雄伯手記100329b

雄伯手記100329b
Adler’s educational method, with its emphasis on power-drives and conscious fictions; Schultz’s autogenic training–to name only the better known methods.
A. 還有阿德勒(Adler)強調權力驅力和意識性虛構的教育方法,舒爾茨(Schultz)的自發性訓練(autogenic training)等, 這裏只是列舉出了比較有名的一些療法而已。
B. 阿德勒的教育方法,強調權力的欲望驅力及意識的虛構;舒爾茨強調自主性訓練。我只舉其較為知名的方法。
何謂阿德勒的權力欲望驅力Power drives?
The psychic attempt to banish a sense of inferiority will often shape someone’s whole life; the person will try to compensate for it in sometimes extreme ways. Adler invented a term for this, the famous “ inferiority complex. ”While a complex may make someone more timid or withdrawn, it could equally produce the need to compensate for that,in overachievement. This is the “ pathological power drives” expressed at the expense of other people and society generally. Adler identifies Napoleon a small man making a big impact on the world , as a classic case of inferiority in action
精神企圖驅除一種自卑感,往往會塑造某個人的整整一生。這個人將會設法以有時是極端的方式,彌補這個自卑感。阿德勒杜撰一個術語來表達,那就是「自卑情結」。雖然自卑情結會使一個人變得膽小或退縮,它也同樣產生想要以過份的成就,補償它的需要。這就是所謂的「病態的權力欲望驅力」,不惜犧牲別人及一般的社會,來表達它。阿德勒認同拿破崙作為自卑感運作的典型例子:一位小人物對於世界產生巨大的影響。
何謂阿德勒的「意識性幻見」Conscious fictions?

Adler was influenced by the philosopher Hans Vaihinger who proposed that people live by many fictional ideals that have no relation to reality and therefore cannot be tested and confirmed. For example, that all men are created equal; women should always bow to the will of their husband; and the end justifies the means. These fictions may help a person feel powerful and justify the rightness of their selfish choices, although at the same time cause others harm and injustice and destroy relationships. Adler took this idea and concluded that people are motivated more by their expectations of the future than they are by the past. If a person believes that there is heaven for those who are good and hell for those who are bad, it will probably affect how that person lives. An ideal or absolute is a fiction.
阿德勒受到哲學家漢斯、貝辛吉的影響。他建議人們應該根據許多幻見的理想來生活。這些理想跟現實沒有關聯,因此無法被考驗及證實。例如,人人生而平等;女人應該屈從于她們丈夫的意志;為了目的,可以不擇手段。這些幻見可以幫助一個人有權威感,證明他們自私的選擇是正確有理,雖然它們也同時引起別人的傷害,不公正及毀滅人與人的關係。阿德勒接受這個觀念,下結論說:人們被引起動機,是對於未來的期望,而不是對於過去。假如一個人相信,好人上天堂,壞人下地獄,這可能會影響那個人如何行為。一個理想或絕對價值都是幻見。
何謂舒爾茨的「自主性訓練」Autogenic training?
Autogenic Training is the most effective way of self-hypnosis, which has been developed by Dr. Schultz in the first half of the 20th century. It is a very effective way of self-induced (“autogenic”) states of very deep relaxation, which can be beneficial for body and mind.
自主性訓練是自我催眠最有效的方法。二十世紀的前業,它由舒爾茨博士所發展。這是一個有效的自我誘導(自主性)的狀態,讓人充份地輕鬆,這對於身心都是有益的。
2
Each of them rests on special psychological assumptions and produces special psychological results; comparison between them is difficult and often well-nigh impossible.
A. 它們都建立在特定的心理學假設上,製造出特定的心理學效果,比較它們是困難的,往往也是幾無可能的。
B. 它們都依靠特別的心理的假設,並且產生特別的心理的結果。跟它們做比較很困難,往往是近乎不可能。
Rest on –- to depend on 依靠

3
Consequently it was quite natural that the champions of any one point of view should, in order to simplify matters, treat the opinions of the others as erroneous.
A. 相應地且是自然地,為了簡化事物,某觀點的支持者們應該會把其他的觀點看做是錯誤的。
B. 結果就是,為了化繁為簡,任何一種觀點的擁護者,自然而然會將異己的意見,視為是錯誤的。
4
Objective appraisal of the facts shows, however, that each of these methods and theories is justified up to a point, since each can boast not only of certain successes but of psychological data that largely prove its particular assumption.
A. 然而,對事物的客觀評判表明,這些方法和理論在某一點上都是正確的,因為它們每 一種療法都有大量證明其假設的心理學資料,而不僅僅是某些特例的成功。
B. 可是,客觀地評估事實顯示:這些方法與理論,在某個程度上,都能自圓其說。任何一種,不但能自炫有某些的成就,而且還擁有足夠的心理學的資料,用以證明其特別的假設。
5
Thus we are faced in psychotherapy with a situation comparable with that in modern physics where, for instance, there are two contradictory theories of light.
A. 所以在心理治療中,我們面臨著類似現代物理學的情境,如有兩種完全矛盾的光的學說。
B. 因此,在心理治療學,我們面臨的情況,可類比現代物理學的情況:例如,關於光學,就有兩個矛盾的理論。
6
And just as physics does not find this contradiction unbridgeable, so the existence of many possible standpoints in psychology should not give grounds for assuming that the contradictions are irreconcilable and the various views merely subjective and therefore incommensurable.
A. 也正如物理學中這兩種學說的矛盾並非無法逾越一樣,存在於心理學中的諸多觀點也不應被假定為,這些矛盾是無法協調的,眾多觀念都僅是主觀的,故無法比較的。
B. 正如物理學並不覺得這種矛盾是無法化解,心理學許多可能的觀點,也不應該就振振有理地認為:這些矛盾互不相容,僅是言人人殊地主觀性,因此就無法互相參照。
Grounds for –a good or true reason for saying, doing or believing something 有充份的理由,振振有理
You have no grounds for complaint. 你沒有抱怨的充份理由。
7
Contradictions in a department of science merely indicate that its subject displays characteristics which at present can be grasped only by means of antinomies–witness the wave theory and the corpuscular theory of light.
A. 在科學領域中的矛盾僅僅提示其主體呈現的特質,是在如今只能通過二律背反(antinomies)得到掌握——如光學中波動理論和粒子理論一樣。
B. 科學某一區塊的矛盾,僅僅指示著:它的科目展現一些目前只能憑藉二律背反才能理解的特性。例如,光學的波長理論與粒子理論
Witness 例如— giving an example that proves something you just said 給予一個例子,證明你剛剛所說的
Authentic Italian cooking is very healthy—witness the low incidence of heart disease in Italy.
道地的義大利食物烹調對健康有益,例如,在義大利,很少有心臟病的發作。
Antinomy二律背反– A contradiction between two statements that seem equally reasonable 兩個同樣都是合理的陳述,卻又互相矛盾

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