Desire 032 Jacques Lacan

Desire 032

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN
BOOK VI
Desire and its Interpretation
欲望及其解釋

3.12.58 52
Seminar 4: 3 December 1958

If what I am saying there were not obvious, the whole of grammar would vanish. I am simply in the process of pointing out to you for the moment the necessity of using the future perfect, in so far as there are two reference points to time: a reference point
to time concerning the act that is going to be in question: “by that date I will have become her husband” for example, and it is a question of locating what is going to be transformed by marriage into the enunciation; but on the other hand, because you
express it in terms of the future perfect, it is the present point from which you speak from the act of enunciating which locates you.

假如我正在說的內容沒有顯而易見,整個的文法將會瓦解。目前,我僅是在跟你們指出這個必要性的過程,未來完成式的必要性。這裏有兩個時間的指稱點:一個時間的指稱點關係到將會受到質疑的行動:例如,「在那個日期之前,我將會已經成為她的丈夫。」問題是要找出,什麼事情將會被婚姻轉移成為這個表達?但是在另一方面,因為你使用未來完成式的術語表達它,你是從現在的這個時間點談論,從定位你的時間的表達的行動談論。

There are therefore two subjects, two I’s, and the stage that the child must go beyond at the level of this test of Binet’s, namely the distinction between these two I’s, seems to me to be something which has literally nothing to do with this famous reduction to reciprocity which Piaget considers to be the essential pivot as regards grasping how to use personal pronouns.

因此有兩個生命主體,兩個「我」。小孩必須超越的階段,在邊拿的測驗的層次。換句話說,在這兩個「我」之間的這個區別,我覺得是某件跟這個著名的化簡成為互惠性,幾乎沒有什麼關係。皮亞傑認為這個互惠性是重要的樞紐,關於理想如何使用個人的代名詞。

But let us leave this then to one side for the moment. What have (26) we arrived at? To a grasp of these two lines as representing one which is referred to the process of enunciating, the other the process of the enuntiation.

但是讓我們將這個暫時擱置一邊。我們已經到達什麼地方?到達理解這兩條線,其中一條代表被認為是被表達的過程,另一條代表表達的過程。

The fact that they are two, does not mean that each represents one function, but that every time we are dealing with the functions of language we should always discover this duplicity.

它們是兩個這個事實並不意味著,每一段都代表一個功用。而是每一次我們正在處理語言的這個功用,我們應個總是發現這個雙重性。

Let us say again that not only are they two, but that they will always have opposing discontinuous structures, here for example for one when the other is continuous, and inversely.

讓我們再一次說,它們不但是兩個,而且它們總是有相反的中斷的結構。例如,其中一條中斷,另一條就繼續。反過來,也是一樣。

Where is Anna Freud’s articulation situated?

安娜、佛洛伊德的表達位置在哪里?

I am not going to tell you how this topology can be used, I mean I am not going to say just like that all at once because it might suit me, or even because I may be able to see a little bit further, given the fact that I was the one who constructed this contraption, and because I know where I am going, so that I should tell you: it is here or it is there.

我並沒有要告訴你們,這個拓樸圖形如何被使用。我的意思是,我沒有要突然地就像那樣說,因為它可能適合於我。甚至因為我可能能夠稍微看遠一點,假如考慮到,我是建構這個陷阱的人。因為我知道,我將到達哪里,所以我應該告訴你們,就是這裏,就是那裏。

The fact is that the question arises: the question arises of what this articulation represents on this occasion which is the aspect under which the reality of Anna Freud’s dream is presented to us, and that in the case of this child who was quite capable of perceiving the meaning of the sentence of her nurse – true or false – Freud implies it, and Freud supposes it, and quite correctly because of course, a child of nineteen months understands very well that her nurse has messed her about – there
(27) is articulated in what I called this flocculated form, this series of signifiers in a certain order, this something which takes its form from being stacked up, by being superimposed as I might say, in a column, from the fact of substituting for one another these things in so far as each one is a metaphor for the other, which it is then a question of making emerge, namely the reality of satisfaction qua prohibited (inter-dite) and we shall go no further with Anna Freud’s dream.

事實是,這個問題會出現,這個問題會從這個表達所代表的東西出現。在這個場合,在這一方面,安娜、佛洛伊德的夢的現實界,被呈現給予我們,在這個小孩的情況,這個小孩相當能夠感覺到她的奶媽的句子的意義,無論是真實,或是虛假。佛洛伊德暗示它,佛洛伊德假定它。這是相當正確的,因為當然,一個十九個月大的小孩很清楚地瞭解,她的奶媽曾經擾亂她。以我所謂的這個凝聚的形式被表達。這一系列的意符,處於某種的秩序,這個某件東西獲得它的形式,從被堆積起來、我不妨說說,以一排柱子的方式重疊,從互相替代這些事情的這個事實,每一個都是另外一個的比喻。因此,問題是要使作為被禁止的滿足的現實界出現。我們對於安娜、佛洛伊德的夢的討論在此告一段落。

We will nevertheless take the next step. So that once we have sufficiently begun to clarify this matter by asking ourselves now, because it is a question of the topology of repression, the way in which what we are beginning to articulate is going to help
us when it is a question of an adult dream, namely how, what is the real difference between what we can clearly see to be a certain form which the child’s desire takes on on this occasion in the dream, and a form which is undoubtedly much more
complicated because it is going to give much more trouble, in any case as regards interpretation, namely what happens in a adult’s dream.

可是,我們將會採取下一步驟。所以一旦我們現在詢問自己,就已經開始充份澄清這件事情。因為這是一個壓抑的拓樸圖形,我們漸漸開始表達的方式,將會幫助我們。這是一個成年人的夢的問題,換句話說,真實的差異是什麼?我們很清楚看出是小孩的欲望,在夢的這個場合,所構成的形式,以及無可置疑的,更加複雜化的的形式之間。在許多情況,我們將會遭遇更多的麻煩,關於解釋。換句話說,在成年人的夢裏,發生什麼事?

In this matter there is no ambiguity in Freud. He has no difficulty with it, it is enough to read the usage and the function of what intervenes, it is in the order of censorship.
Censorship operates very exactly in a way that I was able to illustrate during my previous seminars. I do not know if you remember the famous story which we enjoyed so much, the one (28) about: “The king of England is an idiot, therefore
everything is permitted,” says the typist who is caught up in the Irish revolution. But this was not what was in question. I gave you another application of it, namely what Freud says to explain punishment dreams.

這件事情在佛洛伊德身上沒有什麼模糊曖昧。他沒有遭遇到它的困難,我們只要閱讀所介入的這個用途跟功用就足夠了。就在這個檢查的這個秩序。運作的方式確實是,在我前次的講座,我能夠舉例說明的方式。我不知道你們是否記得,我們如此欣賞的這個著名的故事:「英國國王是一個白癡,因此每一件事情都被准許。」身陷愛爾蘭革命的打字員說。但是這並不是受到質疑的東西。我給予你們另外一種應用方式。換句話說,對於懲罰的夢,佛洛伊德說了什麼。

We had very specially put forward the law: whoever says that the king of England is an idiot will have his head cut off, and as I told you: the following night I
dreamt that I had my head cut off.

我們曾經非常特別地提出這個法則:任何說英國國王是白癡的人,他的頭顱將會被砍掉。如同我告訴你們,第二天晚上,我夢到我的頭顱被砍掉。

Freud also articulates even more simple forms. Because I have been persuaded to read Tintin for some time past, I will borrow an example from him. I have a way of breaking through the censorship by using my Tintinesque qualities, I can say aloud:
anyone who says in my presence that General Tapiocca is not a better man than General Alcazar, will have to deal with me.

佛洛伊德也表達甚至是更簡單的形式。因為過去一段時間,我被勸告去閱讀頂丁的著作。我從他那裏借用一個例子。我用某種方式突破檢查,以使用我從頂丁借用的方式。我大聲地說:任何人在我面前說,塔皮奧卡將軍沒有比阿爾卡薩將軍好的人,他將必須先對付我。

Now, it is quite clear that if I articulate something like this, neither partisans of General Tapiocca, nor those of General Alcazar would be satisfied, and I would say that what is much more surprising, is that the least satisfied will be those who
are the partisans of both.

現在,顯而易見的,我清楚表達像這樣的某件事情,塔皮奧卡將軍的黨徒,或是阿爾卡薩將軍的黨徒,都不會對我滿意。我會說,更加令人驚奇的是,對我最不滿意的人將是,那兩位將軍的黨徒。

Here then is what Freud explains to us in the most precise fashion: it is in the nature of what is said to confront us with a very particular difficulty which at the same time also opens up very special possibilities. What is in question is (29) simply the following: What the child had to deal with, was the prohibition (inter-dit), a saying, no. The whole process of education, some principles of censorship, go therefore to form this saying no, because it is a question of operations with the signifier in an inexpressible way (en indieible), and this also supposes that the subject perceives that the saying no, if it is said, is said, and even if it is not executed, remains said. Whence the fact that not saying it is distinct from obeying not to do it, in other words that the truth of desire is all by itself an offence against the authority of law.

在此是佛洛伊德跟我們的解釋,以最精確的方式:我們面對的內容的特質,具有特別的困難。這個困難同時也展開非常明確的可能性。受到質疑的僅是以下:小孩所必須處理的是這個禁止,說不可以的禁止。教育的整個過程,某件檢查的原則,因此將會形成這個說不可以。因為對於意符的運作的問題,以一個無法表達的方式。這個也假定,生命主體感覺到,這個說不可以,假如一旦被說,即使它沒有被執行,它始終就已經被說。沒有說出它,不同於就是服從不去做它,換句話說,欲望的真理,本身就是對於權威法則的冒犯。

陳春雄譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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