Jung handbook 05

Jung handbook 05

The Handbook of Jung Psychology
榮格心理學的手冊

Chapter 9 Individuation 197
Individuation
Murray Stein

第九章 個體化
墨菲、史坦因

200 Murray Stein Individuation 201

With further motor and cognitive development, the ego is able to begin exercising its executive functions and to exert some control over muscles.

由於有更進一步的動力跟認知發展,自我能夠開始運作它的執行的功用,並且對於肌肉實施恐制。

Arms and legs become coordinated and speech follows. Soon the whole world becomes a vast theatre of play and learning, a veritable Garden of Eden to explore. The healthy child asserts itself vigorously and with abandon in this perceived safe and protected environment. Serious reality testing is left to the oversight of the parental unit, a nurturing and containing presence hovering above. The boundaries of this paradise are tested soon enough as the child exerts more and more autonomy physically and emotionally. Disobedience and increasing consciousness go hand in hand.

手臂跟腳互相協調,言談能力也跟隨而來。不久,整個世界成為一個遊戲及學習的廣大劇場,一個可供探索的名符其實的伊甸園。建康的小孩強烈而任性地表現自己,在這個感覺到的安全而受到保護的環境。嚴重的現實界的考驗,則是讓父母親們去掛念,他們的滋養跟包容的存在盤旋上方。這種天堂的邊界不久就受到考驗,當小孩在生理上及情感上,運用越來越多的自主權。不服從及越來越增加的意識則齊頭並進。

Psychological boundaries begin to be erected between child and parental guardian, and the child becomes aware of the differences between self and other and exploits them. Throughout this stage, however, a basic level of unconscious identification remains between child and nurturing environment. Participation mystique continues to reign. Jung thought of the child’s psyche as largely contained in the parental psyche and reflective of it:

心理的邊界開始被豎立,在小孩跟父母親的監護之間。小孩漸漸知道在自我與別人之間的這個差異,並且利用這個差異。可是,在這個階段的過程,無意識認同的一個基本的層次,始終保持在小孩與滋養的環境之間。「參與的神秘」繼續支配。榮格將小孩的心理視為是,主要是被包容在父母的心理及其反射裏。

‘Children are so deeply involved in the psychological attitude of their parents that it is no wonder that most of the nervous disturbances in childhood can be traced back to a disturbed psychic atmosphere in the home’ (CW 17: par. 80). The child’s true individual personality does not emerge until it leaves the parents’ psyche in a sort of second birth, a psychological birth for the ego when it becomes a more truly separate entity.

小孩是如此深度地牽涉到他們父母親的心理態度,也就難怪,在童年時,大部份的精神上的困擾,可以被追蹤到一個受到困擾的家庭的心理氣氛。「小孩的真實的個人人格,要等到它以一種重生的方式,脫離父母的心理,才會出現。」對於自我,這是一種心理的誕生,當它成為一種更加真實的脫離的實體。

This psychological containment of the young gives parents enormous influence over their children, not only through the conscious transmission of culture, tradition, teaching and training, but more importantly and deeply through unconscious communication of attitude and structure.

幼兒的這個心理的被包容,使父母親對於他們的小孩產生巨大的影響。不但是透過文化、傳統、教學及訓練的有意識地傳遞,而且更重要,更深刻地,透過態度及結構的無意識的溝通。

Via the unconscious, a kind of psychological programming of the child’s inner
world takes place, for good or ill. It is not what the parent says, but what the parent is and does, that has the greatest impact on the shape of the child’s inner world. The family is the child’s adaptive environment, and much of this world’s emotional tone enters the child’s inner world by introjection.

經由這種無意識,小孩內在世界一種心理的戲碼會產生,無論是好或是不好。這不是父母所說的話,而是父母的存在與行為,有最大的影響,對於小孩內在世界的形成。家庭是小孩的適應環境。這個世界的大部份的情感音色,會突然進入小孩的世界。

The testing and challenging of physical and psychological boundaries continues throughout the first stage of individuation. Adolescence, which for most of us falls within this stage, is a transitional time when physically, and to some extent psychologically, a person is ready to leave the nurturing/ containing environment and enter the next stage of individuation.

生理與心理邊界的考驗與挑戰,繼續貫穿個體化的第一階段。對於我們大部份人而言,青少年就處於這個階段。那是一個轉移到時刻,當生理上,以及心理上的某個程度,一個人準備要離開這個滋養及包容的環境,然後進入個體化的下一個階段。

In modern developed societies, however, this is complicated by educational and training requirements that often prolong the containment stage to a significant extent. An adolescent of 15 or even 18 is nowhere near being able to take on the tasks and responsibilities of adulthood in modern societies.

可是,在現代發展成熟的社會,教育及訓練的要求會使它變得更加複雜。它們延長這個包容的階段,到達一個重要的程度。十五歲到甚至十八歲的青少年,根本就沒有辦法擔負起在現代社會中,成年的這些工作及責任。

This prolongation of the first stage of individuation creates the specific problems and attitudes so characteristic of adolescents in these countries: impatience, rebelliousness, feelings of inferiority, being marginalised, and frustration. Ready to leave the world of childhood but not yet prepared for the tasks of adulthood, they are truly betwixt and between.

個體化的第一階段的延長,創造這個明確的難題及態度。在這些國家,它們是青少年的特性:沒有耐心、反叛、自卑感、邊緣感、及挫折感。他們準備離開這個童年的世界,但是對於成年的工作,還沒有準備好。他們確實進退維谷。

The adult personae that initiation rituals provide in traditional societies are withheld from adolescents in modern cultures, and the dependent state of childhood is artificially prolonged far beyond its natural physical and psychological timeframe. Schools and colleges are the holding pens and containers devised by modern cultures for adolescents and post-adolescents who need to have more time to mature and to become acculturated and ready for successful adaptation to the demands of work and family that are shortly to fall upon them.

在傳統社會裏,成年禮儀式供應的成年的角色,在現代的文物,還是受到青少年的支持。童年的依靠狀態,以人為方式被延長,超越它的自然的生理及心理的時間限制。中小學校及大學是現代文化替青少年及青年,設計的支持場所及包容處。他們需要更多的時間來成熟,並且融入文化,準備從事成功的適應於工作及家庭的要求。這些要求不久就會落在他們身上。

陳春雄譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
http://springhero.wordpress.com

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