Desire 033 Jacques Lacan

Desire 033

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN
BOOK VI
Desire and its Interpretation
欲望及其解釋

3.12.58 52
Seminar 4: 3 December 1958

So that the way out proposed to this new drama is to censure this truth of desire. But this censorship is not something which, however it is exercised, can be sustained with the stroke of a pen, because here it is the process of enunciating which is aimed
at, and because to prevent it some foreknowledge of the process of the enunciation is necessary, and that every discourse destined to banish this enunciation from the process of enunciating is going to find itself offending more or less openly with its end. It is the matrix of this possibility which at this level, is given on our graph, and it will give you a lot of other matrices.

對於這個新的戲劇所提出的解決方法,就是檢查這個欲望的真理。但是檢查並不是某件僅是用一隻筆的描述,就能維持的東西,無論它如何的運用。因為在此,我們目標所要的,就是這個表達的過程。我們必須要預先知道這個表達的過程,我們才能夠阻止它。每一個真理論述,假如註定要驅逐這個表達,於表達的過程之外,它將會發現它自己,彰彰明甚地跟自己的目的背道而馳。這就是在我們的欲望圖表裏,以這個層次,被給予的這個可能性的基模。它還會給予你們許多其他的基模。

The subject, because of the fact that he articulates his demand, is captured in a discourse in which he cannot but be himself constructed qua agent of enunciating, which is why he cannot renounce it without this enunciation, because that is to efface himself completely as a subject knowing what is in question.

事實上,當生命主體表達他的需求時,他被擄獲在一個真理論述裏。他不得不讓自己被建構,作為表達的代理人。這就是為什麼,他無法在沒有這個表達的情況下,放棄它。因為那等於是完全抹除自己,作為一個生命主體,知道受到質疑的是什麼。

(30) The relationship to one another of these two lines of the process of enunciating and the process of the enunciation is quite simple, it is the whole of grammar, a rational grammar which is articulated in these terms; if you find it interesting I
will tell you where and how, in what terms and in what context this has been articulated, but for the moment what we have to deal with is the following: it is the fact that we see when repression is introduced, it is essentially linked to the
absolute necessity of the subject being effaced and disappearing at the level of the process of enunciating.

表達的過程及這個表達內容的過程,這兩條線互相的關係。這就是文法的整體,一個理性的文法,用這些術語來表達。假如你們發現它很有趣,我將告訴你們,這個東西在哪里,用什麼方法,用什麼術語,在什麼內容被表達。但是目前,我們必須要處理的以下:事實上,我們看出壓抑什麼時候被介紹,它基本上是跟這個絕對的需要息息相關。那就是生命主體被抹除,並且消失,在表達的這個過程。

How, by what empirical paths does the subject accede to this possibility? It is quite impossible, even to articulate it if we do not see what the nature of the process of enunciating is.

使用怎樣的試驗性途徑,生命主體同意這樣的可能性?這是相當不可能的,即使僅是表達它,假如我們看出表達的過程的特性是什麼?

As I told you: every word begins from these points of intersection which we have designated by the point 0, namely that every word in so far as the subject is implicated in it, is the discourse of the Other.

如同我告訴你們,每個字都開始於我們用大它者的點,指明代這些交會點。換句話說,每個字都是大它者的真理論述,當生命主體牽涉在內。

That is the precise reason why at first the child is quite convinced that all his thoughts are known, it is because the definition of thought is not as the psychologists say, something like the beginning of an act. Thought is above all something which participates in this dimension of the unsaid which I have just introduced by the distinction between the process of enunciating and the process of enunciation, but for
this unsaid to subsist, naturally in so far as in order that it (31) should be an unsaid it must be said, it must be said at the level of the process of enunciating, namely qua discourse of the Other, and that is why the child does not doubt for an instant
that what represents for him this locus where this discourse is carried on, namely his parents, know all his thoughts.

那確實就是為什麼,起初小孩是如此地相信,所有他的思想都被人知道,因為思想的定義並不是如心理學家所說,像是某件開始行動的東西。特別是,思想是某件參與這個沒有說出的向度。我剛剛介紹它,使用表達的過程,與表達內容的過程的這個區別。但是要讓這個沒有說出的部份存在,我們必須在表達的過程這個層次說。換句話說,作為大它者的真理論述。那就是為什麼,小孩沒有片刻懷疑,對於他,代表真理論述被執行的這個軌跡。換句話說,父母知道他所有的思想。

In any case this is his first movement, it is a movement which will subsist as long as he is not introduced to something new which we have again articulated here concerning this relationship of the upper line with the lower line, namely what keeps them outside grammar at a certain distance.

無論如何,這是他的第一次活動,這是一個活動將會生存,假如他並沒有被介紹給某件新的東西。我們在此再一次表達,關於上面這條線跟下面這條線的這個關係。換句話說,是什麼保持它們在文法外面的某個距離?

I do not need to tell you how grammar keeps a distance between sentences like “I do not know whether he is dead”, “He is not dead, as far as I know”, “I did not know that he was dead”, “I was afraid that he was dead”. All these subtle taxemes which go
from the subjunctive here to a ne that Monsieur Lebidoy calls in a fashion that is really incredible for a philologist who writes in Le Monde, the expletive ne. All of this is done to show us that a whole part of grammar, the essential part, the taxemes,
are there to maintain the necessary gap between these two lines.

我並不需要告訴你們,文法如何保持距離,在像這樣的句子:「我不知道他是否死亡。」「據我所知,他並沒有死亡。」「我當時不知道他已經死亡。」「我當時擔心他已經死亡。」所有這些微妙的語法要素,從這裏的這個假設,到一個列比度先生所謂的「沒有」,以某種真的是難以相信的方式,就一位元語言學家而言。他在「世界報」寫這個虛字的否定詞。所有這些被做,是為了跟我們顯示,文法的整體,主要的部份,語法要素,在那裏都是要維持必須要的差距,在這兩行之間。

The next time I will project for you onto these two lines the articulations in question, but for the subject who has not yet learned these subtle forms, and it is quite clear that the (32) distinction between the two lines is made well before.

下一次,我將跟你們把受到質疑的表達,投射到這兩行。但是對於還沒有學習到這些微妙形式的生命主體而言,這是顯而易見的,這兩行之間的這個區別,在以前就做過了。

There are required conditions, and these form the basis of the interrogation that I am bringing before you today. This distinction is very essentially linked, like every time of course that you see that it is a question of something which is not a temporal reference point, but a tensional point, namely of a difference in tenses between these two lines, you can clearly see the relationship that there can be between this and the
situation, and the topology of desire.

這些是被要求的條件,形成這個詢問的基礎,我今天在你們面前呈現的。這個區別是基本的關係,當然,就像每一次你們看到,某件東西並不是時間的指稱點,而是時態點。換句話說,在兩行之間的時態的差異。你們能夠清楚地看出這個關係,存在於這個跟情境以及欲望的拓樸圖形之間。

This is where we are. For a time the child is in sum entirely caught up in the interplay between these two lines. What is necessary here in order that repression may be produced? I would say that I am hesitating before committing myself to a path which
after all I would like not to appear for what it nevertheless is, a path of concession, namely that I appeal to notions of development properly speaking, I mean that everything is implicated in the empirical process at the level at which this is
produced, of an intervention, of an empirical and certainly necessary incidence, but the necessity to which this empirical incidence, this empirical accident, the necessity in which it comes to reverberate, which it precipitates in its form, is of a different nature.

這就是我們所在的地方。總之,有一陣子,小孩完全套陷在這兩行之間的互動。在此,為了要壓抑能夠被產生,我們需要什麼?我不妨說,我正在猶豫一下,才能專注致力於某條途徑。畢竟,我不想要表現它的實際樣子,一條讓步的途經。換句話說,我訴諸於發展的觀念,適當地說。我的意思是,每一樣東西都被牽連到這個試驗性地過程,在介入,在一個試驗及必然需要的意外,這個會被產生的層次。但是這個需要屬於不同的特性,這個試驗的意外,它會反彈回來的必要。

In any case, the child perceives at a given moment that these adults who are supposed to know all his thoughts, and here precisely he is not going to go beyond this stage, in a certain (33) fashion he will be able to reproduce later on the possibility which is the fundamental possibility of what we call in brief and rapidly the so-called elementary form of hallucination, that there appears this primitive structure of what we call this background of the process of enunciating, parallel to the current enunciation of the existence of what is called the echo of acts, the echo of expressed thoughts.

無論如何,在某個時刻,小孩感覺到,被認為應該知道他所有的思想的這些成年人,在此,他確實不要超越這個階段,以某種的方式,後來他將能夠複製這個可能性。這是基本的可能性,我們簡短而迅速地稱為幻覺的基本形式,這個原始的結構,我們所謂表達的過程的背景,出現在那裏,平行於目前的表達,對於所謂行動迴響的存在,被表的思想的存在。

陳春雄譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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