Bataille 03

Bataille 03

Bataille on Nietzsche
巴岱伊論尼采
Preface
4
As I write, I’ll admit that moral investigations that aim to surpass the good lead first of all to disorder. There’s no guarantee yet I’ll pass the test. Founded on painful experience, this admission allows me to dismiss those who, in attacks on or exploitations of Nietzsche, confuse his position with that of Hitler.
當我寫作時,我將會承認,目標是要超越善的道德探究,首先會造成混亂。並沒有任何保證我會通得過這個考驗。根據我痛苦的經驗,先這樣的坦承,我才能夠反駁那些將尼采的立場,與希特勒的立場混為一談的人,當他們在攻擊或研究尼采的時候。
“In what height is my abode? Ascending, I’ve never counted the steps leading to myself–and where the steps cease, that is where I have my roof and my abode.” * [The Will to Power]
「我的居所在怎樣的高處?在攀登處。我從來沒有計算通往我自己的腳步。在腳步停止的地方,那就是我的屋頂及我的居所。」( 權力意志)
Thus a demand is expressed, one not directed at some comprehensible good–but all the more consuming to the degree that it’s experienced.
因此,有個要求被表達。這個要求目標不是朝向可理解的善,而是更加全神貫注,直到這個要求被體驗到。
I lose patience with crude equivocations. It’s frightening to see thought reduced to the propaganda level–thought that remains comically unemployable, opening to those whom the void inspires. According to some critics, Nietzsche exercised a great influence on his times. I doubt it: No one expected him to dismiss moral laws. But above all he took no political stance and, when pressed to, refused to choose a party, disturbed at the possibility of either a right- or leftwing identification. The idea of a person’s subordinating his or her thinking to a cause appalled him.

對於那些鄙陋的模棱兩可,我甚感不耐。目睹思想淪落到政治宣傳的地步,始終無法被滑稽利用的思想,被昏聵空虛的人所操弄,我實在驚駭莫名。有些批評者顯示,尼采在他當地產生巨大影響。我懷疑這一點。沒有人會預期他排斥道德法則。但是尤其是,他並沒有採取政治立場。當他被強迫時,他拒絕選擇黨派。對於要認同左翼,或是右翼,他甚感懊惱。對於一個人要將他的思想隸屬於一個政治目標,他驚駭不己。
His strong feelings on politics date from his falling out with Wagner and from his disillusionment with Wagner’s German grossness-Wagner the socialist, the Francophobe, the anti-Semite . . . The spirit of the Second Reich, especially in its pre-Hitlerite tendencies–the emblem of which is anti-Semitism–is what he most despised. Pan-German propaganda made him sick.
他對於政治的強烈感受,開始于他跟華格納的爭吵,及開始於他幻夢覺醒于華格納的德國人粗野習性。華格納這位社會主義者,仇恨法國人份子,及反閃族份子。第二帝國的精神,特別在希特勒尚未得勢前的趨勢,它的標誌就是反閃族。這是他最為輕視的。泛德國人的宣傳令他感到厭惡。
“I like creating from tabula rasa,” he wrote. “It is in fact one of my ambitions to be imputed a great scorner of the Germans. Even at the age of twenty-six, I expressed the suspicions that their nature had aroused in me” ( Third Jeremiad). “To me, there is something impossible about the Germans, and if I try to imagine a type repellent to all my instincts, it’s always a German who comes to mind” ( Ecce Homo). For the clear-sighted, at a political level Nietzsche was a prophet, foretelling the crude German fate. He was the first to give it in detail. He loathed the impervious, vengeful, self-satisfied foolishness that took hold of the German mind after 1870, which today is being spent in Hitlerite madness. No more deadly error has ever led a whole people astray and so terribly ordained it for destruction. But taking leave of the (by now) dedicated crowd, he went his way, refusing to be part of orgies of “self-satisfaction.” His strictness had its consequences.
「我喜歡從沒有偏見開始創造,」他寫到。「事實上,我的企圖心就是要被認為是德國人的藐視者。」即使在二十六歲的時候,我就表達懷疑:德國人的天性在我身上喚起什麼。(第三個悲情故事)「對於我而言,德國人有某件令人反感的東西。假如要我設法想像一種我所有本能感到厭惡的東西,我想到的總是一個德國人。」(瞧!那個人)對於腦筋清楚的人而言,在政治上,尼采是一位預言家,預測粗鄙的德國人的命運。他是第一位詳細預測的人。他痛恨,在1870年之後,掌控德國人心靈的那種固執,仇恨,及沾沾自喜的愚蠢。這種愚蠢今天正在希特勒身上驗證出來。整個民族被引導進入歧途,可怕地註定會淪亡,這種致命的錯誤,真是前所未有。但是在他跟當時全神貫注的群眾分道揚鑣之後,他選擇自己的方式前進,拒絕成為那種「沾沾自喜」的狂飆的一份子。他的嚴謹招致它的後果。
Germany chose to ignore a genius so unwilling to flatter her. It was only Nietzsche’s notoriety abroad that belatedly secured the attention of his people . . . I know of no better example of the wall of incomprehension existing between one person and his or her country: for fifteen years a whole nation remaining deaf to that voice–isn’t this a serious matter? As witnesses to that destruction, we ought to look in admiration at the fact that while Germany took the path leading to the worst developments, one of the best and most passionate Germans turned away from his country with feelings of horror and uncontrollable disgust. Taken all round in any case, in their attempts to evade him as much as in their aberrations, doesn’t hindsight let us see something vulnerable in this inconclusiveness?
德國選擇忽視一位不願意恭維她的天才。只有當尼采在國外的名聲,才過晚地獲得他國人的注意。、、、我想不出有任何更好的例子來說明,存在於一個人跟他或她的國家之間的互相不理解的牆壁:十五年來整個國家對於他的聲音充耳不聞。這難道不是一件很嚴重的事嗎?作為那場毀滅的經歷者,我們應該欽佩地看待這個事實:當德國選擇導致最糟糕發展的途徑時,有一位最優秀最熱情的德國人背離他的國家,帶著恐懼及無法控制的厭惡的感情。德國人當時被帶得團團轉,企圖避開尼采,脫軌前進。現在回顧起來,難道不是讓我們從這種未定之天,看出某件最脆弱的東西?
In their opposition to each other, at last both Nietzsche and Germany will probably experience the same fate: both equally, aroused by demented hopes, though not to any purpose. Beyond this tragically pointless confusion, lacerations, and hatreds governed their relations. The resemblances are insignificant. If the habit of not taking Nietzsche seriously did not exist, the habit of doing what most annoyed him, giving him a cursory reading to exploit him, without even putting aside positions which he saw as being incompatible with his, his teaching would be seen for what it is–the most violent of solvents. To view this teaching as supporting causes it actually discredits not only insults it but rides roughshod over it–showing that his readers know nothing at all about what they claim to like. To try, as I have, to push the possibilities of his teaching to the limit is to become, like Nietzsche, a field of infinite contradictions. Following his paradoxical doctrines, you are forced to see yourself as excluded from participating in current causes. You’ll eventually see that solitude is your only lot.

他們互相的對立,最後,尼采跟德國很可能會經驗到相同的命運:兩者都是受到瘋狂的希望所激發,但是都是徒勞無功。除外,支配他們關係的,是這場悲劇地沒有意義的混亂,撕裂及仇恨。這些類似其實無關緊要。即使忽視尼采的習慣已不再存在,可是大家還是習慣於做最令他感到懊惱的事情,匆促流覽他的著作,就想要利用他,甚至沒有擺開跟他認為是格格不入的立場,沒有按照他的教導的內涵去觀看,這種習慣是最粗暴的解決方法。拿這種教導,作為支持實際上是尼采蔑視的目標,那不但是污辱它,而且是強暴它。這顯示:讀者對於他們所宣稱的喜歡的東西,其實一無所知。我的做法是,設法將尼采的教導的可能性推到極限,就是像尼采一樣,成為一個無限矛盾的領域。當你遵從他的矛盾重重的信條時,你被迫看待你自己,當著是從參與目前目標中被排除出來。最後,你將會看到,孤獨是你唯一的命運。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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