現代心理治療在公眾健康事業中,只是扮演了較次要的角色。然而一個不容忽視的現實是,神經症 其實在公眾人群中是很常見的,而且它是危害這個文明國度健康最主要的兇手之一。
B. 與那些規模較大的公共福利組織及機構相比,現代心理治療對於民眾健康的福利工作,一定僅是扮演次要的角色。儘管這已經是事實:在危害文明國家健康的眾多禍害中,神經症非常普遍,甚至猖獗。
Must 一定
Personal charity work 民眾健康的福利

4
Psychotherapy and modern psychology are as yet individual experiments with little or no general applicability.
A. 在心理治療和現代心理學中,很少有或根本就沒有一個能通用的個案實驗,
B. 迄今,心理治療與現代心理學都是個別從事的試驗,幾乎談不上是普及的應用。
As yet—until now or until a particular time in the past 迄今,或直到某個特別時期
Little or no—hardly any 幾乎沒有
Students have little or no choice in the matter
對於這件事情,學生幾乎沒有選擇餘地。
She said little or nothing about her experience
= She hardly said anything about her experience
她幾乎沒有談到她的經驗。

They rest upon the initiative of individual doctors, who are not supported even by the universities.
A. 而有些博士的倡議,可能都得不到自己所在大學的支持。
B. 心理治療與現代心理學仰賴醫生個別的創議。而這些醫生甚至沒有獲得大學到支持。

They 是指 psychotherapy and psychology
Doctors 是指「醫生」,不是「博士」
Rest upon/on—to depend on 依靠
The committee’s decision rests on the chairman’s vote.
委員會的決議依靠主席的票決。
5
Nevertheless the problems of modern psychology have aroused a widespread interest out of all proportion to the exceedingly restricted official sympathy.
A. 但不管怎樣,現代心理學面臨的問題,已經引起了各界的廣泛關注,絕不僅僅局限於官方的同情了。
B. 可是,現代心理學的困境已經引起廣泛的關注。跟官方的冷淡對待相較起來,真是天淵之別。

48

6
I must confess that I myself did not find it at all easy to bow my head to Freud’s innovations.
A. 我必須承認,對佛洛德的那些主張,我自己也很難做到完全贊同。
B. 我現在必須承認,對佛洛德的那些創見,以前我自己根本無法贊同。
not…at all —not …in the least 根本沒有
bow one’s head to—nod one’s head—express agreement or approval, 表達同意或暫同
“ that I myself did not find it at all easy to bow my head to Freud’s innovations. ”
這個名詞子句用的是過去時態,跟I must confess 的現在時態相對比。強調是「我現在必須承認」,但是「我自己根本無法贊同」,是以前的事。現在可能贊同,而且還替那些創見辯護。
7
I was a young doctor then, busying myself with experimental psychopathology and mainly interested in the disturbances of mental reactions to be observed in the so-called association experiments.
A. 那時我還是一個年輕的醫生,整日忙於做些精神病理學方面的實驗,主要興趣點還在觀察所謂“關聯試驗”中的精神幹擾現象。
B. 那時,我還是一位年輕醫生,忙錄於研究實驗性精神病理學。我主要的興趣在於從所謂的“聯想試驗”,能夠被觀察出來的的精神反應的困擾。
I was mainly interested in the disturbances of mental reactions to be observed in the so-called association experiments.
= I was mainly interested in the disturbances of mental reactions which could be observed in the so-called association experiments.
我主要的興趣在於從所謂的“聯想試驗”,能夠被觀察出來的的精神反應的困擾。
to be observed 是不定詞的形容詞用法,修飾前面的 the disturbances of mental reactions 也可以改成用形容詞子句來修飾,不定詞帶有「能夠」的意味 that could be observed
8
Only a few of Freud’s works had then been published. But I could not help seeing that my conclusions undoubtedly tended to confirm the facts indicated by Freud, namely the facts of repression, substitution, and “symbolization.”
A. 那時,佛洛德的著作也只有一小部分被發行出版而已,但不得不承認,很多實驗結果都趨向於支持佛洛德的那些觀點,如“壓抑”、 “替代”和“象徵”。
B. 當時,佛洛德的著作,已經出版的僅有一部份,但是我不由自主地看出:無可置疑的,我的實驗結論都傾向於證實,佛洛德指示的那些事實,也就是,壓抑、 替代和“符號象徵”的事實。
9
Nor could I honestly deny the very real importance of sexuality in the aetiology and indeed in the actual structure of neuroses。
A. 同時,我也無法否認,在導致神經症的那些病因及實際神經結構裏,“性”起了非常重要的作用。
B. 坦白说,我也無法否認,在病原學,「性」確實具有的重要性,尤其是在神經症的實際結構裏。
Honestly 坦誠地
aetiology 病因學,病原學

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

雄伯手記100326h

March 26, 2011

雄伯手記100326h
1
I provide him with the necessary psychological knowledge to free himself from my medical authority as speedily as possible.
A. 我提供必要的心理學知識給他,這樣他就可以儘快脫離我的醫學權威的影響。
B. 我提供給他必須具備的心理學知識,為了讓他盡可能快地,擺脫我作為醫學權威的影響。
2
In addition, I break off the treatment every ten weeks or so, in order to throw him back on his normal milieu.
A. 此外,我每隔10周左右就中斷治療,這是為了把他拋回其正常環境中。
B. 除外,每隔十個星期左右,我中斷心理治療,為了讓他回歸到他的正常的生活環境。
3
In this way he is not alienated from his world–for he really suffers from his tendency to live at another’s expense.
A. 如此一來他就不再和他的世界保持疏離——因為要靠別人過活真的讓他痛苦不已。
B. 以這種方式,他才不會跟他的生活世界保持疏離——因為要仰賴心理治療,真的讓他感到痛苦。
At one‘s expense—with loss or damage to someone 犧牲
He built up the business at the expense of health
他犧牲建康,成就他的事業。
4
In such a procedure time can take effect as a healing factor, without the patient’s having to pay for the doctor’s time.
A. 在這樣的程式中,時間可以起到治療因素的效果,而病人不用為醫生的時間付費。
B. 在這樣的過程,時間發揮效果,作為治療的因素,病人不必因為佔用醫生時間而付費。
5
With proper direction most people become capable after a while of making their contribution–however modest at first–to the common work.
A. 只要方向正確,大部分人在一段時間後就可以對醫患雙方的共同工作作出自己的貢獻,不管其程度在開始時是如 何細微。
B. 由於方向正確,過一段時間後,大部分人就能夠對醫患雙方的共同努力,作出自己的貢獻,不管其程度起初是如何微小。
However modest at first—however modest their contribution may be at first
不管他們的貢獻起初是如何微小
Modest 在這裏形容「貢獻」,是多麼的「微小」。
6
In my experience the absolute period of cure is not shortened by too many sittings.
A. 在我的經驗中,治療所需的絕對期不會因為很多的會面而縮短。
B. 依照我的經驗,治療所需的完整的期限,不會因為諮商會面太多而縮短。
absolute—total and complete 全部而完整的
7
It lasts a fair time in all cases requiring thorough treatment.
A.所有需要徹底治療的案例療程都會持續相當一段時間。
B.若是需要徹底治療,任何案例療程,都要曠日費時。
8. Consequently, in the case of the patient with small means, if the sittings are spaced out and the intervals filled in with the patient’s own work, the treatment becomes financially more endurable than when undertaken daily in the hope of (problematical) suggestive effects.
A. 因此,對於收入不多的病人來說,如果會面拉開距離,中途填上病人自己的工作,和每天都做治療,期望出現(有問題)的暗示效果比較而言,治療在經濟上就更可以承受。
B. 因此,對於經濟不是很富裕的病人,假如會面間隔拉長,間隔期間,填補病人自己的努力,治療的費用較能讓人承擔得起,比起每天從事治療,冀望獲得暗示治療的效果(這種效果值得質疑)。
榮格將心理治療,視為治療師與病人各自作為一個「精神系統」的彼此的「辯證過程」。因此療程必然需要雙方共同等努力,而非治療師單方面的「暗示療效」suggestive effects
「辯證過程」會牽涉到金錢往來,病人付費,治療師收費。榮格是大師,治療會面減少,收入跟著減少,對他影響不大。但是對於一般治療師而言,為了財源滾滾,會面時間恐怕是多多益善。

when taken daily = when the treatment is taken daily 每天從事治療

44
8
In all clear cases of neurosis a certain reeducation and regeneration of personality are essential, for we are dealing with a misdevelopment that generally goes far back into the individual’s childhood.

A 在所有明確的神經症患者中,一定程度的再教育和人格的再生是必不可少的,因為我們在處理的是一般要追溯回到個體童年期的發展偏差。
B. 在所有明確的神經官能症患者當中,人格再教育和再生某個程度上是很重要的。因為我們正在處理的發展偏差,一般要追溯到個體的童年時期。
心理治療是需要人格的再教育及重生,是指病人?還是治療師?看來真是茲事體大。這樣的「辯證過程」真是戛戛乎難哉!
9
Accordingly the modern method must also take account of the philosophical and pedagogical views of the humane sciences, for which reason a purely medical education is proving increasingly inadequate.
A. 相應的現代方法也必需考慮人文科學的哲學和教育學的觀點,其原因是純粹的醫學教育已被日漸證明是不足夠的。
B. 因此,現代方法也必須考慮到,要從哲學及教育觀點,來看待人文科。因為那個理由,純粹只是醫學教育,漸漸證明是越來越不足夠。
for which reason 的 which 指的是the modern method must also take account of the philosophical and pedagogical views of the humane sciences
「純粹只是醫學教育,漸漸證明是越來越不足夠。」這一句是前面的「結果」,不是A 譯的「其原因是」。
10
Such an activity should in all cases presuppose a thorough knowledge of psychiatry.
A. 此種活動應該在所有情況下都預設(醫生)對精神病學有透徹瞭解。
B. 無論如何,此種活動應該預先假設:醫生)對於精神病學,應該要有透徹的瞭解。
11
But for adequate treatment of dreams a plentiful admixture of symbolical knowledge is needed, which can only be acquired by a study of primitive psychology, comparative mythology, and religion.
A. 但是要充分地處理夢,還需要結合很多的象徵(symbolical)的知識,而這些知識只能通過學習原始心理學(primitive psychology), 比較神話學,和宗教而獲得。
B. 但是要充分地解析夢,還需要結合很多的符號象徵的知識。這些知識的獲得,只能憑藉學習原始心理學, 比較神話學,和宗教而獲得。
Primitive psychology 原始心理學是什麼東西?我在網路查到兩條資訊,作為參考:
The first attempt at a complex psychology was made by Freud and his essay on “ Totem and Taboo” was one of the first contribution of the new psychology for the investigation of the primitive mind. His essay demonstrates the possibility of the “ rapprochement” between psychology and the problem of the primitive mind.

佛洛伊德及其論文「圖騰與禁忌」首先企圖建構一個複雜的心理學。他對於原始心靈的研究最早作出貢獻。他的論文證明,心理學跟原始心靈有「友善關係」的可能。

When Jung speaks of primitive psychology, his emphasis is on the collective unconscious, in contrast to individual conscious.
當榮格提到原始心理學,他的強調是在於集體潛意識,對比於個人的意識。

12

Much to the astonishment of the psychotherapist, the object of his labours has not grown simpler with deepened knowledge and experience, but has visibly increased in scope and complexity;
A. 讓心理治療師非常吃驚的是,其勞動的客體並沒有隨著知識和經驗的深化而變得更簡單些,相反其勞動的範圍明顯擴展了,複雜性明顯增加了。
B. 心理治療師非常吃驚的是,他努力研究的目標,並沒有隨著知識和經驗的深化,而變得更簡單些,相反在範圍及複雜性,顯而易見地增加。
13
and in the clouds of the future the lineaments of a new practical psychology have already begun to take shape, which will embrace the insights of the doctor as well as of the educator and all those whose concern is the human soul.
A. 而且在未來的雲端,一 門新的實踐性心理學的輪廓已經開始成形,這門學科會包括醫生、教育者、以及所有關懷人類靈魂工作者的洞見。
B. 而且在未來的雲端,一 門新的實踐性心理學的輪廓已經開始成形。這門學科會包括醫生、教育家、以及所有關懷人類靈魂工作者的洞見。

Embrace—include 包括
14
Till then, psychotherapy will assuredly remain the business of the doctor, and it is to be hoped that the medical faculties will not long continue to turn a deaf ear to this plea addressed to the doctor by the sick.
A. 到那時,心理治療肯定仍然是醫生做的事情,而且 希望醫療工作者們不 再會繼續對來自病家的請求長期置若罔聞。
B. 到那時,心理治療肯定仍然是醫生的職責,而且,我們希望醫療人員,對於病人對醫生的求助,不會繼續置若罔聞。
15
The educated public knows of the existence of psychotherapy, and the intelligent doctor knows, from his own practice, the great importance of psychological influence.
A. 受過教育的公眾們指導心理治療的存在,而聰明的醫生從自己的實踐知道,心理影響的巨大的重要性。
B. 有知識的大眾瞭解心理治療的存在。聰明的醫生從自己的門診中知道,心理產生的影響,極端重要。
16
Hence in Switzerland there is already a fine body of doctors who stand up for the rights of psychotherapy and practice it with self-sacrificing devotion, despite the fact that their work is often made bitter for them by ridicule, misinterpretation, and criticism, as inept as it is malevolent.
A. 從此,瑞士就會有 了一批高品質的醫生,他們堅持心理治療的權利,並帶著自我犧牲的奉獻精神實踐心理治療,雖然事實上他們的工作經常遭到既無知又惡意地嘲笑、誤解和挑剔,讓 他們吃盡苦頭。(28頁完)
B. 因此,在瑞士,已經有一批素質很高的醫生。他們維護心理治療的權利,並且以自我犧牲的奉獻精神從事心理治療。儘管事實上,他們的工作經常遭到嘲笑、誤解和譭謗,讓他們吃盡苦頭。