Jung handbook 03

Jung handbook 03

The Handbook of Jung Psychology
榮格心理學的手冊

Chapter 9 Individuation 197
Individuation
Murray Stein

第九章 個體化
墨菲、史坦因

 

 

200 Murray Stein Individuation 201

 

The containment/nurturance stage of individuation

 

Like other mammals, humans start terrestrial life in a maternal womb. This space, bathed in amniotic fluid and kept warm by the surrounding body of the mother, is the archetypal nurturing environment. Passively fed through the umbilical cord, the foetus is required to make little effort to care for itself. For postnatal life, the mother’s womb symbolises the psychological environment needed for the first stage of a person’s life.

 

就像其他的哺乳動物,人類在母親的子宮裏,就開始在人間的生涯。這個空間,沉浸在羊膜液體裏,由母親的環境保持溫暖,是原型的滋養環境。當這個胎兒透過臍帶,被動地被滋養,它幾乎沒有被要求要做任何努力來照顧自己。母親的子宮象徵著這個心理的環境被需要,對於一個人生命的第一階段。

 

It is a protected space, an enclosure in which the vulnerable young can grow relatively

undisturbed by toxic intrusions from the surrounding world. For humans, this type of shielded environment is suitable for a lengthy period of time after birth. This is true especially for infants, for unlike many other mammals, human offspring, because of their large head size, are ejected from the mother’s womb long before they are prepared to function independently of a nurturing container. Human neonates require an external nurturing environment of extended duration, until their bodies and minds

are prepared to cope with the physical and social worlds into which they have been delivered.

 

這是一個被保護的空間,一個封閉空間。在這裏,脆弱的初生生命能夠相對地成長,不受周遭世界的橫加侵入的干擾。對於人類而言,這種受到保護的環境,在嬰兒誕生之後,會適合一段漫長的期間。這對嬰兒而言,特別是真實的。因為不像其他的哺乳動物,人類的後代,因為頭部體積大,從母親的子宮擠出來,還來不及準備獨立于滋養的容器之外發揮功用。人類的嬰兒需要一個外在的滋養的環境,延長一段時間。直到它們的身體及心靈,準備好應付生理及社會的世界。這是它們被拋進去的世界。

 

Especially in modern developed cultures, this first stage of life, which we casually refer to as childhood, lasts a long time. For most people nowadays, the containment/nurturance stage extends through much of the educational experience, from infancy and the years of primary and secondary school, through university studies and further professional training. During these years, a person, even if physically and to some extent psychologically prepared to assume some of the roles of adulthood, is not fully equipped to deal with the demands of social life and is usually not economically viable as an adult member of society.

 

特別是在現代發展成熟的文化裏,生命的第一階段,我們偶爾提到這個階段當著是童年。它會延續一段長的時間。對於今天大部份人而言,這個包容及滋養的階段,延伸通過大部份的教育經驗。從嬰兒階段開始,小學及中學的歲月,經歷大學的學業,更進一步到專業的訓練。在這些歲月裏,一個人,即使生理上及心理上,都有某個程度的準備,要扮演成年人的某些角色。實際上,他並沒有完全裝備,能夠處理社會生活的這些要求。通常,他在經濟方面,也不像社會的其他成年人,那樣具有競爭力。

 

This period of dependence on parents and parental institutions may last for thirty years or more. In traditional cultures, on the other hand, where initiation rituals into adulthood occur at around the age of 12 or 13, the containment/nurturance stage of

individuation/development is typically terminated at the onset of puberty.

 

這個依賴父母及照顧機構的時期,可能延續三十年,甚至更久。另一方面,在傳統的文化,進入成年人的儀式,發生在大約十二到十三歲。個體化及發展的這個包容及滋養的階段,一般來說,都在青春期開始時被終結。

 

By that age, a person is considered ready and able to take up the physical and cultural tasks required of young adults in the group. There it is an abrupt and dramatic change of attitude and social identity; in our modern cultures, the change is gradual and takes place over decades.

 

在那個年紀之前,一個人被認為是準備好,而且能夠從事生理及文化的工作,那個團體的年輕人被要求的工作。在那裏,在我們現代的文化裏,這是態度及社會認同的突然而戲劇性的改變。這個改變是逐漸,發生的時間會有幾十年之久。

 

The quality of the containment/nurturance stage is defined, symbolically speaking, as maternal. The containing environment is constructed socially and psychologically on the model of a womb, in that the basic ingredients needed for survival — food, shelter, highly structured settings of care that are screened and protected — are provided by family and society. At the emotional level, nurturance is delivered (ideally) in the form of warm support and encouragement. Young children are loved unconditionally.

appreciated for being rather than doing. The harsh aspects of reality are screened out. Children are held, caressed and comforted by smiling, doting parents who stand guard over them and look out for their well-being. The most that is asked of the young is a cooperative and willing attitude. For the rest, adult supervision and protection prevail. Not much is demanded of young people at this stage in the way of contributing to the general welfare of the family or group. They remain dependent and are nourished by parents and other adults.

 

从象征符号来说,这个包容及滋养阶段的特质被定义为母亲。这个被包容的环境在社会上及心理上被建构,根据一个子宫的模式。因为需要存活的基本因素,

诸如食物、房屋,及遮蔽跟保护的照顾的高度复杂的背景,都是由家庭及社会供应。在情感的层次,滋养被给予,理想上是以温暖支持及鼓励的形式。年轻的小孩无条件地被爱,被赏识,因为他们生命本质,而不是行为表现。现实界的严酷一面被遮蔽在外面。小孩只要微笑,取悦父母亲,就会受到拥抱,爱抚,及安慰

父母亲监护者他们,并且照顾他们的幸福。年轻人最时常被要求的东西是一个合作及愿意的态度。其余的,成人的监督及保护非常盛行。在这个阶段,对于年轻人的要求不多,主要是为了促成家庭及团体的一般幸福。他们保持依靠并接受父母及其它成人的养育。

 

Naturally the degree of richness of the matrix in this stage of containment is highly dependent upon the attitudes and resources that happen to be available to the adult caregivers. It is also crucially dependent on their emotional stability and maturity. Instead of screening harsh reality out of the protected environment, anxious parents may amplify threats and worrisome aspects of reality.

 

当然,这个基型的丰富的程度,在包容的这个阶段,非常依靠这个态度,及成人照顾者恰好可利用到的资源。这也相当依靠他们情感上的稳定跟成熟。焦虑的父母非但没有遮护严酷的现实,避开婴儿受到保护的环境,他们可能会加强现实界的威胁及令人焦虑的一面。

 

Absence of adequate containment and serious breaches in the walls of protection surrounding the person at this stage generally put down the groundwork for later psychopathology, such as anxiety disorders and various character disorders. In addition, the frightened or threatened child, in order to replace the absent or breached outer protective shield, develops primitive and massive defences of the self, which

also have the capacity to cut the person off from important developments and relationships later in life.

 

適當包容的欠缺,跟環繞個人的保護環境的牆壁的嚴重破裂,在這個階段通常會奠下基礎的工作,充當後來的心理病理學,諸如焦慮的疾病及各種的人格的疾病。除外,受到驚嚇及威脅的小孩,為了替代這個欠缺及破裂的外在保護盾甲,發展原始及巨大的自我防衛。這個自我的防衛有這個能力阻止這個人,無法有重要的發展,及後來的人際關係。

 

Under the best conditions, the quality and degree of containment gradually changes as a person passes through the sub-phases of childhood.

 

即使在最好的條件下,包容的品質跟程度漸漸會改變,當一個人通過童年的這個次級階段。

 

At first there is maximal nurturance and containment. The kind of attention given to the newborn baby, who can do practically nothing for itself, modulates to a less intense level of care as the child grows older. Later the parents will place further limits on the amount and kind of nurturance they provide, and the degree of containment is eased. Expectations for a relative amount of autonomy, independence and self-control are introduced at many points along the way, as the child is able to respond positively to these changes.

 

起初,有最大量的滋養跟包容。這種的注意被給予新生代嬰兒。他幾乎什麼事情都無法做,只能適應一個比較不那麼緊張層次的焦慮,隨著年歲增長。後來,父母親會給予更多的限制,對於他們供應的滋養的數量跟種類。包容的程度也被抹除。沿著成長的許多時段,對於一個相對的自主權、獨立及自我控制的的期望開始被介紹,因為小孩能夠積極回應這些改變。

 

Normally these shifts are met by a willingness on the part of the child to cooperate if the onset of these new conditions corresponds to growing abilities (cognitive, emotional, motor). As the individual proceeds through the usual sub-phases of childhood development, the nurturing container evolves in order to meet the new needs that appear and to reduce what would become an intrusive type of overprotective care in many areas.

 

正常來說,只要小孩這一方面願意合作,就能夠應付得了這些改變,假如逐漸成長的能力,諸如認知能力、情感及活動能力等,能夠配合這些新的狀況的開始。當這個個人繼續通過童年發展的這個通常的次級階段,這個滋養的包容會進化,為了要符合出現的新的需要,及化簡在許多地區過度保護的照顧的干涉。

 

By the end of this stage of individuation, people experience only a minimum

of nurturing and containment from the environment and are able to do for themselves what others have done for them earlier.

 

在個體化的階段的結束,人們只經驗到,從環境得到一個最大量的滋養及包容,並且能夠依靠自己做早現別人替他做到事情。

 

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

https://springhero.wordpress.com

 

 

200 Murray Stein Individuation 201

://springhero.wordpress.com

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