Desire 024 Jacques Lacan

Desire 024

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN
BOOK VI
Desire and its Interpretation
欲望及其解釋

1958 – 1959
Seminar 3 ; 26 November 1958

This is linked to all sorts of experiments which have been carried on with great
(30) perseverance by a school called the Wurzburg school, called the school of imageless thought, and a kind of intuition that in the work of this school which was carried out in a completely closed little circle of psychologists, they were led to think
without images these kinds of forms which are different to just signifying forms without a context and at the nascent state, to the notion of Vorstellunq, and very specially in connection with the problems which we are facing here make it worth while remembering that for two years Freud, and we have unambiguous proof of this, attended Brentano’s classes, and that Brentano’s psychology, in so far as it gives a certain conception of the Vorstellunqs is indeed there to indicate the exact weight that
the term Vorstellunq could have taken on in Freud’s mind, and not simply in my interpretation.

這跟各種的試驗息息相關。這些試驗曾經非常堅持地被執行,被所謂的「吳伯格學派」執行。它們被稱為「無意象思想的學派」。那是一種直覺,在這個學派的著作裏,在一個完全是封閉的心理學家小圈子執行。他們被引導沒有意象地思考這些種類的形式。這些形式不同於僅僅是意符化的形式,沒有內涵,而且處於初期的狀態,不同於「理念」的觀念,特別是關於我們正在面臨的這些問題。很值得我們記住的是,經過兩年,佛洛伊德,就讀布冷坦諾的課程,(我們擁有確實的證據,)因為它給予這個「理念」的觀念。它在這裏確實指示著:這個「理念」的術語的確是重要性,在佛洛伊德的心中本來會具有的,不僅僅是在我的解釋中。

The problem is precisely of the relationship that there is between repression, if repression is said to apply exactly and as such to something that is of the order of the Vorstellunq, and on the other hand this fact of something which is nothing other than
the appearance of a new meaning which is different for us at the point that we are progressing to, which is different from the fact of repression, which is what we can call in the context, in the context of the preconscious, the elision of two clausulae. Is (31) this elision the same thing as repression? Is it exactly its counterpart, its contrary?

這個難題確實是屬於關係的難題,處於壓抑跟道道地地是一個新意義的出現之間的關係。假如壓抑據說可以確實地運用,本身能夠被運用到某件屬於「理念」的秩序。在另一方面,這件事實,某件東西道道地地就是新的意義的出現。 對於我們而言,這個意義在這一點上不同,我們逐漸進步的這一點。這是不同於壓抑的這個事實。後者就是我們所謂的內涵,在前意識到內涵, 兩個「多聲喧嘩」的省略。 這個省略跟壓抑是同一件事嗎?它確實是它的副本,或是它的相反?

What is the effect of this elision? It is clear that it is an effect of meaning, I mean
that in order for us to explain ourselves on the most formal plane, we should consider this elision, and I say elision and not allusion, it is not, to use everyday language, a representation (une figuration), this dream does not make allusions, far from
it, to what has gone before it, namely to the relationships of the son to the father, it introduces something which sounds absurd, which has its import as signification on the manifest, quite original plane. It is indeed a question of a figura verborum, of a figure of speech, of terms, to use the same term which is the counterpart of the first, it is a question of an elision, and this elision produces a signified effect; this elision is equivalent to a substitution for the missing terms of a plane, of a zero, but a zero is not nothing and the effect in question could be qualified as a metaphorical effect.

這個省略的結果是什麼?顯而易見的,這是一種意義的結果。我的意思是,為了讓我們解釋我們自己,在最正式的層次上,我們應該考慮這個省略。我說是省略,而不是說是提到,那是不是一種符號再現,用日常的語言來說。這個夢並沒有給予提到先前所經歷的東西,絲毫沒有。換句話是,它沒有提到兒子跟父親的關係。它介紹某件聽起來是荒謬的東西,它擁有它的意義,作為明顯的相當原初的層次的意義。這確實是詞類變化,及術語的問題,使用相同的術語,作為前者的副本。這是一種省略掉問題。這種省略產生一個被意符化的結果。這種省略相等於是一種漏失的術語的替代,一種零度的替代。但是一種零度並不是什麼都沒有。受到質疑的結果,能夠被給予特質,作為比喻的結果。

The dream is a metaphor. In this metaphor something new arises which is a meaning, a signified, a signified which is no doubt enigmatic, but which is all the same something that we have to take into account as being I would say one of the most essential forms of human experience, because it is this very image which for
centuries put human beings, at one or other turn in their grief at their existence, on the more or less hidden paths which led (32) them to the necromancer and what he gave rise to in the circle of incantation was this something called a shade, before which there happened nothing other than what happened in this dream, namely this being which exists there without one knowing how he exists, and before whom literally one can say nothing, because he of course speaks. But it does not matter, I would say that up to a certain point what he says is also what he does not say.

夢是一種比喻。在這個比喻當中,產生某件新的東西,那是一個意義,一個意旨,無可置疑的,謎團一般的意旨。但是它仍然是某件東西,我們必須要考慮到,當著是生命的實存。容我這樣說,它是人類經驗最基本的的形式之一。因為就是這個意象,幾世紀以來,使人類在某個轉折,處於他們生命實存的痛苦當中,在這些隱藏的途徑。這些途徑引導他們求助於巫師。在符咒招魂氛圍中,巫師所產生的是某件被稱為幽魂的東西。在幽魂面前,所發生的道道地地就是夢中發生的東西。換句話說,存在於那裏的生命的實存,我們卻不知道他如何實存。在幽魂面前,實質上我們無話可說,因為他當然會說話。但是這個並不重要,我不妨這樣說,直到某個時間之前,他所說的話,也是他沒有說的話。

We are not even told it in the dream, this word only takes on its value from the fact that the one who has called the beloved being from the kingdom of shades can tell him literally nothing of what is truly in his heart.

在夢中,我們甚至沒有被告訴,這個話語只有從這個事實,才形成它的價質。從幽魂的王國,曾經召喚這個珍愛的生命實存的人,實質上無法告訴他,,他心中的真實的內涵是什麼。

This confrontation, this structured scene, this scenario, does it not suggest to us in itself that we should try to situate its import? What is it? Has it this fundamental structured and structuring value that I am trying to define for you this year
under the name of phantasy? Is it a phantasy? Are there a certain number of characteristics required in order that in such a presentation, in such a scenario, that in this scenario we should recognise the characteristics of phantasy?

這個面對,這個結構的場景,這個戲碼,本身有跟我們建議,我們應該設法定位它的意義嗎?那是什麼?它擁有這個基本的被建構及結構的價值嗎?這是我今年跟你們定義的,以幻見到名義。它是個幻見嗎?有某些的特性被要求嗎?為了要在這樣一個符號再現,這樣一個戲碼當中,我們應該體認出幻見的特性?

This is a first question which unfortunately we can only begin to articulate the next time. You should understand that we will give it quite precise replies, which will allow us to approach (33) the way in which effectively it is a phantasy, and the way
it is a dream-phantasy, namely, I articulate it for you right away, a phantasy which has very particular forms, I mean that a dream-phantasy, in the sense that we can give a precise sense to this word phantasy, has not the same import as a waking phantasy,
whether it is unconscious or not.

這是第一個問題,不幸地,我們只能夠在下一次開始表達。你們應該瞭解,我們將會給予它相當明確的回答。這些回答將會使我們能夠接近幻見有效運作的方式。這個幻見擁有特別的形式。我的意思是:一個夢的幻見,我們能夠給予一個明確的意義,給幻見這個字詞。它跟清醒時的幻見,並不具有相同的意義,無論它是無意識與否。

Here is a first point on which I will give a reply the next time, to the question that is posed here.

這是第一點,下一次我將給予回答,回答在這裏被提出的問題。

The second point, is in connection with and beginning from this, namely from this articulation of the function of phantasy, how we should conceive where there lies the incidence of what one can call, of what Freud called the mechanisms of the dream-work, namely its relationships on the one hand with the supposedly
antecedent repression, and the relationship of this repression with the signifiers regarding which I have shown you the degree to which Freud isolated them and articulated the incidence of their absence in terms of pure signifying relationship.

第二點,關於這一點,以及從這裏開始,換句話說,從幻見的功用的表達開始,我們如何應該構想我們所謂的意外在哪里?佛洛伊德所謂的夢的運作的機械學是什麼?換句話說,在一方面,它跟所被認為是先前的壓抑的關係,以及這個壓抑跟意符的關係。關於這一點,我已經跟你們顯示過,佛洛伊德將它孤立到什麼程度,並且表達它們欠缺的這個意外,使用意符化的關係。

These signifiers, I mean the relationships there exist between the signifiers of the narrative: “He had died”, on the one hand; “he did not know it” on the other hand; “in consequence of his wish” in the third place. We will try to position them to place
them, to make them function on the lines, the paths of the chains which are called respectively the chain of the subject and signifying chain, as they are here posed, repeated, insisting (34) before us in the form of our graph, and you will see both
the use that can be made of this which is nothing other than the topological position of elements and of relationships without which there is no possible functioning of discourse, and how only the notion of structures which allow this functioning of
discourse can also allow us to give a meaning to the fact that the two clausulae in question can be said up to a certain point, to be really the content, as Freud says, the reality, the “real verdranqten” , what is really repressed.

這些意符,我指的是存在於描述的意符之間的這些關係。在一方面,「他已經死亡」;在另一方面,「他並不知道他已經死亡。」第三個角度是,「由於他的願望的結果。」我們將會找出它們的位置,為了定位它們,使它們根據這幾行運作。各別被稱為生命主體的鎖鏈及意符化的鎖鏈,這些鎖鏈的途徑,如它們在此被提出的,會在我們面前,以我們這個欲望圖形的形式,不斷地重複。你們將會看出,一方面是,我們會利用道道地地是元素及關係的拓樸圖形的位置。假如沒有這些元素及關係,真理論述將不可能運作。另一方面,結構的觀念能夠容許真理論述的運作,如何也容許我們給予意義,給這個事實:受到質疑的這兩個「多聲喧嘩」,直到某個時刻之前,可以被說是這個內容,如佛洛伊德所說的,是這個現實界,這個「真實界的被壓抑」,真實被壓抑的地方。

陳春雄譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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